World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Mouth and foot painting
Mouth and foot painting is a technique to create drawings and other works of art by maneuvering brushes and other tools with the mouth or foot. The technique is used by artists who through illness, accident or congenital disability have no use of their hands; the Association of Mouth and Foot Painting Artists is a worldwide organization representing these artists. The brushes and tools that are used are ordinary artist's implements, but they may be modified in length or width. Mouth painters hold the brush in their mouth or between their teeth and maneuver it with their tongue and cheek muscles; the paper or canvas is mounted vertically on an easel. Mouth painting is strenuous for neck and jaw muscles since the head has to perform the same back and forth movement as a hand does when painting. Foot painting can be done sitting on the floor, at a table or at an easel, as most foot painters use their toes with the same dexterity as people with hands use their fingers. Simona Atzori Sarah Biffen Matthias Buchinger John Carter Louis Joseph César Ducornet Alison Lapper Edward Rainey Thomas Schweicker Steven L. Sles Arnulf Erich Stegmann Charles B.
Tripp Brom Wikstrom Video of mouth painting
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
United Nations Office at Geneva
The United Nations Office at Geneva is the second-largest of the four major office sites of the United Nations. It is located in the Palais des Nations building constructed for the League of Nations between 1929 and 1938 at Geneva in Switzerland, expanded in the early 1950s and late 1960s. Besides United Nations administration, it hosts the offices for a number of programmes and funds such as the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe; the United Nations and its specialized agencies and funds may have other offices or functions hosted outside the Palais des Nations in office spaces provided by the Swiss Government. UN specialized agencies and other UN entities with offices in Geneva hold bi-weekly briefings at the Palais des Nations, organized by the United Nations Information Service at Geneva. Headquartered at Geneva: Conference on Disarmament International Bureau of Education International Computing Centre International Labour Organization International Trade Centre International Telecommunication Union Joint Inspection Unit Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights United Nations Chief Executives Board for Coordination United Nations Compensation Commission United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Economic Commission for Europe United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Human Rights Council United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research United Nations Institute for Training and Research United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs United Nations Office on Sport for Development and Peace United Nations Research Institute For Social Development World Health Organization World Intellectual Property Organization World Meteorological OrganizationPresence at Geneva: International Atomic Energy Agency United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization United Nations Industrial Development Organization World Food Programme United Nations World Tourism Organization Wladimir Moderow, Poland, 1946–1951 Adriaan Pelt, Netherlands, 1952–1957 Pier Pasquale Spinelli, Italy, 1957–1968 Vittorio Winspeare-Guicciardi, Italy, 1968–1978 Luigi Cottafavi, Italy, 1978–1983 Eric Suy, Belgium, 1983–1987 Jan Mårtenson, Sweden, 1987–1992 Antoine Blanca, France, 1992–1993 Vladimir Petrovsky, Russia, 1993–2002 Sergei Ordzhonikidze, Russia, 2002–2011 Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, Kazakhstan, 2011–2013 Michael Møller, since 2013 United Nations Geneva Office, from beginning, Aug 1946 – Apr 1947, European Office of the UN, 11 Apr 1947 – 10 Aug 1948, United Nations Office at Geneva, 10 Aug 1948 – 9 Aug 1949, European Office of the UN, 9 Aug 1949 – 8 Dec 1957, United Nations Office at Geneva, 8 December 1957 – present, Headquarters of the United Nations United Nations Information Service at Geneva United Nations Office at Vienna United Nations Office at Nairobi Outline of the United Nations List of United Nations organizations by location List of international organizations based in Geneva Joëlle Kuntz and the Call of Internationalism: A History, Éditions Zoé, 2011, 96 pages.
Official website United Nations organisations in Geneva
Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk is the public broadcaster for the federal states of Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt. Established in January 1991, its headquarters are in Leipzig, with regional studios in Dresden and Magdeburg. MDR is a member of the ARD consortium of public broadcasters in Germany. MDR broadcasts its own television channel to the three states it serves and contributes programming to the first German TV channel, broadcasts a number of radio channels. MDR has 2000 employees; the main television studio is in Leipzig, the main radio studio is in Halle. There are radio and TV studios in each of the three state capitals for the territory that MDR represents: Dresden and Magdeburg. In 2012 87% of MDR's total annual income of €684,529,979 was derived from the licence fees payable by all households at the rate of €17,50; these fees are not collected directly by MDR but by the Beitragsservice owned jointly by ARD, the second television network ZDF, the national radio broadcaster Deutschlandradio.
MDR produces programming independently and in collaboration with other broadcasters, for transmission by a number of television and radio networks. MDR Fernsehen - third TV channel for central Germany, with regional programming for Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and ThuringiaMDR contributes programming to the following: Das Erste - Germany's main public TV network Phoenix - a station broadcasting documentaries, special events and discussions, jointly run by ARD and ZDF KiKa - children's network run jointly run by ARD and ZDF arte - a Franco-German cultural channel 3sat - cultural network from ARD, ZDF, ORF, SRG MDR Sachsen - regional programming for Saxony MDR Sachsen-Anhalt - regional programming for Saxony-Anhalt MDR Thüringen - regional programming for Thuringia MDR Jump - pop music MDR Kultur - culture & spoken word programming and regional classical music MDR Aktuell - 24h news and information MDR Sputnik - youth oriented music station. DT64 cultural youth channel of East German broadcasting organisation.
MDR Klassik - classical music MDR Schlagerwelt - schlager music and easy listening MDR Tweens - children's programming The MDR operates two musical organizations and a ballet corps. The MDR Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1915 as "Orchester des Konzertvereins", it became the "Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Leipzig" in 1924. Principal conductors have included Herbert Kegel, Wolf-Dieter Hauschild, Daniel Nazareth and Fabio Luisi. Since September 2007, Jun Märkl is the orchestra's principal conductor; the MDR Radio Choir was founded in 1946 as the "Rundfunkchor Leipzig". The MDR managed the only TV ballet company in Europe, it was founded in 1962 as DFF-Fernsehballet, reorganized in 1992, has 30 members. MDR sold the Ballet in 2012. It's now known as Deutsches Fernsehballett. MDR does not own its own transmission towers, they are operated by Deutsche Telekom. Several podcasts produced by MDR are available through the iTunes Music Store and via RSS, they are repeats of regular radio programmes, including: "Figaro," "MDR Info," "Programming Highlights," "Riverboat," "Sputnik" and "Unter uns."
From 1991 to 2011 the Managing Director was Udo Reiter, followed by Karola Wille. MDR produces several programs for the ARD, including crime drama episodes for the series Tatort and Polizeiruf 110. MDR produces the successful hospital series In aller Freundschaft and the animal series Abenteuer Zoo, Deutschlands wilde Tiere and Europas wilder Osten. German television MDR Homepage
A Christmas card is a greeting card sent as part of the traditional celebration of Christmas in order to convey between people a range of sentiments related to Christmastide and the holiday season. Christmas cards are exchanged during the weeks preceding Christmas Day by many people in Western society and in Asia; the traditional greeting reads "wishing you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year". There are innumerable variations on this greeting, many cards expressing more religious sentiment, or containing a poem, Christmas song lyrics or Biblical verse. A Christmas card is commercially designed and purchased for the occasion; the content of the design might relate directly to the Christmas narrative with depictions of the Nativity of Jesus, or have Christian symbols such as the Star of Bethlehem or a white dove representing both the Holy Spirit and Peace. Many Christmas cards show Christmas traditions, such as seasonal figures, objects associated with Christmas such as candles, holly and Christmas trees, Christmastime activities such as shopping and partying, or other aspects of the season such as the snow and wildlife of the northern winter.
Some secular cards depict nostalgic scenes of the past such as crinolined shoppers in 19th century streetscapes. The first recorded Christmas cards were sent by Michael Maier to James I of England and his son Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales in 1611, it was discovered in 1979 by Adam McLean in the Scottish Record Office. They incorporated Rosicrucian imagery, with the words of the greeting – "A greeting on the birthday of the Sacred King, to the most worshipful and energetic lord and most eminent James, King of Great Britain and Ireland, Defender of the true faith, with a gesture of joyful celebration of the Birthday of the Lord, in most joyand fortune, we enter into the new auspicious year 1612" – being laid out to form a rose; the next cards were commissioned by Sir Henry Cole and illustrated by John Callcott Horsley in London on 1 May 1843. The central picture showed three generations of a family raising a toast to the card's recipient: on either side were scenes of charity, with food and clothing being given to the poor.
The image of the family drinking wine together proved controversial, but the idea was shrewd: Cole had helped introduce the Penny Post three years earlier. Two batches totaling 2,050 cards were sold that year for a shilling each. Early British cards showed winter or religious themes, instead favoring flowers and other fanciful designs that reminded the recipient of the approach of spring. Humorous and sentimental images of children and animals were popular, as were elaborate shapes and materials. At Christmas 1873, the lithograph firm Prang and Mayer began creating greeting cards for the popular market in Britain The firm began selling the Christmas card in America in 1874, thus becoming the first printer to offer cards in America, its owner, Louis Prang, is sometimes called the "father of the American Christmas card." By the 1880s, Prang was producing over five million cards a year by using the chromolithography process of printmaking. However, the popularity of his cards led to cheap imitations that drove him from the market.
The advent of the postcard spelled the end for elaborate Victorian-style cards, but by the 1920s, cards with envelopes had returned. The extensive Laura Seddon Greeting Card Collection from the Manchester Metropolitan University gathers 32,000 Victorian and Edwardian greeting cards, printed by the major publishers of the day, including Britain's first commercially produced Christmas card; the production of Christmas cards was, throughout the 20th century, a profitable business for many stationery manufacturers, with the design of cards continually evolving with changing tastes and printing techniques. The now recognized brand Hallmark Cards was established in 1913 by Joyce Hall with the help of brother Rollie Hall to market their self-produced Christmas cards; the Hall brothers capitalized on a growing desire for more personalized greeting cards, reached critical success when the outbreak of World War I increased demand for cards to send to soldiers. The World Wars brought cards with patriotic themes.
Idiosyncratic "studio cards" with cartoon illustrations and sometimes risque humor caught on in the 1950s. Nostalgic and religious images have continued in popularity, and, in the 21st century, reproductions of Victorian and Edwardian cards are easy to obtain. Modern Christmas cards can be bought individually but are sold in packs of the same or varied designs. In recent decades changes in technology may be responsible for the decline of the Christmas card; the estimated number of cards received by American households dropped from 29 in 1987 to 20 in 2004. Email and telephones allow for more frequent contact and are easier for generations raised without handwritten letters - given the availability of websites offering free email Christmas cards. Despite the decline, 1.9 billion cards were sent in the U. S. in 2005 alone. Some card manufacturers now provide E-cards. In the UK, Christmas cards account for half of the volume of greeting card sales, with over 668.9 million Christmas cards sold in the 2008 festive period.
In non-religious countries, the cards are rather called New Year Cards, however they are sent before Christmas and the emphasis is given to the New Year, omitting religious symbols. "Official" Christmas cards began with Queen
Nuremberg is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, its 511,628 inhabitants make it the 14th largest city in Germany. On the Pegnitz River and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it lies in the Bavarian administrative region of Middle Franconia, is the largest city and the unofficial capital of Franconia. Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of Fürth and Schwabach with a total population of 787,976, while the larger Nuremberg Metropolitan Region has 3.5 million inhabitants. The city lies about 170 kilometres north of Munich, it is the largest city in the East Franconian dialect area. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, with 39,780 students Bavaria's third and Germany's 11th largest university with campuses in Erlangen and Nuremberg and a university hospital in Erlangen. Nuremberg Airport is the second-busiest airport of Bavaria after Munich Airport, the tenth-busiest airport of Germany.
Staatstheater Nürnberg is one of the five Bavarian state theatres, showing operas, operettas and ballets, plays, as well as concerts. Its orchestra, Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria's second-largest opera orchestra after the Bavarian State Opera's Bavarian State Orchestra in Munich. Nuremberg is the birthplace of Johann Pachelbel. Nuremberg was the site of major Nazi rallies, it provided the site for the Nuremberg trials, which held to account many major Nazi officials; the first documentary mention of the city, in 1050, mentions Nuremberg as the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. From 1050 to 1571 the city expanded and rose in importance due to its location on key trade-routes. King Conrad III established the Burgraviate of Nuremberg, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab. With the extinction of their male line around 1190, the last Raabs count's son-in-law, Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern, inherited the burgraviate in 1192.
From the late 12th century to the Interregnum, the power of the burgraves diminished as the Hohenstaufen emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor from 1173/74. The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellans, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries broke out into open enmity, which influenced the history of the city. Nuremberg is referred to as the "unofficial capital" of the Holy Roman Empire because the Imperial Diet and courts met at Nuremberg Castle; the Diets of Nuremberg played an important role in the administration of the empire. The increasing demands of the Imperial court and the increasing importance of the city attracted increased trade and commerce in Nuremberg. In 1219 Emperor Frederick II granted the Großen Freiheitsbrief, including town rights, Imperial immediacy, the privilege to mint coins, an independent customs policy - wholly removing the city from the purview of the burgraves.
Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade-centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe. In 1298 the Jews of the town were falsely accused of having desecrated the host, 698 of them were killed in one of the many Rintfleisch massacres. Behind the massacre of 1298 was the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz; the Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the plague years of the mid-14th century. In 1349 Nuremberg's Jews suffered a pogrom, they were burned at the stake or expelled, a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter. The plague returned to the city in 1405, 1435, 1437, 1482, 1494, 1520 and 1534; the largest growth of Nuremberg occurred in the 14th century. Charles IV's Golden Bull of 1356, naming Nuremberg as the city where newly elected kings of Germany must hold their first Imperial Diet, made Nuremberg one of the three most important cities of the Empire. Charles was the patron of the Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362, where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg.
The royal and Imperial connection grew stronger in 1423 when the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg, where they remained until 1796, when the advance of French troops required their removal to Regensburg and thence to Vienna. In 1349 the members of the guilds unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians in a Handwerkeraufstand, supported by merchants and some by councillors, leading to a ban on any self-organisation of the artisans in the city, abolishing the guilds that were customary elsewhere in Europe.