University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
ESSEC Business School
ESSEC Business School is an international higher education institution located in France and Morocco. Founded in 1907, ESSEC Business School is one of the most selective French "Grandes écoles" and referred in France as one of the "trois Parisiennes", together with ESCP and HEC Paris. ESSEC Business School is one of the 76 schools in the world to have obtained the triple accreditation of AACSB, EQUIS and AMBA. ESSEC is the first European business school. ESSEC's flagship program, the Master of Science in Management, was ranked 3rd worldwide by the Financial Times in 2016 for the 3rd year in a row and ESSEC's Master in Finance was ranked 3rd worldwide by the Financial Times in 2017; the school is headed by Prof. Vincenzo Esposito-Vinzi following the appointment of Prof. Jean-Michel Blanquer as French Minister of Education in the Philippe Government of President Emmanuel Macron; the École Supérieure des Sciences Economiques et Commerciales was founded in 1907 as the Economic Institute by Ferdinand Le Pelletier in Paris.
Its creation is in keeping with other schools of commerce created under Catholic like HEC Nord by the Catholic Institute of Lille or ESSCA by the Institute Catholic of Angers. The Falloux law of 1854 has indeed allowed the rise of religious secondary education; the difficult context for the Church, marked by the Dreyfus affair and the law of separation of Church and State, pushes her to seek to regain influence by diffusing moral values in the business world and by training a new generation of business leaders. In this context of struggle of religious congregations Jesuits against the secular and republican ideology of the state, ESSEC is a late Catholic response to the creation of HEC, it is located at the École Sainte Geneviève in the Latin Quarter. ESSEC has extensive material resources: small rooms suitable for work in reduced numbers and a chemistry laboratory; the first class has the studies last two years. In 1909, an optional third year was introduced; the curriculum does not denote by its originality by structuring itself around a set of law / accounting / languages / technique.
It is through the introduction of Christian moral values that ESSEC intends to stand out: students attend the apologetics conference each week at the Sainte Geneviève School Chapel. Technical education is combined with scientific education, it is possible to integrate the elementary section of the school by graduating first or by holding a non-scientific bachelor's degree, to enter the first year if one holds a bachelor's degree or that the we come from the elementary section and we have passed an exam. In 1913, the premises of the school were seized following the law of separation of the Church and the State of 1905, forcing ESSEC to join those of the Catholic Institute of Paris. ESSEC takes its current name, its resources are reduced: it only has an amphitheater lent by the ICP, the elementary section is removed and lectures are given by the faculty of the faculty. The disciplines taught, which will remain the same until 1960, are languages, the history of commerce, commercial geography, political economy and accounting.
An important place is given with 10 hours per week. With seven courses of law over two years, ESSEC struggles to distinguish itself from a law school and seeks legitimacy; the school hardly survives the mobilizations of the war: in 1914, it counts only four pupils in first year and two in second. It is temporarily closed and reopened in 1915; the third optional year is closed and the school only regains financial stability from 1920 where it welcomes more than 50 students in first year and 150 in 1930. In 1923, alumni association is created: a solidarity fund for widows and orphans of war is being set up. In 1926, the first yearbook of graduates was published and in 1929, the first courses of business ethics were given; the crisis of the 1930s comes to break this momentum: ESSEC must lower its tuition fees because students take refuge in values deemed more secure such as public service or law. The arrival of the hollow classes of 1914-1918 and the economic crisis further increase the difficulty of the situation.
The school is obliged to accept baccalaureate, non-bachelors on exam and free auditors who come to take courses without the diploma, for a tuition fee. In 1932, the Student Office was created and in 1937 the first scholarships were distributed, marking the beginning of a social aid policy; the takeoff is done under the impulse of Camille Donjon from 1939 with the establishment of the selection at the entrance. A preparatory class for the exam was set up in 1941, which became a competition in 1947, the number of candidates permitting it. However, ESSEC refuses to join the unified system of écoles de commerce established by the decree of 3 December 1947 the State now supports the implementation of preparatory classes on the territory. In exchange the ESC spend their schooling from two to three years and organize themselves into a network with tests and subjects common to the written competitions. If HEC and ESCP join this system, ESSEC positions itself as a challenger and keeps its own preparatory classes and competitions.
Two systems coexist as well. To be at the level of its competitors, however ESSEC passes its schooling from two to three years from the year 1947; this situation lasts until 1951, when ESSEC closed its preparatory classes
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, from the theoretical to the applied; these ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City and Cornell Tech, a graduate program that incorporates technology and creative thinking; the program moved from Google's Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.
Cornell is one of ten private land grant universities in the United States and the only one in New York. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural and human ecology colleges as well as its industrial labor relations school. Of Cornell's graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported; as a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered; as of October 2018, 58 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell University. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race.
Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 14 living billionaires. The student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 8,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 116 countries. Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty; the university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds.
Since 1894, Cornell fulfill statutory requirements. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes, it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues, civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor. Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, it has partnerships with institutions in India and the People's Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a "transnational university". On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new'Bridging the Rift Center' to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.
Cornell's main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking Cayuga Lake. Since the university was founded, it has expanded to about 2,300 acres, encompassing both the hill and much of the surrounding areas. Central Campus has laboratories, administrative buildings, all of the campus' academic buildings, athletic facilities and museums. North Campus is composed of ten residence halls that house first-year students, although the Townhouse Community houses transfer students; the five main residence halls on West Campus make up the West Campus House System, along with several Gothic-style buildings, referred to as "the Gothics". Collegetown contains two upper-level residence halls and the Schwartz Performing Arts Center amid a mixed-use neighborhood of apartments and businesses; the main campus is marked by an irregular layout and eclectic architectural styles, including ornate Collegiate Gothic and Neoclassical buildings, the more spare international and modernist structures. The more ornat
The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada. With a weekly readership of 2,018,923 in 2015, it is Canada's most read newspaper on weekdays and Saturdays, although it falls behind the Toronto Star in overall weekly circulation because the Star publishes a Sunday edition while the Globe does not; the Globe and Mail is regarded by some as Canada's "newspaper of record". The newspaper is owned based in Toronto; the predecessor to The Globe and Mail was called The Globe. Brown's liberal politics led him to court the support of the Clear Grits, precursor to the modern Liberal Party of Canada; the Globe began in Toronto as a weekly party organ for Brown's Reform Party, but seeing the economic gains that he could make in the newspaper business, Brown soon targeted a wide audience of liberal minded freeholders. He selected as the motto for the editorial page a quotation from Junius, "The subject, loyal to the Chief Magistrate will neither advise nor submit to arbitrary measures."
The quotation is carried on the editorial page to this day. By the 1850s, The Globe had become an well-regarded daily newspaper, it began distribution by railway to other cities in Ontario shortly after Confederation. At the dawn of the twentieth century, The Globe added photography, a women's section, the slogan "Canada's National Newspaper", which remains on its front-page banner, it began opening bureaus and offering subscriptions across Canada. On 23 November 1936, The Globe merged with The Mail and Empire, itself formed through the 1895 merger of two conservative newspapers, The Toronto Mail and Toronto Empire. Press reports at the time stated, "the minnow swallowed the whale" because The Globe's circulation was smaller than The Mail and Empire's; the merger was arranged by George McCullagh, who fronted for mining magnate William Henry Wright and became the first publisher of The Globe and Mail. McCullagh committed suicide in 1952, the newspaper was sold to the Webster family of Montreal.
As the paper lost ground to The Toronto Star in the local Toronto market, it began to expand its national circulation. The newspaper was unionised under the banner of the American Newspaper Guild. From 1937 until 1974, the newspaper was produced at the William H. Wright Building, located at 140 King Street West on the northeast corner of King Street and York Street, close to the homes of the Toronto Daily Star at Old Toronto Star Building at 80 King West and the Old Toronto Telegram Building at Bay and Melinda; the building at 130 King Street West was demolished in 1974 to make way for First Canadian Place, the newspaper moved to 444 Front Street West, the headquarters of the Toronto Telegram newspaper, built in 1963. In 1965, the paper was bought by Winnipeg-based FP Publications, controlled by Bryan Maheswary, which owned a chain of local Canadian newspapers. FP put a strong emphasis on the Report on Business section, launched in 1962, thereby building the paper's reputation as the voice of Toronto's business community.
FP Publications and The Globe and Mail were sold in 1980 to The Thomson Corporation, a company run by the family of Kenneth Thomson. After the acquisition there were few changes made in news policy. However, there was more attention paid to national and international news on the editorial, op-ed, front pages in contrast to its previous policy of stressing Toronto and Ontario material; the Globe and Mail has always been a morning newspaper. Since the 1980s, it has been printed in separate editions in six Canadian cities: Montreal, Winnipeg and Vancouver. Southern Ontario Newspaper Guild employees took their first strike vote at The Globe in 1982 marking a new era in relations with the company; those negotiations ended without a strike, the Globe unit of SONG still has a strike-free record. SONG members voted in 1994 to sever ties with the American-focused Newspaper Guild. Shortly afterwards, SONG affiliated with the Communications and Paperworkers Union of Canada. Under the editorship of William Thorsell in the 1980s and 1990s, the paper endorsed the free trade policies of Progressive Conservative Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
The paper became an outspoken proponent of the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord, with their editorial the day of the 1995 Quebec Referendum quoting a Mulroney speech in favour of the Accord. During this period, the paper continued to favour such liberal policies as decriminalizing drugs and expanding gay rights. In 1995, the paper launched globeandmail.com. Since the launch of the National Post as another English-language national paper in 1998, some industry analysts had proclaimed a "national newspaper war" between The Globe and Mail and the National Post; as a response to this threat, in 2001, The Globe and Mail was combined with broadcast assets held by Bell Canada to form the joint venture Bell Globemedia. In 2004, access to some features of globeandmail.com became restricted to paid subscribers only. The subscription service was reduced a few years to include an electronic edition of the newspaper, access to its archives, membership to a premium investment site
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System; the University of Texas was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. A Public Ivy, it is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $615 million for the 2016–2017 school year; the university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Primetime Emmy Award, the Turing Award, the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.
As of October 2018, 11 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the school as alumni, faculty members or researchers. Student athletes are members of the Big 12 Conference, its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships, thirteen NCAA Division I National Men's Swimming and Diving Championships, has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996; the first mention of a public university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish public education in the arts and sciences, no action was taken by the Mexican government. After Texas obtained its independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Congress adopted the Constitution of the Republic, under Section 5 of its General Provisions, stated "It shall be the duty of Congress, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide, by law, a general system of education."On April 18, 1838, "An Act to Establish the University of Texas" was referred to a special committee of the Texas Congress, but was not reported back for further action.
On January 26, 1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land—approximately 288,000 acres —towards the establishment of a publicly funded university. In addition, 40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated "College Hill." In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States. The state's Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11, 1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B. 102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the state's first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the university's endowment. On January 31, 1860, the state legislature, wanting to avoid raising taxes, passed an act authorizing the money set aside for the University of Texas to be used for frontier defense in west Texas to protect settlers from Indian attacks. Texas's secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas's endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants and nothing substantive had been done to organize the university's operations. This effort to establish a University was again mandated by Article 7, Section 10 of the Texas Constitution of 1876 which directed the legislature to "establish and provide for the maintenance and direction of a university of the first class, to be located by a vote of the people of this State, styled "The University of Texas."Additionally, Article 7, Section 11 of the 1876 Constitution established the Permanent University Fund, a sovereign wealth fund managed by the Board of Regents of the University of Texas and dedicated for the maintenance of the university. Because some state legislators perceived an extravagance in the construction of academic buildings of other universities, Article 7, Section 14 of the Constitution expressly prohibited the legislature from using the state's general revenue to fund construction of university buildings.
Funds for constructing university buildings had to come from the university's endowment or from private gifts to the university, but the university's operating expenses could come from the state's general revenues. The 1876 Constitution revoked the endowment of the railroad lands of the Act of 1858, but dedicated 1,000,000 acres of land, along with other property appropriated for the university, to the Permanent University Fund; this was to the detriment of the university as the lands the Constitution of 1876 granted the university represented less than 5% of the value of the lands granted to the university under the Act of 1858. The more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general educat
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian research university in New Orleans, United States. It is the top university and the most selective institution of higher education in the state of Louisiana; the school is known to attract a geographically diverse student body, with 85 percent of undergraduate students coming from over 300 miles away. The school was founded as a public medical college in 1834, became a comprehensive university in 1847; the institution was made private under the endowments of Paul Tulane and Josephine Louise Newcomb in 1884. Tulane is the 9th oldest private university in the Association of American Universities, which consists of major research universities in the United States and Canada; the Tulane University Law School and Tulane University Medical School are considered the 12th oldest and 15th oldest law and medical schools in the United States. Alumni include prominent entrepreneurs and inventors in technology, medical devices, retail, mass media and public policy.
S. State governors. S. Senators. S. Members of Congress. S. diplomats. At least two Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university; the university was founded as the Medical College of Louisiana in 1834 as a response to the fears of smallpox, yellow fever, cholera in the United States. The university became only the second medical school in the South, the 15th in the United States at the time. In 1847, the state legislature established the school as the University of Louisiana, a public university, the law department was added to the university. Subsequently, in 1851, the university established its first academic department; the first president chosen for the new university was Francis Lister Hawks, an Episcopalian priest and prominent citizen of New Orleans at the time. The university was closed from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War. After reopening, it went through a period of financial challenges because of an extended agricultural depression in the South which affected the nation's economy.
Paul Tulane, owner of a prospering dry goods and clothing business, donated extensive real estate within New Orleans for the support of education. This donation led to the establishment of a Tulane Educational Fund, whose board of administrators sought to support the University of Louisiana instead of establishing a new university. In response, through the influence of former Confederate general Randall Lee Gibson, the Louisiana state legislature transferred control of the University of Louisiana to the administrators of the TEF in 1884; this act created the Tulane University of Louisiana. The university was privatized, is one of only a few American universities to be converted from a state public institution to a private one. Paul Tulane's endowment to the school specified that the institution could only admit white students, Louisiana law passed in 1884 reiterated this condition. In 1884, William Preston Johnston became the first president of Tulane, he had succeeded Robert E. Lee as president of Lee University after Lee's death.
He had become president of Louisiana State University. In 1885, the university established its graduate division becoming the Graduate School. One year gifts from Josephine Louise Newcomb totaling over $3.6 million, led to the establishment of the H. Sophie Newcomb Memorial College within Tulane University. Newcomb was the first coordinate college for women in the United States and became a model for such institutions as Pembroke College and Barnard College. In 1894 the College of Technology formed, which would become the School of Engineering. In the same year, the university moved to its present-day uptown campus on historic St. Charles Avenue, five miles by streetcar from downtown New Orleans. With the improvements to Tulane University in the late 19th century, Tulane had a firm foundation to build upon as the premier university of the Deep South and continued this legacy with growth in the 20th century. In 1901, the first cornerstone was laid for the F. W. Tilton Library, endowed by New Orleans businessman and philanthropist Frederick William Tilton.
During 1907, the school established a four-year professional curriculum in architecture through the College of Technology, growing into the Tulane School of Architecture. One year Schools of Dentistry and Pharmacy were established, albeit temporarily; the School of Dentistry ended in 1928, Pharmacy six years later. In 1914, Tulane established a College of the first business school in the South. In 1925, Tulane established the independent Graduate School. Two years the university set up a School of Social Work the first in the southern United States. Tulane was instrumental in promoting the arts in New Orleans and the South in establishing the Newcomb School of Art with William Woodward as director, thus establishing the renowned Newcomb Pottery; the Middle American Research Institute was established in 1925 at Tulane "for the purpose of advanced research into the history, tropical botany (