Cidade Velha is a city in the southern part of the island of Santiago, Cape Verde. Founded in 1462, it is the oldest settlement in its former capital. Once called Ribeira Grande, its name was changed to Cidade Velha in the late 18th century, it is the seat of the Ribeira Grande de Santiago municipality. Located off Africa's northwest coast, this town was the first European colonial settlement in the tropics; some of the meticulously planned original design of the site is still intact, including a royal fortress, two churches and a 16th-century town square. Today, Cidade Velha is an Atlantic shipping center for Creole culture; the city became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2009. Cidade Velha is situated on the south coast of Santiago, at the mouth of the river Ribeira Grande de Santiago, it is 10 kilometres west of the capital Praia. City subdivisions include São Sebastião, Santo António and São Pedro; the island of Santiago was discovered by António da Noli, a Genoese in Portuguese service, in 1460.
Da Noli settled at Ribeira Grande with his family members and Portuguese from Algarve and Alentejo in 1462. The settling conditions were good due to the abundance of water from the river Ribeira Grande, which gave it an advantage over the other settlement on Santiago, Alcatrazes; the settlement became a key port of call for Portuguese colonisation towards Africa and South America. In the 16th and 17th centuries, it was a centre of maritime trade between Africa, the Cape and the Caribbean. Due to its proximity to the African coast, it was an essential platform for the trade of enslaved persons. Cidade Velha's port was a stopping place for two great navigators: Vasco da Gama, in 1497, on his way to India, Christopher Columbus, in 1498, while on his third voyage to the Americas. In 1522, it was the stopping place for the explorer Ferdinand Magellan who served under Spain on his way to circumnavigate the world. Cidade Velha has the oldest colonial church in the world - Nossa Senhora do Rosário church, constructed in 1495.
In 1533, Cidade Velha became the seat of the new Roman Catholic Diocese of Santiago de Cabo Verde, created by papal bull of Pope Clement VII. The seat is in Praia; the richess of Ribeira Grande and conflicts between Portugal and rival colonial powers France and Britain attracted pirate attacks, including those by Francis Drake and Jacques Cassard. Despite the construction of Forte Real de São Filipe in 1587-93, Ribeira Grande remained vulnerable and went into decline; the capital was moved to Praia in 1770. Ribeira Grande was reduced to the rank of a village and its civil and military buildings went in decay. Since the 1960s, restoration works have begun. In 2009, it became a UNESCO's World Heritage site. Pelourinho, erected in 1512 or 1520. At this marble pillar rebellious slaves were punished publicly, it was restored in the 1960s. It stands at the main square of the city. Forte Real de São Filipe, constructed in 1587-93; this fort was built as defence from pirate attacks. The elevation is 120 m above sea level.
Nossa Senhora do Rosário church, the oldest colonial church in the world, built in 1495. It has a side chapel in Manueline Gothic style; the ruined Sé Cathedral, construction started in 1556 and completed in 1705, pillaged in 1712. Its impressive ruins have been conserved in 2004; the ruined convent of São Francisco, built in 1657 on a slope outside the city centre. The convent church has been restored in 2002. Many traditional houses can be found along the streets rua rua Carreira. Cidade Velha has a hot desert climate, its average rainfalll is 201 millimeters, its average temperature is 25.2 °C. The coldest month is January and the warmest is October
Ribeira da Barca
Ribeira da Barca is a town in the municipality of Santa Catarina, on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde. In 2010 its population was 2,317, it is situated on the west coast, at the mouth of the stream Ribeira da Barca, 11 km northwest of Assomada. The settlement was mentioned as "Rivera das Baras" in the 1747 map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin. António Mascarenhas Monteiro, former president of the Republic of Cabo Verde Suzanna Lubrano, singer residing in Rotterdam in the Netherlands Tcheka, musician Media related to Ribeira da Barca at Wikimedia Commons
Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Henri is the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, reigning since 7 October 2000. He is the eldest son of Grand Duke Jean and Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium, a first cousin of Philippe, the king of the Belgians. Prince Henri was born on 16 April 1955, at the Betzdorf Castle in Luxembourg as the second child and first son of Prince Jean, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg and his wife, Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium, his father was the eldest son of Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg by her husband, Prince Félix of Bourbon-Parma. His mother was an only daughter of King Leopold III of Belgium by Astrid of Sweden; the prince's godparents were the Prince of Liège and Princess Marie Gabriele, countess of Holstein-Ledreborg. Henri has four siblings: Archduchess Marie Astrid of Austria, Prince Jean of Luxembourg, Princess Margaretha of Liechtenstein and Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg. On 12 November 1964, when Henri was nine, his grandmother's abdication and his father's subsequent accession as grand duke made him heir apparent.
As the grand duke's eldest son, he automatically took the title of Hereditary Grand Duke. Henri was educated in Luxembourg and in France, where he obtained his baccalaureate in 1974 after which he undertook military officer training at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, England on the Standard Military Course 7, he studied political science at University of Geneva and the Graduate Institute of International Studies, graduating in 1980. While studying in Geneva, Henri met the Cuban-born María Teresa Mestre y Batista, a political science student, they married in Luxembourg on 4 February/14 February 1981 with the previous consent of the grand duke, dated 7 November 1980. The couple has five children and four grandchildren: The Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, born 11 November 1981, married Belgian Countess Stéphanie de Lannoy on 19 and 20 October 2012 in Luxembourg. Prince Félix Léopold Marie Guillaume of Luxembourg, born 3 June 1984, married German Claire Margareta Lademacher on 17 September 2013 and 21 September 2013.
The couple has one daughter and one son: Princess Amalia Gabriela Maria Teresa of Nassau, born 15 June 2014 Prince Liam Henri Hartmut of Nassau, born 28 November 2016 Prince Louis Xavier Marie Guillaume of Luxembourg, born 3 August 1986, who married Luxembourgian Tessy Antony on 29 September 2006 in Gilsdorf and separated in January 2017. They couple has two sons: Prince Gabriel Michael Louis Ronny of Nassau, born 12 March 2006 Prince Noah Etienne Guillaume Gabriel Matthias Xavier of Nassau, born 21 September 2007 Princess Alexandra Joséphine Teresa Charlotte Marie Wilhelmine of Luxembourg, born 16 February 1991 Prince Sébastien Henri Marie Guillaume of Luxembourg, born 16 April 1992 Prince Henri became heir apparent to the Luxembourg throne on the abdication of his paternal grandmother, Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg, on 12 November 1964. From 1980 to 1998, he was a member of the Council of State. On 4 March 1998, Prince Henri was appointed as lieutenant representative by his father, Grand Duke Jean, meaning that he assumed most of his father's constitutional powers.
On 7 October 2000 following the abdication of his father, Henri acceded as grand duke of Luxembourg and took the constitutional oath before the Chamber of Deputies that day. On 2 December 2008 it was announced that Grand Duke Henri had stated he would refuse to give his "assent" to a new law on euthanasia, passed earlier in the year by the Chamber of Deputies. Under the constitution the grand duke "sanctions and promulgates the laws" meaning the need for the grand duke's sanction or "approval" was required in order for laws to take effect. In the absence of clarity on the long-term implications for the constitutional position of the grand duke posed by such a refusal, it was announced by Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker that a constitutional amendment would be brought forward amending the constitution; the Luxembourg royal house had tried to block a decision by parliament only once before, when Grand Duchess Marie-Adelaide refused to sign an education bill in 1912. The ultimate solution was that the grand duke would be declared unable to perform his duty temporarily.
Article 34 of the constitution was subsequently amended to remove the term "assent". Leaving the relevant provision to read "The Grand Duke promulgates the laws..." As a result, his signature is still needed but is clear that his signature is automatic and that he/she has no freedom of decision. The head of state no longer has to "sanction" laws for them to take effect; as the head of a constitutional monarchy, Grand Duke Henri's duties are representative. However, he retains the constitutional power to appoint the prime minister and government, to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies, to promulgate laws and to accredit ambassadors. Grand Duke Henri is commander-in-chief of the Luxembourg Army, in which he holds the rank of general, he is an honorary major in the British RAF Regiment. One of the grand duke's main functions is to represent Luxembourg in the field of foreign affairs. In May 2001, Grand Duke Henri and Grand Duch
Praia, is the capital and largest city of Cape Verde, an island nation in the Atlantic Ocean west of Senegal. It lies on the southern coast of Santiago island in the Sotavento Islands group, it is home to one of the nation's four international airports. The city centre is known as Plateau due to its location on a small plateau. Praia is a centre of commerce and education, a port that ships coffee, sugar cane, tropical fruits, it is the seat of the Praia municipality. The island of Santiago was discovered by António da Noli in 1460; the first settlement on the island was Ribeira Grande. The village Praia de Santa Maria grew near the natural harbour; the ports of Santiago were important ports of call for ships sailing between Portugal and the Portuguese colonies in Africa and South America. Between the end of the 16th century and the end of the 18th century, both Ribeira Grande and Praia suffered many pirate attacks, including those by Francis Drake and Jacques Cassard. Due to its strategic position on a plateau it had better protection against pirate attacks, which gave it a large advantage over the older city of Ribeira Grande.
It superseded Cidade Velha to become the most important settlement of Cape Verde, became the capital of Cape Verde in 1770. The naval battle of Porto Praya took place at Praia Harbour on 16 April 1781, as Portugal was neutral, it involved Great Britain and France and ended in a tactical draw and French strategic victory. Praia was the first stop of Charles Darwin's voyage with HMS Beagle in 1832. In the course of the 19th century, the Plateau was redeveloped with streets according to a grid plan, lined with grand colonial buildings and mansions. Praia became a city in 1858, which secured its status as the capital of Cabo Verde, concentrating political and economic roles. In the early 1920s, the population was around 21,000; as in other parts of the archipelago, resistance against Portuguese rule rose in the 1950s. There was no open independence war like in Guinea-Bissau. After independence, Praia underwent a demographic boom, receiving migrating movements from all the islands; as a result, 56% of the entire population of Cabo Verde resides in Santiago.
Its estimated population has reached 151,436. On June 28, 1985, Praia became member of UCCLA, the Union of Luso - Afro-Americo-Asiatic Capital Cities, an international organization. Geographically, Praia may be described as a set of their surrounding valleys; these plateaus have the name achada, but the central one is colloquially called Plateau. The urban settlement is made on top of these plateaus and along the valleys; the islet of Santa Maria is in front of the beach bearing the same name. For a long time, only the Plateau was considered to be the city, being the other neighbourhoods relegated to the condition of peripheral suburbs, in spite of always having a close relationship with the Plateau; this is why only the Plateau had well-developed urbanization with its own infra-structures. The remaining neighbourhoods developed in a more organic, chaotic way. Only after independence did the Plateau merge with the other neighbourhoods to constitute what is now considered the City of Praia; the whole city was, at the time, equipped with adequate infrastructure.
Urbanization begun after independence and sought to expand north. Praia has a desert climate with a short wet season and a lengthy pronounced dry season. In fact, outside of the months of August and October, little precipitation falls on Praia; the city on average sees about 210 millimetres of rain per year. Since the coldest month is far above 18 °C its temperature patterns resembles a tropical climate, but lacks enough precipitation to be classified as such. Despite the fact that it has an arid climate, Praia gets hot or cold, due to its oceanside location on Santiago Island. Temperatures are warm and constant with an average high temperature of 27 °C and an average low temperature of 22 °C; as of the mid-19th century, the population was estimated at 1,500 to 2,000. When Edmund Roberts visited in 1832, he noted a population of black people in Praia totaling about "nineteen twentieths" of the population. According to the national statistics office, the city's population is estimated 159,050 as of July 2017.
The city of Praia is home to the first primary school in the archipelago known as the Escola Central. For much time it was the only primary school in Praia. At the beginning of the 1960s, other primary schools began to be built in neighbourhoods around the Plateau and in other localities on the island. Praia was the first site in Cabo Verde with a secondary education institution with the creation of the Liceu Nacional in 1861. However, the Portuguese authorities were not interested in implementing secondary education in Cabo Verde and the school failed as a result.
The Sotavento Islands is the southern island group of the Cape Verde archipelago. There are four main islands; the western three islands, Brava and Santiago, are rocky and volcanic agricultural islands, with the longest histories of human habitation. The fourth and easternmost island Maio is a flat desert island whose economy was based on salt, giving it more in common with the Barlavento islands Sal and Boa Vista; the Ilhéus do. The total area of the Sotavento Islands is 1,803 km2. Barlavento Islands List of islands of Cape Verde
Santa Catarina, Cape Verde
Santa Catarina is a concelho of Cape Verde. It is situated in the western part of the island of Santiago, its seat is the city of Assomada. Its population was 45,920 in 2017, its area is 242.6 km2. The municipality consists of Santa Catarina; the freguesia is subdivided into the following settlements: The municipality of Santa Catarina has a rugged relief, characterised by steep slopes that border the river valleys, rocky peaks and volcanic cones. Its mountains, including Serra Malagueta and Pico da Antónia, are the highest of the island. Santa Catarina borders Tarrafal to the north, São Miguel to the northeast, Santa Cruz to the east, São Salvador do Mundo to the southeast and Ribeira Grande de Santiago to the south; the municipality of Santa Catarina was created in 1834. At this time, it consisted of the parishes Santa Catarina do Mato, São Salvador do Mundo, São Miguel, Santo Amaro Abade and São João Baptista, its seat was the new town of Picos, between 1859 and 1869 it was Achada Falcão, between 1869 and 1912 Tarrafal, since 1912 Assomada.
The parishes São João Baptista and São Salvador do Mundo became part of the municipality of Praia in 1872. In 1917, the two northern parishes of the municipality Santo Amaro Abade and São Miguel were split off to become the Municipality of Tarrafal; the parish of São Salvador do Mundo became part of the municipality Santa Catarina again in 1971, in May 2005 it was split off to become a separate municipality. Víctor Borges, once the foreign minister of Cape Verde Arlindo Gomes Furtado, current bishop of Santiago de Cabo Verde which covers all of the Sotavento Islands Danielson Gomes Monteiro, footballer Gilyto, singer Suzanna Lubrano, singer António Mascarenhas Monteiro, a former president of Cape Verde from March 22, 1991 to March 22, 2001. Wania Monteiro, athlete Ivone Ramos José Maria Neves, Cape Verdean statesman Gil Semedo, singer Tcheka, singer Manuel Veiga, Cape Verdean writer At the federal level, it belongs to the constituency of Santiago North. Since 2012, the Movement for Democracy is the ruling party of the municipality.
The results of the latest elections, in 2016: José Maria Neves became Prime Minister Francisco Tavares José Alves Fernandes The municipality's main festivity is the festival of Saint Catherine which takes place on November 24. Santa Catarina is twinned with: Hattersheim am Main, Germany Montijo, Portugal Trofa, Portugal Vila Franca de Xira, Portugal In Portuguese: Museu da Tabanka Câmara Municipal de Santa Catarina ANMCV
Calabaceira is a village in the southern part of the island of Santiago, Cape Verde. It is part of the municipality Ribeira Grande de Santiago. In 2010 its population was 366, it is located on the eastern edge of the Ribeira Grande gorge, 2 km northeast of Cidade Velha and 10 km west of the capital Praia