The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Coin Street Community Builders
Coin Street Community Builders is a development trust and social enterprise which seeks to make London's South Bank a better place in which to live, to work, to visit and to study. Since 1984 CSCB has transformed a derelict 13 acre site into a thriving mixed use neighbourhood. Since its creation in 1984, CSCB redeveloped the Oxo Tower Wharf, Gabriel's Wharf, Bernie Spain Gardens and set up four housing co-operatives; the housing co-operatives are housed in new buildings commissioned by CSCB. Palm was designed by Lifschutz Davidson completed in 1994. Iroko was designed by architects Haworth Tompkins and was completed in 2001. In 2007, CSCB occupied new offices at the Coin Street neighbourhood centre designed by Haworth Tompkins; as well as offices the building includes a day nursery and crèche and meeting facilities. CSCB offers a variety of community programmes for people of all ages including youth clubs and dance sessions and family and children's activities CSCB opposed the Garden Bridge project which would have been built on their land.
The Group Chairman is Dr Scott Rice. The Group Director is Iain Tuckett. Coin Street Community Builders Coin Street — case study by Andrew Bibby Heart of gold article from The Guardian Haworth Tompkins Architects
Allied London is a property development and investment company that develops landmark projects ranging from re-use to regeneration developments across retail, office, residential and leisure sectors. The company offers rental options, they own several buildings in the Spinningfields area of Manchester, as well as Glasgow and London. The company was founded in 1909 and became a private company with Michael Ingall as its CEO from September 2000. Allied London's properties include: The Bonded Warehouse The Old Granada Studios Civil Justice Centre SpinningfieldsHardman Square 3 Hardman Street The Lawns The Avenue The Avenue North Tower 12 Leftbank Leeds Dock Aldersgate Brunswick Centre 20 Cannon Street Poplar, London Herbal House 28 Savile Row Skypark In April 2014 Allied London launched hello Work, to provide hot desking, co-working and studios alongside a community and events programme for SMEs. Allied London hello Work
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water. Also: the business of real estate, it is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, Wales, Northern Ireland, United States, Pakistan and New Zealand. Residential real estate may contain either a single family or multifamily structure, available for occupation or for non-business purposes. Residences can be classified by. Different types of housing tenure can be used for the same physical type. For example, connected residences might be owned by a single entity and leased out, or owned separately with an agreement covering the relationship between units and common areas and concerns. Major categoriesAttached / multi-unit dwellings Apartment or Flat – An individual unit in a multi-unit building; the boundaries of the apartment are defined by a perimeter of locked or lockable doors. Seen in multi-story apartment buildings.
Multi-family house – Often seen in multi-story detached buildings, where each floor is a separate apartment or unit. Terraced house – A number of single or multi-unit buildings in a continuous row with shared walls and no intervening space. Condominium – A building or complex, similar to apartments, owned by individuals. Common grounds and common areas within the complex are shared jointly. In North America, there are rowhouse style condominiums as well; the British equivalent is a block of flats. Cooperative – A type of multiple ownership in which the residents of a multi-unit housing complex own shares in the cooperative corporation that owns the property, giving each resident the right to occupy a specific apartment or unit. Semi-detached dwellings Duplex – Two units with one shared wall. Detached dwellings Detached house or single-family detached house Portable dwellings Mobile homes or residential caravans – A full-time residence that can be movable on wheels. Houseboats – A floating home Tents – Usually temporary, with roof and walls consisting only of fabric-like material.
The size of an apartment or house can be described in square meters. In the United States, this includes the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces; the "square meters" figure of a house in Europe may report the total area of the walls enclosing the home, thus including any attached garage and non-living spaces, which makes it important to inquire what kind of surface area definition has been used. It can be described more by the number of rooms. A studio apartment has a single bedroom with no living room. A one-bedroom apartment has a dining room separate from the bedroom. Two bedroom, three bedroom, larger units are common. Other categoriesChawls Villas HavelisThe size of these is measured in Gaz, Marla and acre. See List of house types for a complete listing of housing types and layouts, real estate trends for shifts in the market, house or home for more general information, it is common practice for an intermediary to provide real estate owners with dedicated sales and marketing support in exchange for commission.
In North America, this intermediary is referred to as a real estate broker, or a real estate agent in everyday conversation, whilst in the United Kingdom, the intermediary would be referred to as an estate agent. In Australia the intermediary is referred to as a real estate agent or real estate representative or the agent
Opal Property Group
Opal Property Group Limited referred to as Opal, was a company based in the United Kingdom which operates a number of large property developments in UK cities, targeted at students and private renters. Founded in 1998 by Stuart Wall, Opal was the largest provider of private student accommodation in the UK, providing accommodation for 20,000 students; the company went into administration in 2013 and its properties were transferred to other organisations. The company was founded in 1998. In March 2013, the company reported that one of its subsidiaries, Ocon Construction, was to be put into administration; the parent company Opal may be broken up. 13 further Opal property subsidiaries in Liverpool, Bradford, Huddersfield, Leicester and Wolverhampton went into administration in March. As of April 2013, much of the various sub companies in the group were in the hands of administrators with various property management companies brought in to oversee the developments whilst buyers were sought. Opal's properties include: Birmingham - Opal 1 in Highgate Leeds Opal 1 Opal 2 Opal Tower Leicester - halls of residence including Opal Court, nominated for the 2007 Carbuncle Cup London Opal 1 in Hoxton Opal 2 in Greenwich Opal 3 in Holloway Opal 4 in Tufnell Park Manchester - accommodation blocks around Whitworth Street Nottingham - halls of residence with common room and gymnasium Newport - Opal 1 Sheffield Opal 1 near the Devonshire Quarter Opal 2 in Netherthorpe Opal 3 in Netherthorpe
Trafalgar House (company)
Trafalgar House Public Limited Company was a British conglomerate with interests in property investment, property development, construction, hotels and publishing. It was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index but foundered in the mid-1990s; the company was developed by entrepreneur Nigel Broackes, whose interests in share dealing and small scale property development brought him into contact with the directors of the Eastern International Investment Trust, a small trust quoted on the London Stock Exchange. In 1959, Broackes acquired a 42 per cent holding in Eastern's property subsidiary, Eastern International Property Investments. Two years Broackes formed a relationship with Commercial Union which bought shares in EIPI and prepared to act as a financial backer for new property developments. EIPI bought a 55 per cent stake in CU's residential property subsidiary Westminster & Kensington Freeholds, thereby acquiring control of a property portfolio of £3.3m for an equity cost of only £550.
The name of one of those properties,'Trafalgar House', was chosen as the new name of the Company. In 1963, Trafalgar House was floated on the London Stock Exchange with Commercial Union owning 46 per cent of the equity and Broackes 21 per cent; the existence of a public quotation enabled Trafalgar House to issue shares for acquisitions and Broackes made extensive use of that facility for the company to become a formidable international industrial and commercial undertaking. According to The Daily Telegraph, Broackes embarked on "a string of construction and engineering acquisitions which established the core of a corporate group – and which gained Broackes the reputation for being a financier with an exceptional flair for victory in the cut and thrust of business life."An acquisition with significant long term consequences was a 49% share of Bridge Walker in 1964. Bridge Walker had been carrying out much of Trafalgar's construction work but apart from giving Trafalgar House its own contracting experience, the deal brought in the owner, Victor Matthews to become Trafalgar's group managing director.
With him and Broackes working together, acquisitions became high-profile. In that same year Trafalgar House bought Ideal Homes; the long-established London contractor, Trollope & Colls, was acquired at the end of the year. For twenty years Trafalgar House continued to expand, with acquisitions again playing a major role. In construction and engineering these included The Cementation Company, John Brown Engineering, Cleveland Bridge, Redpath Dorman Long. Housebuilding saw the acquisition of Comben Homes and Broseley Homes. Trafalgar’s property development had led to the purchase of hotels but the high-profile acquisition was of the Ritz Hotel in 1976. Trafalgar entered fields that were far removed from its original property development and construction roots with the purchase of Cunard in 1971 and Beaverbrook's Express Newspapers in 1976. Matthews' attentions were focussed on Express and this was floated as a separate entity in 1982 with Matthews as chairman. In the course of thirty years or so, Trafalgar House became a formidable international industrial and commercial undertaking.
During the final few years of its existence, it was tabled as the largest contracting organisation in the UK and one of the largest in Europe. A conglomerate by nature is a dynamic entity and fluid in its structure and content. For the purpose of this historical perspective a general indication only is given of the scope of industries and companies embraced by Trafalgar House during its existence; the Ritz Hotel in London, acquired by Trafalgar House in 1976, was sold to David and Frederick Barclay for £75 million in 1995. In 1980 there was public outcry at the sudden destruction by Trafalgar House of the Art Deco main entrance to the former Firestone factory in west London, torn down over the August bank holiday weekend to pre-empt and thus nullify an imminent preservation order under the listed buildings legislation; the company was due to embark on an extensive redevelopment of the large industrial site, which would have been hampered by a requirement to maintain both the lengthy architectural facade of the old factory and its broad approach sightlines and boundary features.
In 1988 Trafalgar House was involved in a joint development with British Aerospace to redevelop the former Royal Small Arms Factory site at Enfield. In 1995 it bought the bomb-damaged site of the historic Baltic Exchange building, at 30 St Mary Axe in London, damaged when the Provisional Irish Republican Army detonated a bomb nearby on 10 April 1992; the building's former owner, the Baltic Exchange, was unable to bear the costs of restoring the building to English Heritage's requirements and sold the site to Trafalgar House. In 1998 the site was resold, with planning permission, for £81 million to Swiss Re, who commissioned and occupied the renowned Gherkin building, designed by Foster and Partners. Trafalgar bought Ideal Homes in 1967, it had been the pre-eminent private housebuilder before the war with sales of over 5,000 houses a year but by the time of the acquisition it was building little more than 1,000 a year. New management enabled Ideal to grow again and the size of the division was increased by the acquisition of two other large housebuilders – Comben Homes in 1984 and Broseley Homes in 1986.
By 1987 Ideal was again selling around 5,000 houses a year. Trafalgar House acqui