Puente del Alamillo
The Alamillo Bridge is a structure in Seville, which spans the Canal de Alfonso XIII, allowing access to La Cartuja, a peninsula between the canal and the Guadalquivir River. The bridge was constructed as part of infrastructure improvements for Expo 92, held on large banana farms on the island. Construction of the bridge began in 1989 and was completed in 1992 from a design by Santiago Calatrava; the bridge is of the cantilever spar cable-stayed bridge type and consists of a single pylon, counterbalancing a 200 m span with thirteen lengths of cables. The original intent was to build two symmetrical bridges on either side of the island, but in the end, the Alamillo's singular design has proved most striking. With no economic constraints on construction, the goal was to create a bridge of symbolic importance; this bridge represented the soaring aspirations of the city of Seville in preparation for Expo'92, is visible from the top of La Giralda, the former minaret, the sentimental roof of the city, linking Seville's past and present.
Similar to the Brooklyn Bridge, there is an elevated walkway for pedestrians. In addition to the elevated walkway, the Alamillo Bridge features a lookout at the top of the mast, accessible by an enclosed stairway; the Puente del Alamillo is the only bridge, balanced through added weights not requiring any type of back anchorage. There are 54 steel piles under the bridge, acting passively under the mast. Calatrava's Sundial Bridge in Redding, the Mesoghion Avenue Footbridge in Athens and Chords Bridge in Jerusalem are similar in design to the Alamillo Bridge. Puente de la Mujer, Buenos Aires, Argentina Samuel Beckett Bridge, Ireland Sundial Bridge at Turtle Bay, United States Puente de la Unidad, Mexico Erasmus Bridge, Netherlands Puente del Alamillo on en.broer.no Alamillo Bridge by Santiago Calatrava Alamillo Bridge Seville - Sevilla Puente del Alamillo in Factoría Urbana: Photos and technical information about the bridge Alamillo Bridge at Structurae Alamillo Bridge - WikiArquitectura
Samuel Beckett Bridge
Samuel Beckett Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge in Dublin that joins Sir John Rogerson's Quay on the south side of the River Liffey to Guild Street and North Wall Quay in the Docklands area. Architect Santiago Calatrava, was the lead designer of the Samuel Beckett Bridge, he was assisted with the civil and structural aspects of the design by Roughan & O'Donovan consulting engineers. This was the second bridge in the area designed by Calatrava, the first being the James Joyce Bridge, further upstream. Constructed by a "Graham Hollandia Joint Venture", the main span of the Samuel Beckett Bridge is supported by 31 cable stays from a doubly back-stayed single forward arc tubular tapered spar, with decking provided for four traffic and two pedestrian lanes, it is capable of opening through an angle of 90 degrees allowing ships to pass through. This is achieved through a rotational mechanism housed in the base of the pylon; the shape of the spar and its cables is said to evoke an image of a harp lying on its edge..
The steel structure of the bridge was constructed in Rotterdam by Hollandia, a Dutch company responsible for the steel fabrication of the London Eye. The steel span of the bridge was transferred from the Hollandia wharf in Krimpen aan den IJssel on 3 May 2009, with support from specialist transport company ALE Heavylift; the bridge, which cost €60 million, is named for Irish writer Samuel Beckett, was opened to pedestrians on 10 December 2009 by Dublin Lord Mayor, Emer Costello and to road traffic at 7 am the following day. The bridge won Engineers Ireland’s'Engineering Project of the Year' in 2010. Commentators criticised traffic management restrictions in place around the bridge, saying that with certain turns onto the bridge being blocked, traffic would be diverted into the city centre undermining the bridge's purpose of reducing traffic on the downstream bridges. Unhappiness was expressed over the fact that these restrictions would force drivers to use the East-Link Toll Bridge. Dublin City Council replied that these restrictions were mandated by An Bord Pleanála to prevent users of the East-Link bridge from coming into the city.
At the time of opening, there was criticism that no bus services had plans to use the bridge. Puente de la Mujer, Buenos Aires, Argentina Sundial Bridge at Turtle Bay, United States Puente de la Unidad, Mexico Puente del Alamillo, Spain Assut de l'Or Bridge, Spain
Erasmusbrug is a combined cable-stayed and bascule bridge in the centre of Rotterdam, connecting the north and south parts of this city, second largest in the Netherlands. The bridge was named after Desiderius Erasmus, a prominent Christian renaissance humanist known as Erasmus of Rotterdam; the 802-metre-long bridge across the New Meuse was designed by Ben van Berkel and completed in 1996. The cable-stayed bridge section has a single 139-metre-high asymmetrical pale blue pylon with a prominent horizontal base, earning the bridge its nickname "The Swan"; the southernmost span of the bridge has an 89-metre-long bascule bridge for ships that cannot pass under the bridge. The bascule bridge is the largest and heaviest in Western Europe and has the largest panel of its type in the world. After costing more than 165 million Euros to construct, the bridge was opened by Queen Beatrix on September 6, 1996. Shortly after the bridge opened to traffic in October 1996, it was discovered the bridge would swing under strong wind conditions.
To reduce the trembling, stronger shock dampers were installed. The bridge featured in the 1998 Jackie Chan film Who Am I?. In 2005, several planes flew underneath the bridge as part of the "Red Bull Air Race"; the bridge is part of The World Port Days in Rotterdam. In 2005, the bridge served as the backdrop for a performance by DJ Tiësto titled "Tiësto @ The Bridge, Rotterdam"; the performance featured fire-fighting ships spraying jets of water into the air in front of the bridge, a fireworks barge launching fireworks beside the bridge, multi colored spot/search lights attached to the bridge itself. The bridge was crossed during the opening stage of the 2010 Tour de France. Erasmus Bridge at Structurae Erasmus bridge on bridge-info.org Erasmusbrug Youtube 2014 New Year Eve Firework from Erasmus Bridge
Valencian referred to as Southern Catalan, is a dialect of the Catalan language spoken in the Valencian Community, where it is an official language, in the El Carche comarca in Murcia, where it has no official recognition. Besides, it is spoken in the south of the Terres de l'Ebre and in the south of La Franja in Aragon, in its transitional variety; the denominations "Valencian" or "Valencian language" are used traditionally and as a glottonym exclusively in the Valencian Community, to refer not only to the dialect spoken in the region, but to refer to the totality of the Catalan language. However, outside this territory the use of this denomination is null, it is considered the Valencian Community's own language according to the region's 1982 Statute of Autonomy and the Spanish Constitution. According to philological studies, the varieties of this language spoken in the Valencian Community and El Carxe cannot be considered a dialect restricted to these borders: the several dialects of Valencian belong to the Western group of Catalan dialects.
Valencian, as a variety of the Catalan language, displays transitional features between Ibero-Romance languages and Gallo-Romance languages. Its similarity with Occitan has led many authors to group it under the Occitano-Romance languages. There is some controversy within the Valencian Community regarding its status as a glottonym or as a language on its own among certain political sectors such as blaverism and Spanish nationalism. According to a study carried out by the Generalitat Valenciana in 2014, scarcely more than a half people in the Valencian Community consider it as a separate language, different from Catalan. However, according to the same study, most of Valencians with higher studies say that it is the same language. According to the 2006 Statute of Autonomy Valencian is regulated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, by means of the Normes de Castelló. Due to not having been recognized for a long time and the considerable immigration coming from Andalusia but from other areas of Spain where Spanish is spoken, the number of speakers has decreased, the influence of Spanish has led to the adoption of a huge amount of loanwords.
Some of the most important works of Catalan literature in Valencia experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, Ausiàs March's poetry; the first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor; the official status of Valencian is regulated by the Spanish Constitution and the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, together with the Law of Use and Education of Valencian. Article 6 of the Valencian Statute of Autonomy sets the legal status of Valencian, providing that: The official language of the Valencian Community is Valencian. Valencian is official within the Valencian Community, along with Spanish, the official language nationwide. Everyone shall have the right to know it and use it, receive education in Valencian. No one can be discriminated against by reason of their language.
Special protection and respect shall be given to the recuperation of Valencian. The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua shall be the normative institution of the Valencian language; the Law of Use and Education of Valencian develops this framework, providing for implementation of a bilingual educational system, regulating the use of Valencian in the public administration and judiciary system, where citizens can use it when acting before both. Valencian is recognized under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages as "Valencian". Valencian is not spoken all over the Valencian Community. A quarter of its territory, equivalent to 10% of the population, is traditionally Castilian-speaking only, whereas Valencian is spoken to varying degrees elsewhere. Additionally, it is spoken by a reduced number of people in Carche, a rural area in the Region of Murcia adjoining the Valencian Community. Although the Valencian language was an important part of the history of this zone, nowadays only about 600 people are able to speak Valencian in the area of Carche.
In 2010 the Generalitat Valenciana published a study and Social use of Valencian, which included a survey sampling more than 6,600 people in the provinces of Castellón, Alicante. The survey collected the answers of respondents and did not include any testing or verification; the results were: Valencian was the language "always or most used": at home: 31.6% with friends: 28.0% in internal business relations: 24.7%For ability: 48.5% answered they speak Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" 26.2% answered they write Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" The survey shows that, although Valencian is still the common language in many areas in the Valencian Community, where more than half of the Valencian population are able to speak it, most Valencians do not speak in Valencian in their
Santiago Calatrava Valls is a Spanish architect, structural design and analyst engineer and painter known for his bridges supported by single leaning pylons, his railway stations and museums, whose sculptural forms resemble living organisms. His best-known works include the Milwaukee Art Museum, the Turning Torso tower in Malmö, the Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge in Dallas and his largest project, the City of Arts and Sciences and Opera House, in his birthplace, Valencia, his architectural firm has offices in New York City, Zürich. Calatrava was born on July 1951, in Benimàmet, an old municipality now part of Valencia, Spain, his Calatrava surname was an old aristocratic one from medieval times, was once associated with an order of knights in Spain. He had his primary and secondary schooling in Valencia, beginning in 1957, studied drawing and painting at the School of Applied Art. In 1964, as the regime of General Francisco Franco relaxed and Spain became more open to rest of Europe, he went to France as an exchange student.
In 1968, after completing secondary school, he went to study at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, but he arrived in the midst of student uprisings and turmoil in Paris, returned home. Back in Valencia, discovered a book about the architecture of Le Corbusier, which persuaded him that he could be both an artist and an architect, he enrolled in the Higher School of Architecture at the Polytechnic University of Valencia. He received his diploma as an architect and did higher studies in urbanism. At the University he completed independent projects with fellow students, publishing two books on the vernacular architecture of Valencia and Ibiza. In 1975 he enrolled in the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland for a second degree in civil engineering. In 1981 he was awarded a doctorate in the department of architecture, after completing his thesis on "The Pliability of three-dimensional structures." Speaking of this period, Calatrava told biographer Philip Jodidio:"The desire to start all over at zero was strong in me.
I was determined to put to one side all that I had learned in architecture school, to learn to draw and think like an engineer. I was fascinated by the concept of gravity and convinced that it was necessary to begin work with simple forms." Calatrava explained that he was influenced by the work of the early 20th century Swiss engineer Robert Maillart, which taught him that, "with an adequate combination of force and mass, you can create emotion." As soon as Calatrava completed his doctorate in 1981, he opened his own office in Zurich. He designed an exposition hall, a factory, a library, two bridges, but none were built, Finally in 1983, he began to receive commissions for industrial and transportation structures of greater size; the train station has several of the features. The railroad platforms curve, the supporting columns lean, the concrete walls of the modernistic cavern beneath the tracks are everywhere pierced with teardrop shaped skylights, tilting glass panels provide light and shelter without enclosing the platforms.
In 1984–87, he built his first bridge, the Bac de Roda Bridge in Barcelona, which for the first time brought him international notice. The bridge, designed for cyclists and pedestrians, connects two parts of the city by crossing a wasteland of railway tracks, it is 128 metres long, with twin arches. The upper portion of the bridge, composed of steel arches and cables, is light and airy, like a network of lace, anchored to the massive concrete supports and granite pillars below, his next bridge, the Puente del Alamillo, in Seville, was more spectacular and cemented his reputation. Built as part of the 1992 Expo 92, it is 200 metres long, its main feature is a single pylon 142 metres high, leaning to 58 degrees, the same angle as the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in Africa. The weight of the concrete of the pylon is sufficient to hold up the bridge with just thirteen pairs of cables, eliminating the need for any cables behind it. At the beginning of the 1990s Calatrava built several remarkable railway stations and bridges, but broadened his portfolio by designing a wider range of structures, including a Canadian shopping center, a new passenger terminal for Bilbao airport.
And his first building in the United States, the new structure of the Milwaukee Art Museum. In 1992 he completed one of his most picturesque and sculptural works, the Montjuïc Communications Tower in Barcelona, a 136 m -high graceful concrete spire designed for the site of the 1992 Olympics; the concrete pylon leans backwards, seems to grasp the vertical broadcast antennas. Its form suggests an athlete about to throw a javelin; the circular building at the base of the tower, which contains the broadcast equipment, is clad in white bricks and is equipped with metal resembling an eye which opens and closes. The building has a Catalan touch, borrowed from
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15
Cantilever spar cable-stayed bridge
A cantilever spar cable-stayed bridge is a modern variation of the cable-stayed bridge. This design has been pioneered by the structural engineer Santiago Calatrava in 1992 with the Puente del Alamillo in Seville, Spain. In two of his designs the force distribution does not depend upon the cantilever action of the spar. In contrast, in his swinging Puente de la Mujer design, the spar reaches toward the cable supported deck and is counterbalanced by a structural tail. In the Assut de l'Or Bridge, the curved backward pylon is back-stayed to concrete counterweights. Puente del Alamillo, Spain, 1992 Trinity Bridge, United Kingdom, 1995 Puente de la Mujer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2002 Sundial Bridge at Turtle Bay, Redding CA, USA, 2004 Chords Bridge, Israel, opened 2008, light rail operative since 2011 Assut de l'Or Bridge, Spain, opened 12 December 2008 Samuel Beckett Bridge, Ireland, opened 10 December 2009 Signature Bridge, New Delhi, india opened 04 November 2018 Puente Atirantado, opened in 2003, is a cable-stayed bridge that crosses the Río Santa Catarina and joins San Pedro Garza García with Monterrey.
Although impressive and elegant, its construction was controversial due to its cost, its design, the fact that the river it crosses is dry. Mariánský most - in the Czech Republic. Erasmusbrug - by Ben van Berkel, in Rotterdam Netherlands. Signature Bridge, India, opened 5 November 2018. Bridge - A directory of bridge types Cable-stayed bridge - The ancestor of this type Side-spar cable-stayed bridge - A related type