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Assyrian folk/pop music

Assyrian folk/pop music known as Assyrian folk music, Assyrian pop music or Syriac music, is the traditional musical style of the Assyrian people that includes a broad range of stylistic varieties, which would encompass fusions of Western genres such as pop, Latin, jazz and/or classical music, with a melodic basis of Assyrian folk. Assyrian songs are lengthy, tending to be around 5 minutes long on average. Assyrian folk music claims to be the descendant of the music of their ancient Upper Mesopotamian ancestors that has survived in the liturgical music of the Syriac Churches. Assyrian folk can be found in traditional Middle Eastern makams, it has similarities to other folk music in Western Asia, such as Kurdish, Turkish and Armenian music. Assyrian songs are sung in Iraqi Koine, a standard variety of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic. However, older songs had an Urmian dialect and tribal-folk music tend to contain Tyari dialects. Unlike most Western music, Assyrian music includes quarter tones halfway between notes through the use of instruments or the human voice.

Modern Assyrian pop music is in a minor key in the Phrygian mode, themes tend to focus on longing, melancholy and love issues. Most Assyrian dance music has a beat or rhythm similar to Jamaican music. Solos are common in Assyrian music and they are protracted. Instrumentation is arranged with a keyboard and electronic drums, namely in weddings or parties. Although many forms of Assyrian records do use acoustic and orchestral instruments such as strings, pianos and violins. Music is omnipresent in the village scene. A "musician" is not a professional, whoever can sing in any manner is considered a "singer". Most of the time, music is passed down as an oral tradition. Village music may be categorized into four groups: local secular music not related to specific occasions. Here are a few types of tribal Assyrian Music that has survived to this day in the Assyrian villages and towns of Northern Iraq, southeast Turkey, northwest Iran and northeast Syria: Raweh: An ancient melodic chant which features wailing echoed voices of a male.

Raweh is reminiscent of. Zurna O Dawolah: These are two traditional music instruments meaning a drum and wind-pipe, they are played together, either with or without singing in many ceremonies such as weddings, welcoming and, albeit funerals. Diwaneh: Sung in gatherings and meetings. Lilyana: Wedding songs sung by women only for the bride before leaving her home to get married. Sung for the bridegroom the day before his wedding by his family and relatives. Tanbur: Another tribal music instrument, a string instrument with long neck, originated in ancient Assyria, discovered being depicted on carving from South Iraq from Ur to Akkad and Ashur. Albert Rouel Tamraz was a famous Assyrian Singer from Iraq who played this instrument and sung many folkloric songs accompanied by hand-drum, it was in the Assyrian homeland north of Mosul that people started to write the modern Syriac vernacular more than two hundred years before the earliest British missionaries, although the earliest records of the Syriac language date from 5th century BC Achaemenid Assyria.

The earliest dated text is a poem written in 1591. This makes early Neo-Syriac literature a contemporary of Jewish Neo-Aramaic literature from the same region, dating back to the late 16th century; the Neo-Syriac literature which existed before the arrival of British and American missionaries consisted of poetry. This poetry can be divided into three categories: stanzaic hymns, dispute poems, drinking songs. Of these three categories, only the hymns, which in Neo-Syriac are termed duriky. World War I, the resulting Assyrian Genocide, drove many Assyrians out from the mountainous region of Hakkari, southeast Turkey to the regions of northern Iraq and north east Syria, World War II brought them in direct contact with the west the British army in Iraq, Russians in Urmia and the French in Syria, but the contact with the British caused the most influence on modern Assyrian music the period after the independence of Iraq in 1932, which brought British oil companies into Iraq and they employed many by now English speaking Assyrians.

At this time they came in contact with Western music and instruments. Assyrian youth started picking up and playing these new instruments after seeing and hearing the British playing. Assyrian youths started to find new bands and to play in parties and other functions for both Assyrians and others. Gabriel Asaad was the pioneer of Assyrian music and composed the first Assyrian song in the Turoyo language, Othuroye Ho Mtoth Elfan l-Metba‘. In Baghdad, Iraq the earliest known record is by Hanna Patros in 1931 – two Gramophones with 2 songs on each. Called “"Karuzuta d-khasha". Hanna Petros became the music director at the conservatory in Baghdad. There were church hymns and folklore songs with a musical company on the records. Albert Rouel Tamras releases his first records in Baghdad in 1966 on Bashirphone label owned by Jameil Bashir an Assyrian Iraqi oud and violin soloist. Singing in the backgr

Spin stiffness

The spin stiffness or spin rigidity or helicity modulus or the "superfluid density" is a constant which represents the change in the ground state energy of a spin system as a result of introducing a slow in plane twist of the spins. The importance of this constant is in its use as an indicator of quantum phase transitions—specifically in models with metal-insulator transitions such as Mott insulators, it is related to other topological invariants such as the Berry phase and Chern numbers as in the Quantum hall effect. Mathematically it can be defined by the following equation: ρ s = ∂ 2 ∂ θ 2 E 0 N | θ = 0 where E 0 is the ground state energy, θ is the twisting angle, N is the number of lattice sites. Start off with the simple Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian: H H e i s e n b e r g = − J ∑ < i, j > Now we introduce a rotation in the system at site i by an angle θi around the z-axis: S i + ⟶ S i + e i θ i S i − ⟶ S i − e − i θ i Plugging these back into the Heisenberg Hamiltonian: H = − J ∑ < i, j > now let θij = θi - θj and expand around θij = 0 via a MacLaurin expansion only keeping terms up to second order in θij H ≈ H H e i s e n b e r g − J ∑ < i j > where the first term is independent of θ and the second term is a perturbation for small θ.

J i j s = i 2 is the z-component of the spin current operator T i j = 1 2 is the "spin kinetic energy"Consider now the case of identical twists, θx only that exist along nearest neighbor bonds along the x-axis Th

Betty T. Bennett

Betty T. Bennett was Distinguished Professor of Literature and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at American University, she was Dean of the School of Liberal Arts and Sciences and acting provost of Pratt Institute from 1979 to 1985. Among her numerous awards and honors, Bennett was a fellow of the National Endowment for the Humanities and fellow of American Council of Learned Societies, she won the Keats-Shelley Association of America - Distinguished Scholar Award in 1992 and was Founding President, Phi Beta Kappa, Zeta Chapter at American University. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Bennett graduated from Brooklyn College magna cum laude and received a master's degree and PhD in English and American literature from New York University. Bennett was an internationally known scholar on the life of Frankenstein author Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley and her circle of friends, she is best known for her three-volume The Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, which she edited and published from 1980 to 1988.

In a 1988 review of Dr. Bennett's final volume of the letters, author Brian Aldiss declared her work "a great contribution to scholarship, one that never need be done again." The books contain nearly 1,300 letters, some 500 of which were unpublished. For several years before her death, Bennett worked on a much anticipated literary biography of Shelley, scheduled to be released by Harvard University Press; as author: British War Poetry in the Age of Romanticism, 1793-1815 The Evidence of the Imagination: Studies of Interactions Between Life and Art in English Romantic Literature Mary Diana Dods, a Gentleman and a Scholar Shelley: Poet and Legislator of the World Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley: An Introduction Mary Shelley in Her Times As editor or co-editor: The Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley The Mary Shelley Reader Mythological Dramas: Proserpine and Midas Selected Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley Lives of the Great Romantics, Volume 3, Godwin and Mary Shelley by Their Contemporaries Betty Bennett's Faculty Page

Amelia E. Johnson

Amelia E. Johnson was a writer of novels, short fiction and poetry, born in Toronto, Canada; as an editor she sought to encourage other writers with African American ancestry by publishing their works in a short periodical. Writing under the name Mrs. A. E. Johnson, her approach to fiction has been compared to Emma Dunham Kelley and Paul Laurence Dunbar, focusing on the social circumstances of her characters rather than identifying ethnic or "racial" aspects; the study of her works by literary critics after a century of obscurity renewed interest in Johnson, though she had been praised by her contemporaries. Johnson's works include children's literature, Sunday school fiction, three novels: Clarence and Corrinne, the first Black author to be published by the American Baptist Publication Society of Philadelphia, The Hazeley Family, Martina Meriden, she was married to a well-known Baptist minister, the Rev. Harvey Johnson, whom she met after moving to Boston in the United States, she published in many well-known Black print venues, such as The Baptist Messenger, The American Baptist, Our Women and Children.

She is the English translator of "Sleeping Beauty" by Charles Perrault In 1887, she published The Joy and, in 1888, she published The Ivy. These short-lived magazines targeted young African Americans and educated them about their culture, The Joy targeting young girls with stories and The Ivy spreading awareness of African American history. Works by Amelia E. Johnson at Project Gutenberg

1928 Greek legislative election

Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 19 August 1928. The result was a victory for the Liberal Party; the Venizelists entered the elections as a coalition of five "parties of the liberals" under the leadership of Eleftherios Venizelos. These parties were the Democratic Union under the leadership of Alexandros Papanastasiou, the National Democratic Party led by Georgios Kondylis, the Conservative Democratic Party under Andreas Michalakopoulos and the Progressive Union under the leadership of Konstantinos Zavitsanos; because he wanted to follow an independent line from Venizelos, Georgios Kafantaris together with some personal friends and various dissatisfied liberals founded the Progressive Party. The anti-Venizelist movement went into the elections divided as the People's Party, the Freethinkers' Party and a few independent royalists who put themselves up for election; the former dictator, Theodoros Pangalos, stood for election in Athens as chief of the National Union. In addition there were a large number of independent candidates.

The Communist Party of Greece entered the elections as the United Front

John Fedorowicz

John Peter Fedorowicz is an American International Grandmaster of chess, a chess writer from the The Bronx, New York. He learned to play chess in 1972, inspired by the Fischer–Spassky World Championship Match coverage on TV and as an enthusiastic youngster, made rapid progress to become co-winner of the 1977 U. S. Junior Championship and outright winner in 1978. Fedorowicz, or "The Fed" as he is affectionately known on the chess circuit, continued to impress and in 1984 tied for third place in the U. S. Championships, tied for second place at Hastings in 1984–85, tied for second place at Dortmund in 1986, he represented the U. S. at the 1986 Dubai Chess Olympiad and scored well, earning himself the grandmaster title the same year. Since becoming a grandmaster, he has established himself as one of the leading players from United States, chalking up victories at Cannes 1987, Sesimbra 1987, Wijk aan Zee 1990, he has won open tournaments, including the New York Open 1989 and the U. S. Open and the World Open in Philadelphia.

At Stockholm in 1990, he finished second to Alexei Shirov. Fedorowicz has captained the U. S. Olympiad team on two occasions and has acted as a second to World Championship candidate Gata Kamsky, he has written or co-written a number of chess books and many articles for magazines and on-line publishers. By way of hobbies, he enjoys reading, cooking and watching sports and a number of other board games, including Monopoly and Scrabble; as an active'New Yorker', he spends much of his time in the community, teaching chess to children, giving private lessons, attending chess camps. Fedorowicz, John; the Complete Benko Gambit. Summit. ISBN 978-0945806141. Fedorowicz, John; the English Attack. Sterling. ISBN 978-0945806141. John Fedorowicz player profile and games at A Tribute to Chess and John Fedorowicz