A surface lift is a means of cable transport for snow sports in which skiers and snowboarders remain on the ground as they are pulled uphill. Once prevalent, they have been overtaken in popularity by higher-capacity aerial lifts like chairlifts and the gondola lift. Today, surface lifts are most found on beginner slopes and small ski areas, they are utilized at glacier skiing resorts because their supports can be anchored in glacier ice due to the lower forces. Surface lifts have many disadvantages compared to aerial lifts: they require more passenger skill, the surface must be continuous, they impede skiable terrain, are slow in speed, of limited capacity. Surface lifts have two advantages over aerial lifts: they can be exited before the lift reaches the top, they can continue operating in wind conditions that are too strong for a chairlift; the first surface lift was built in 1908 by German Robert Winterhalder in Schollach/Eisenbach and started operations February 14th, 1908. A steam-powered toboggan tow, 950 feet in length, was built in Truckee, California, in 1910.
The first skier-specific tow in North America was installed in 1933 by Alec Foster at Shawbridge in the Laurentians outside Montreal, Quebec. The Shawbridge tow was copied at Woodstock, Vermont, in New England, in 1934 by Bob and Betty Royce, proprietors of the White Cupboard Inn, their tow was driven by the rear wheel of a Ford Model A. Wallace "Bunny" Bertram took it over for the second season, improved the operation, renamed it from Ski-Way to Ski Tow, moved it to what became the eastern fringe of Vermont's major southern ski areas, a regional resort still operating as Suicide Six, their relative simplicity made tows widespread and contributed to an explosion of the sport in the United States and Europe. Before tows, only people willing to walk uphill could ski. Nonathletic people could participate increasing the appeal of the sport. Within five years, more than 100 tow ropes were operating in North America. A rope tow consists of a cable or rope running through a bullwheel at the bottom and one at the top, powered by an engine at one end.
In the simplest case, a rope tow is where passengers grab hold of a rope and are pulled along while standing on their skis or snowboards and are pulled up a hill. The grade of this style of tow is limited by passenger grip strength and the fact that sheaves cannot be used. A development of the simple rope tow is the handle tow, where plastic or metal handles are permanently attached to the rope; these handles. Steeper and longer tows require a series of pulleys to support the rope at waist height and hence require the use of some sort of "tow gripper". Several were designed and used in the 1930s and 40s, but the most successful was the "nutcracker" attached to a harness around the hips. To this is attached a clamp, much like the nutcracker from which it derives its name, which the rider attaches to the rope; this eliminates the need to hold on to the rope directly. This system was used on many fields worldwide from the 1940s, remains popular at'club fields' in New Zealand; this type of ski lift is referred to as a nutcracker tow.
A J-bar or T-bar lift is employed for low-capacity slopes in small local areas. It consists of an aerial cable loop running over a series of wheels, powered by an engine at one end. Hanging from the rope are a series of vertical recoiling cables, each attached to a J- or T-shaped bar measuring about a meter in both dimensions; the horizontal bar is placed behind the skier's buttocks or between the snowboarder's legs, pushes the passengers uphill while they slide across the ground. Invented in the 1930s, J-bars were installed in the 1930s in North America and Australia, with the Ski Hoist at Charlotte Pass in Australia dating from 1938. J-bars have been superseded by T-bars; the first T-bar lift in the United States was installed in 1940 at the Pico Mountain ski area. It was considered a great improvement over the rope tow. An earlier home-grown, T-bar was installed at Rib Mountain, Wisconsin, in 1937; the platter lift consists of an aerial steel rope loop running over a series of wheels, powered by an engine at one end.
Hanging from the rope overhead are spaced vertical poles or cables attached to a plastic button or platter, placed between the skiers legs and pulls the skier uphill. Snowboarders place the platter behind the top of their front leg or in front of their chest under their rear arm and hold it in position with their hands. One type of platter lift is the detachable surface lift known as a Poma lift, after the corporation which introduced them. Unlike other platter lifts, which are similar to T-bars and J-bars with the stick attached to a spring box by a retractable cord, Pomas have a detachable grip to the tow cable with the button connected to the grip by a semi-rigid pole; because they are detachable, most Pomas operate at speeds of around 4 metres per second, while platters and T-bars average 2.5 m/s. When a Poma's grip attaches to the cable, the passenger's acceleration is lessened by the spring-loaded pole. A magic carpet is a conveyor belt installed at the level of the snow; some include a tunnel.
Passengers slide onto the belt at the base of the hill and stand with skis or snowboard facing forward. The moving belt pulls the passengers uphill. At the top, the belt pushes the passengers onto the snow and they slide away, they are easier to use than T-bar lifts and Poma lifts
Jaca is a city of northeastern Spain in the province of Huesca, located near the Pyrenees and the border with France. Jaca is an ancient fort on the Aragón River, situated at the crossing of two great early medieval routes, one from Pau to Zaragoza. Jaca was the city out of which the Kingdom of Aragon developed, it was the capital of Aragon until 1097 and the capital of Jacetania. Besides Jaca town, there are a number of outlying villages in Jaca's municipality, including the ski resort of Astún; the origins of the city are obscure, but its name is of Lacetani origin, mentioned by Strabo as one of the most celebrated of the numerous small tribes inhabiting the Ebro basin. Strabo adds that their territory lay on the site of the wars in the 1st century BC between Sertorius and Pompey. According to the atlas of the ancient Greek and Roman worlds Jaca was a town where minted coins were made from the second half of the 2nd century BC, a small number of which are now in the British Museum; the coins show an unidentified bearded head to the right with an inscription to the left and have an image of a dolphin.
The reverse side depicts a horseman carrying a spear to the right, with an inscription below in Iberian reading iaka. It is unknown. Ramiro I of Aragon granted it the title of City. In 1063 it was the site of the Synod of Jaca. On December 12–13 1930 the Jaca uprising, a mutiny whose leaders demanded abolition of the monarchy, was suppressed with some difficulty, it was an early event. Jaca boasts several medieval walls and towers surrounding the 11th-century Romanesque Jaca Cathedral; the Jaca citadel, a fortification dating to the late 16th century, is home to a colony of rock sparrows. The Diocesan Museum of Jaca protects Romanesque and Gothic frescoes, some of which were found in the most remote locations in the Jaca district. Jaca is a tourist destination in the region for summer holidays and winter sports. Starting in the early 1970s, the city was transformed from being a small provincial and garrison town to become the gateway to a mid-tier mountain sports area with two major winter resorts within a 30 km drive of the city.
The accompanying urban and infrastructure development in the 1970s and 1980s was controversial, with many claiming that the town lost a lot of its original charm and authenticity to the interests of developers. The development experienced by the city, with the construction of a nationally known ice-skating rink, a small convention centre and countless second residences had a profound impact on the economy of the Valley, where many of its inhabitants evolved from small-scale subsistence farmera in Jaca and the surrounding villages, to become part of a tertiary economy. Jaca was the host city of the 1995 Winter Universiades; the city hosted the 2007 European Youth Olympic Winter Festival. Its popularity for winter sports has been a motivating factor in the city's failed bids for the 1998 Winter Olympics, 2002 Winter Olympics and 2010 Winter Olympics, which were awarded to Nagano, Salt Lake City and Vancouver, it was again the applicant city of Spain for the 2014 Winter Olympics, but the bid failed again when it was not selected as a candidate city and the games were awarded to Sochi.
Diocese of Jaca Ascara Castiello de Jaca Official website Diocesan Museum of Jaca Jaca: Useful information about tourism and lodgings
Vallter 2000 is a ski resort located in the Vallter valley, close to Setcases, Catalonia. The resort has an alpine ski area; as its name suggests is placed in the Ter River its axial zone. Framed by the peaks of Bastiments, Gra de Fajol and Pic de la Dona, the resort occupies the northern part of the Ulldeter circus and western of the Morens. Station ranges from 2,000 to 2,500 meters, although the basic service and the main car park are not located at lower elevation but from around 2200 meters, from which emerge all lifts except two; the resort represents an important economical factor for the Camprodon Valley, has contributed increasing the tourist attraction to the villages in the area. The elevation of the resort allows for more snow than in other resorts, as well as a conservation of the snow falling quite good, although the orientation is not north; the station is equipped with a snowmaking system. Official website
Alto Campoo is a ski resort in the Cantabrian Mountains of northern Spain. The resort is located in the Cantabrian comarca of Campoo; the source of the river Ebro is near the resort in the town of Fontibre. With 28 kilometres of marked pistes, it is one of the biggest resorts of the Cantabrian Mountains; the highest point is Cuchillón peak, at 2,250 metres above sea level, with a vertical drop of 600 metres. The base of the resort is a purpose-built town called Brañavieja which includes several apartments and is situated at 1,650 metres above sea level. From there a four-seat chair lift provides the main access for the resort; the resort itself occupies a high mountain valley. The valley is accessible by car, with a parking and service area at its base from where the lifts depart. Many of the resort's lifts are modern and of high capacity; the resort has: 5 chair lifts. 8 ski tows. The resort offers 23 pistes of different difficulties: 4 beginners. 9 easy. 10 intermediate. 2 restaurants. 1 skiing school.
1 snow gardens for children. 1 kindergarten 1 ski hiring stores. The Alto Campoo climb has been used in three stages of the Vuelta a España and the Colombian rider Antonio Agudelo was the first man to climb the mountain in the Vuelta. Http://www.altocampoo.com - Official resort site. Natura 2000
La Covatilla is a ski resort in the Central System of the Province of Salamanca, in Castile and León, Spain. The resort is in the municipality of La Hoya; the resort is known for having held a stage finish, on several occasions, of the Vuelta a España. The climb, that begins in Béjar, is over a distance of 19.9 km at an average gradient of 5.8%, with sections of up to 16.4%. Official site
A piste is a marked ski run or path down a mountain for snow skiing, snowboarding, or other mountain sports. This European term is synonymous with ` trail', ` slope', or ` groomed run' in North America; the word is pronounced using a long "e" sound. North Americans employ its common European antonym,'off piste', to describe backcountry skiing when referring to skiing outside approved areas of a ski resort. Pistes are maintained using tracked vehicles known as snowcats to compact or "groom" the snow to out trail conditions, remove moguls, redistribute snow to extend the ski season. Natural snow is augmented with snow making machines early in the season or when the snowpack is low. Grading is done by the resort, grades are relative to other trails within that resort; as such, they are not classified to an independent standard. In North America, a color–shape rating system is used to indicate the comparative difficulty of trails. Australia and New Zealand share the same rating system. Ski trail difficulty is measured by percent slope, not degree angle.
A 100% slope is a 45 degree angle. In general, beginner slopes are between 6% and 25%. Intermediate slopes are between 25% and 40%. Difficult slopes are 40% and up. However, this is just a general "rule of thumb." Although slope gradient is the primary consideration in assigning a trail difficulty rating, other factors come into play. A trail will be rated by its most difficult part if the rest of the trail is easy. Ski resorts assign ratings to their own trails, rating a trail compared only with other trails at that resort. Considered: width of the trail, sharpest turns, terrain roughness, whether the resort grooms the trail. In Europe, pistes are classified by a color-coded system; the actual color system differs in parts for each country - in all countries blue and black are used. Shapes are not always used - sometimes all ratings are circles as being defined in the basic rules of the German Skiing Association DSV; the three basic color codes of the DSV have been integrated into the national standards DIN 32912 in Germany and ÖNORM S 4610 f in Austria.
Slopes marked green, blue or red are groomed in all countries. All other classifications are not groomed. Sometimes slopes are marked dotted or as dashed lines, this signifies that the slope is not groomed; the ratings are: Beginner slopes. These are not marked trails, but tend to be large, open sloping areas at the base of the ski area or traverse paths between the main trails. Can sometimes be marked as a Green circle. Blue An easy trail, similar to the North American Green Circle, are always groomed, or on so shallow a slope as not to need it. The slope gradient shall not exceed 25% except for short wide sections with a higher gradient. Sometimes described as a blue square. Red An intermediate slope, similar to the North American Blue Square. Steeper, or narrower than a blue slope, these are groomed, unless the narrowness of the trail prohibits it; the slope gradient shall not exceed 40% except for short wide sections with a higher gradient. Sometimes marked as a red rectangle. Black An expert slope, equivalent to the North American Black Diamond or Double Black Diamond.
Steep, may not be groomed, or may be groomed for mogul skiing. In Austria and Switzerland black pistes are nearly always groomed, as non-groomed pistes are marked as skiroutes or itineraires. Black can be a wide classification, ranging from a slope marginally more difficult than a Red to steep avalanche chutes like the infamous Couloirs of Courchevel. France tends to have a higher limit between black. Sometimes marked as a black diamond. Double or triple black diamond Very or difficult piste. Orange Extremely difficult. Yellow, orange square, red diamond In recent years, many resorts reclassified some black slopes to yellow slopes; this signifies a skiroute or itineraire, an ungroomed and unpatrolled slope, off-piste skiing in a marked area. Famous examples are the Tortin slopes in Verbier. In Austria, skiroutes are marked with orange squares instead, it is common to mark those pistes with a red diamond or a red diamond with black edges. Alpine slope classification in Europe is less rigidly tied to slope angle than in North America.
A lower angle slope may be classified as more difficult than a steeper slope if, for instance, it is narrower and/or requires better skiing ability to carry speed through flatter sections while controlling speed through sharp hairpin turns, off-camber slope angles or exposed rock. Japan uses a color-coded system, but shapes do not accompany them; some resorts those catering to foreigners, use the North American or European color-coding system, adding to the confusion. When in doubt, check the map legend; the usual ratings are: Green Beginner slopes. These are near the base of the mountain, although some follow switchback routes down from the top. Red Intermediate slopes. At most ski areas in Japan, these constitute the majori
Cerler called Aramón Cerler, is a ski resort situated above the village of Cerler in the high Benasque Valley, near the town of Benasque in the central Pyrenees. Near Cerler are the highest peaks of the Pyrenees, Monte Perdido, Posets. Cerler is one of the highest resorts of the Pyrenees; the highest point is'Gallinero' peak, at 2650 m AMSL, giving a vertical drop of 1150 m. Cerler village, situated at 1500 m AMSL, forms the base of the resort and comprises a traditional nucleus and a purpose-built extension that includes several hotels and apartment complexes. From there a 4-seat chair lift provides the main access for the resort; the resort itself occupies two different high mountain valleys, defining two sectors: Cerler and Ampriu. Each sector is accessible by road and has a parking area, both sectors are linked by chair lifts. All of the resort's lifts are modern and of high capacity, the resort has: 9 chair lifts. 5 ski tows. 5 magic carpet lifts. total skiers: 24,800/hour The resort offers 65 pistes of different difficulties: 7 beginners.
16 easy. 25 intermediate. 14 expert. 4 restaurants. 3 skiing school. 1 snow gardens for children. 1 kindergarten 2 ski hiring stores. Http://www.aramon.com - Official resort site. Http://www.cerler.es - Cerler Benasque Guide