A paten, or diskos, is a small plate made of silver or gold, used to hold Eucharistic bread, to be consecrated during the Mass. It is used during the liturgy itself, while the reserved sacrament are stored in the tabernacle in a ciborium. In many Western liturgical denominations, the paten is either a simple saucer-like plate or a low bowl. A smaller style paten will have a depression that allows it to securely sit on top of the chalice, as shown in the illustration on the left here; the General Instruction of the Roman Missal lays down rules for patens: "Sacred vessels should be made from precious metal. If they are made from metal that rusts or from a metal less precious than gold, they should be gilded on the inside." However, provisions for vessels made from non-precious metals are made as well, provided they are "made from other solid materials which in the common estimation in each region are considered precious or noble."The communion-plate is by some called a paten. The English translation of the General Instruction of the Roman Missal approved by the English-speaking episcopal conferences and confirmed by the Holy See uses "communion-plate", not "paten", to speak of this object, which in the official Latin liturgical norms is called a patina, while a paten is called a patena.
Patens are used among Anglicans and Lutherans. In the United Methodist Church, during the Order for the Ordination of Elders, each elder receives a stole, along with a chalice and paten, from the bishop after the part of the liturgy in which the bishop lays his hands and prays over the ministerial candidates; this is because the newly ordained elders are now able to celebrate the Sacraments, such as Holy Communion. In the Methodist service of the Holy Communion, the bread is placed upon a paten during the offertory and once again after it consecrated following the fraction; the paten, along with the claice, lays on the altar during the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. In the Byzantine Rite Orthodox and Byzantine Rite Catholic Churches, the paten is called a diskos and is elevated by a stand permanently attached underneath; the diskos is more ornate than its Latin Rite counterpart, must always be made of gold or at least be gold-plated. The diskos may be engraved with an icon of Jesus Christ, the Nativity of Christ, the Cross, or most the Theotokos.
When a diskos is made, it is accompanied by a matching asterisk, a spoon, a spear. For Christians of Eastern church families, the diskos symbolises the Ever-virgin Mary, who received God the Word into her womb and gave birth to him, as well as the Tomb of Christ, which received his body after the Crucifixion and from which he resurrected. During the Divine Liturgy it is not only the Lamb, placed on the diskos, but particles to commemorate the Theotokos, the Saints, the living and the departed. Thus, on the diskos is represented the entire Church: the Church Militant and the Church Triumphant, arrayed around Christ. At the Great Entrance the deacon carries the Diskos, he kneels at the side of the Holy Table, the priest takes the diskos from him and places it on the Antimension. During the Anaphora, only the Lamb is consecrated. At Holy Communion, the clergy partake of their portions of the Lamb directly from the diskos, but for the Communion of the faithful, the remainder of the Lamb is cut into small portions and placed in the chalice, from which the priest distributes Communion using the spoon.
After Communion, the Deacon holds the diskos above the holy chalice and recites hymns of the Resurrection. He wipes the remaining particles into the chalices saying the words: "Wash away, O Lord, the sins of all those here commemorated, by Thy precious Blood, through the prayers of all Thy saints." Sometimes, when a bishop celebrates the Liturgy, a smaller diskos is prepared for him with a small prosphoron from which he takes particles to commemorate the living and the departed before the Great Entrance. During the Consecration of a Church, a diskos is used to hold the relics of the saints which will be sealed in the Holy Table and antimension by the bishop; when a priest is ordained, a portion of the Lamb will be placed on a small diskos and given to him, as a sign of the Sacred Mysteries which are being entrusted to his care. In the Russian tradition, there is a special liturgy of blessing used to sanctify a diskos before its first use at Liturgy; the diskos may be blessed together in a set with the other sacred vessels.
The blessing is done before beginning of the Liturgy of Preparation, after which the priest carries the diskos into the sanctuary and begins the liturgy, using the newly blessed vessel in that Liturgy. Up until the first time a diskos is used in the Divine Liturgy it is considered to be an ordinary vessel, may be touched by anyone. However, after having been used in the Divine Liturgy, a diskos may be touched only by a deacon, priest or bishop. A subdeacon may touch the sacred vessels, but only; when not in use, the chalice and all the sacred vessels should remain on the Table of Oblation, wrapped in their cloth bags—either sitting on top and covered with a cloth, or stored securely in a cabinet built into the prothesis. In the usage of the Alexandrian Rite, the diskos has a flat bottom with no foot. Additionally, it has a raised edge, forming a high rim, preventing particles of the offer
A prosphoron is a small loaf of leavened bread used in Orthodox Christian and Greek Catholic liturgies. The plural form is prosphora; the term meant any offering made to a temple, but in Orthodox Christianity it has come to mean the bread offered at the Divine Liturgy. Prosphoro is made from only four ingredients, wheat flour, yeast and water. Salt is still not used in the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem. Any member of the church, in good standing and whose conscience is clean may bake prosphora. In a parish church the women will take turns baking the prosphora, it is common but not necessary to go to confession before baking prosphora, it is done in the morning while fasting. Sometimes, special kitchen implements are used for making the prosphora which are used for no other purpose. There may be special prayers said before commencing, the baker tries to maintain a religious state of mind throughout saying the Jesus Prayer. Enough prosphora for a number of services are baked at the same time.
A prosphoron is made up of two separate round pieces of leavened dough which are placed one on top of another and baked together to form a single loaf. This double-loaf represents the two natures of Christ: divine. Before baking, each prosphoron is stamped with a special seal called sphragis or Panagiari bearing, among other things, the image of a cross with the Greek letters IC XC NIKA around the arms of the cross; this impression serves as a guide for the priest who will be cutting it. In the Slavic practice five smaller prosphora are used. In the Greek practice one larger prosphoron is used. In the part of the Divine Liturgy known as the Liturgy of Preparation, a cube is cut from the center of the prosphoron, is referred to as the Lamb, it is this Lamb, consecrated to become the Body of Christ and from it both the clergy and the faithful will receive Holy Communion, while the remainder of the prosphora is cut up for the antidoron, the blessed bread, distributed at the end of the Liturgy. The motto "the loaf of Nature's kitchen table," a common metaphor for returning thanks and agape back to nature, is derived from prosphora.
Prosphora can vary in size and imprinted design in different liturgical traditions. The Slavic traditions use five small prosphora with a simpler stamp, while the Greek-Byzantine tradition uses one large prosphoron with a more complex stamp, indicating the place from which the Lamb is to be taken and the places from which particles are removed for each of the remaining commemorations. In addition to the Lamb, particles are removed from the prosphoron to commemorate the following: The Theotokos Nine ranks of Angels and Saints The living The departedThe Slavic tradition uses a separate prosphoron for each of these, sometimes with a different seal for each prosphoron—or at least a distinctive one for the Panagia; the laity may present smaller prosphora together with a list of the faithful living and departed whom they wish to have commemorated during the Liturgy. From each of these smaller prosphora the priest will remove a triangular piece as well as several smaller particles while he prays for each of the persons listed.
The Prosphoron from which a particle is removed in honor of the Theotokos is called Panagia and is solemnly blessed in her honour during the Divine Liturgy. This prosphoron is stamped with an icon of the Theotokos. Before cutting this prosphoron, the priest makes the Sign of the Cross over it three times with the litugical spear, saying: In honour and commemoration of our most blessed Lady, the Theotokos and Ever-virgin Mary, he removes a large, triangular particle and places it to the side of the Lamb, as he says: "At Thy right hand stood the queen, arrayed in vesture wrought of gold and diverse colours." The remainder of the prosphoron is blessed over the holy table, before the blessing of the antidoron, with the phrase "Great is the name of the Holy Trinity." Today, this practice is performed only in some monasteries. After the Liturgy, a triangular portion is cut from the prosphoron by the refectorian; the Panagia is cut in half and laid crust downwards on a dish in a small table in the refectory.
After the meal, the refectorian takes off his epanokamelavkion and kamilavkion, saying, "Bless me, holy Fathers, pardon me a sinner," to which the brotherhood replies, "May God pardon and have mercy on you." Taking the Panagia in his fingertips, he lifts it up while saying, "Great is the Name," and the community continues with "of the Holy Trinity." The rite continues with "All-holy Mother of God, help us" with the reply "At her prayers, O God, have mercy and save us." Two hymns are sung while the refectorian, accompanied by a cleric with a hand censer, offers the Panagia to those assembled. Each takes a piece between his finger and thumb, passes it through the incense, eats it. There are loaves which are baked for blessing and distribution to the faithful outside of the Divine Liturgy; these are gener
An archpriest is an ecclesiastical title for certain priests with supervisory duties over a number of parishes. The term is most used in Eastern Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholic Churches and may be somewhat analogous to a monsignor in the Latin Church, but in the Eastern Churches an archpriest wears an additional vestment and a pectoral cross, one becomes an archpriest via a liturgical ceremony; the term may be used in the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church instead of vicar forane. In the 16th and 17th centuries, during the persecution of Catholics in England, an archpriest appointed from Rome had authority over all of the church's secular clergy in the country. In the present-day Church of England, a rural or area dean resembles an archpriest. In the Catholic Latin Rite traditionally a priest's first Mass has an archpriest assisting the newly ordained priest, functioning as the deacon otherwise does, but this is only for that event. In ancient times, the archdeacon was the head of the diaconate of a diocese, as is still the case in the Eastern Orthodox Church, while the archpriest was first the chief of the presbyterium of the diocese.
His duties included deputising for the Bishop in spiritual matters. In the western church, by the Middle Ages, the title had evolved and was that of the priest of the principal parish among several local parishes; this priest had general charge of worship in this archpresbyterate, the parishioners of the smaller parishes had to attend Sunday Mass and hold baptisms at the principal parish while the subordinate parishes instead held daily mass and homilies. Exceptionally, the Pope could elevate one to the rank of archipresbyterate nullius, detached from any prelature, yet under a non-prelate, as happened in 1471 with the future abbacy and bishopric of Guastalla. By the time of the Council of Trent the office of archpriest was replaced by the office of vicar forane known in English as "dean"; the first recorded use of this meaning of the title comes from St Charles Borromeo's reforms in his own diocese. Unlike vicars general and vicars episcopal, vicars forane are not prelates, which means they do not possess ordinary power.
Their role is supervisory, they perform visitations for the bishop and report to the bishop or vicar general any problems in their vicariate. From late Elizabethan England until 1623, an Archpriest was appointed from Rome to oversee the Roman Catholic Church's mission in England, with authority over all secular clergy in the country; the title of archpriest has survived in Rome, in Malta and elsewhere, where it is now held by the rectors of the major basilicas. However, the title is honorary, reflecting the fact that these churches held archpriestly status in the past. There are four archpriests, for each of the four papal major basilicas in Rome, all of whom presently are bishops: Archbasilica of St. John Lateran Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls St. Peter's BasilicaMany churches in the world, other than basilicas, have the right to be governed by an archpriest, according to the specific historical tradition. Hence, the title is honorary. Today, the archpriest has no control over the subordinate clergy.
The use of "archpriest" in Roman Catholicism should not be confused with "protopriest", the senior Cardinal-Priest in the College of Cardinals. In the Church of England there is the Archpriest of Haccombe; the appointment was first made in AD 1315 and has been held since. It was confirmed by an Order in Council on 1 April 1913 under King George V; the title reflects the fact that the archpriest has the right to sit beside the bishop and acknowledges no authority below that of the Archbishop of Canterbury, although today, it is more appropriate to go through the usual channels of the church's hierarchy. Haccombe is a village in Devon, near Newton Abbot where the parish is combined with that of Stoke-in-Teignhead with Combe-in-Teignhead. There is an hereditary patron for the Church of Haccombe; the modern office most resembling that of archpriest is the role of rural dean or area dean. Like the archpriest of old, these officers have supervisory duties, but not ordinary jurisdiction, are entitled to carry out visitations of subordinate parishes when so commissioned.
With this in mind, although the Archpriest of Haccombe holds a unique role in the Church of England, it must be considered analogous with certain incumbencies which bear the title "Dean" regardless of whether or not their incumbent is the actual rural or area dean. One example of this historical oddity is the office of Dean of Bocking in Essex. Archpriest protopope or protopresbyter, is a clerical rank, a title of honor given to non-monastic priests and is conferred by a bishop with the laying on of hands and prayer. An archpriest wears an epigonation, a vestment worn only by bishops. An archpriest wears a pectoral cross both as part of his street clothes and when vested; the ceremony for making an archpriest is analogous to other clerical promotions bestowed with cheirothesia: at the little entrance of the divine liturgy, the candidate is conducted to the ambo in the middle of the church where the bishop is at the time, the bishop blesses him and says a prayer addressed to Christ asking to "... endue our brother with Thy Grace, adorn him with virtue to stand at the head of the Presbyters of Thy people, a
The Antimins, is one of the most important furnishings of the altar in many Eastern Christian liturgical traditions. It is a rectangular piece of cloth of either linen or silk decorated with representations of the Descent of Christ from the Cross, the Four Evangelists, inscriptions related to the Passion. A small relic of a martyr is sewn into it, it is not permitted to celebrate the Eucharist without an antimins. The antimins is kept in the centre of the Holy Table and is unfolded only during the Divine Liturgy, before the Anaphora. At the end of the Liturgy, the antimins is folded in thirds, in thirds again, so that when it is unfolded the creases form a cross; when folded, the antimins sits in the centre of another larger cloth called the eileton —similar to the Western corporal, except it is red in colour—which is folded around it in the same manner, encasing it completely. A flattened natural sponge is kept inside the antimins, used to collect any crumbs which might fall onto the Holy Table.
When the antimins and eileton are folded, the Gospel Book is laid on top of them. The antimins must be signed by a bishop; the antimins, together with the chrism remain the property of the bishop, are the means by which a bishop indicates his permission for the Holy Mysteries to be celebrated in his absence. It is, in effect, a church's licence to hold divine services. Whenever a bishop visits a church or monastery under his jurisdiction, he will enter the altar and inspect the antimins to be sure that it has been properly cared for, that it is in fact the one that he issued. Besides the bishop, no one is allowed to touch an antimins except a priest or deacon, because it is a consecrated object, they should be vested when they do so—the deacon should be vested, the priest should vest in at least the epitrachil and epimanikia; the antimins may function as a substitute altar, in that a priest may celebrate the Eucharist on it in the absence of a properly consecrated altar. In emergencies and persecution, the antimins thus serves a important pastoral need.
If the priest celebrated at a consecrated altar, the sacred elements were placed only on the eileton, but in current practice the priest always uses the antimins on a consecrated altar that has relics sealed in it. At the Divine Liturgy, during the Ektenias that precede the Great Entrance, the eileton is opened and the antimins is opened three-quarters of the way, leaving the top portion folded. During the Ektenia of the Catechumens, when the deacon says, "That He may reveal unto them the Gospel of righteousness," the priest unfolds the last portion of the antimins, revealing the mystery of Christ's death and resurrection. After the Entrance, the chalice and diskos are placed on the antimins and the Gifts are consecrated; the antimins remains unfolded until after all have received Holy Communion and the chalice and diskos are taken back to the Prothesis. The deacon must carefully inspect the antimins to be sure there are no crumbs left on it, it is folded up, the eileton is folded, the Gospel Book placed on top of it.
A wooden tablet, the ţablîtho, is the liturgical equivalent of the antimins in the churches of Syriac tradition. However, it is no longer used by the Antiochian Orthodox Church or the Assyrian Church of the East and Chaldean Catholic Church. In the Ethiopian Tawahedo Church, the tâbot is functionally similar to the tablitho. However, this word is used in the Ge'ez language to describe the Ark of the Covenant; the Ark is symbolically represented by a casket that sits on the altar. In the Coptic Orthodox church, a wooden tablet, the maqta‘ or al-lawh al-muqaddas, is the liturgical equivalent of the antimins in contemporary usage, it is decorated with a cross and bears letters in Coptic which signify "Jesus Christ Son of God" in the four squares between the arms of the cross. The Armenian Orthodox tradition has the antimins, known as gorbura. Consecration of an Antimins Thabilitho Tabot Altar stone Corporal Antimensium article in the Catholic Encyclopedia Coptic Antimensium article in the Claremont Coptic Encyclopedia
The Roman Rite is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church, as well as the most popular and widespread Rite in all of Christendom, is one of the Western/Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church. The Roman Rite became the predominant rite used by the Western Church. Many local variants, not amounting to distinctive Rites, existed in the medieval manuscripts, but have been progressively reduced since the invention of printing, most notably since the reform of liturgical law in the 16th century at the behest of the Council of Trent and more following the Second Vatican Council; the Roman Rite has been adapted over the centuries and the history of its Eucharistic liturgy can be divided into three stages: the Pre-Tridentine Mass, Tridentine Mass and Mass of Paul VI. The Mass of Paul VI is the current form of the Mass in the Catholic Church, first promulgated in the 1969 edition of the Roman Missal, it is considered the ordinary form of the mass, intended for most contexts.
The Tridentine Mass, as promulgated in the 1962 Roman Missal, may be used as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, according to norms set in the 2007 papal document Summorum Pontificum. The Roman Rite is noted for its sobriety of expression. In its Tridentine form, it was noted for its formality: the Tridentine Missal minutely prescribed every movement, to the extent of laying down that the priest should put his right arm into the right sleeve of the alb before putting his left arm into the left sleeve. Concentration on the exact moment of change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ has led, in the Roman Rite, to the consecrated Host and the chalice being shown to the people after the Words of Institution. If, as was once most common, the priest offers Mass while facing ad apsidem, ad orientem if the apse is at the east end of the church, he shows them to the people, who are behind him, by elevating them above his head; as each is shown, a bell is rung and, if incense is used, the host and chalice are incensed.
Sometimes the external bells of the church are rung as well. Other characteristics that distinguish the Roman Rite from the rites of the Eastern Catholic Churches are frequent genuflections, kneeling for long periods, keeping both hands joined together. In his 1912 book on the Roman Mass, Adrian Fortescue wrote: "Essentially the Missal of Pius V is the Gregorian Sacramentary. We find the prayers of our Canon in the treatise de Sacramentis and allusions to it in the 4th century. So our Mass goes back, without essential change, to the age when it first developed out of the oldest liturgy of all, it is still redolent of that liturgy, of the days when Caesar ruled the world and thought he could stamp out the faith of Christ, when our fathers met together before dawn and sang a hymn to Christ as to a God. The final result of our inquiry is that, in spite of unsolved problems, in spite of changes, there is not in Christendom another rite so venerable as ours." In a footnote he added: "The prejudice that imagines that everything Eastern must be old is a mistake.
Eastern rites have been modified too. No Eastern Rite now used is as archaic as the Roman Mass."In the same book, Fortescue acknowledged that the Roman Rite underwent profound changes in the course of its development. His ideas are summarized in the article on the "Liturgy of the Mass" that he wrote for the Catholic Encyclopedia in which he pointed out that the earliest form of the Roman Mass, as witnessed in Justin Martyr's 2nd-century account, is of Eastern type, while the Leonine and Gelasian Sacramentaries, of about the 6th century, "show us what is our present Roman Mass". In the interval, there was what Fortescue called "a radical change", he quoted the theory of A. Baumstark that the Hanc Igitur, Quam oblationem, Supra quæ and Supplices, the list of saints in the Nobis quoque were added to the Roman Canon of the Mass under "a mixed influence of Antioch and Alexandria", that "St. Leo I began to make these changes. During the same time the prayers of the faithful before the Offertory disappeared, the kiss of peace was transferred to after the Consecration, the Epiklesis was omitted or mutilated into our "Supplices" prayer.
Of the various theories suggested to account for this it seems reasonable to say with Rauschen: "Although the question is by no means decided there is so much in favour of Drews's theory that for the present it must be considered the right one. We must admit that between the years 400 and 500 a great transformation was made in the Roman Canon". In the same article Fortescue went on to speak of the many alterations that the Roman Rite of Mass underwent from the 7th century on, in particular through the infusion of Gallican elements, noticeable chiefly in the variations for the course of the year; this infusion Fortescue called the "last change since Gregory the Great". The Eucharistic Prayer used in the Byzantine Rite is attributed to Saint John Chrysostom, who died in 404 two centuries before Pope Gregory the Great; the East Syrian Eucharistic Prayer of Ad
The Anaphora is the most solemn part of the Divine Liturgy, or the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, during which the offerings of bread and wine are consecrated as the body and blood of Christ. This is the usual name for this part of the Liturgy in Greek-speaking Eastern Christianity. In western Christian traditions which have a comparable rite, the Anaphora is more called the Roman Canon in the Latin liturgy, or the Eucharistic Prayer for the three additional modern anaphoras; when the Roman Rite had a single Eucharistic Prayer, it was called the Canon of the Mass. "Anaphora" is a Greek word meaning a "carrying back" or a "carrying up", so an "offering". In the sacrificial language of the Greek version of the Old Testament known as the Septuagint, προσφέρειν is used of the offerer's bringing the victim to the altar, ἀναφέρειν is used of the priest's offering up the selected portion upon the altar. To describe the structure of the Anaphoras as it became standardized from the 4th century, we can look at the structure of the anaphoras in the Antiochene family of liturgies, which display an order and logic that finds no equal elsewhere.
This structure is still valid, with some significant variations typical of each rite, for the Catholic Church and Oriental Orthodox Church, while it was modified, both in the pattern and in the underlying theology, during the Protestant Reformation. Beginning with the Oxford Movement of the 1840s and after the Liturgical Reform Movement of the 1950s, a systematic examination of historic anaphoras began and this in turn has caused the reform of many Eucharistic prayers within mainline Protestant denominations; the structure of the standardized 4th century Antiochene anaphora, placed after the offertory and the Creed and comes before the Lord's Prayer, the Elevation and the Communion rites, can be summarized as follows: Sursum Corda or Opening Dialogue: it is the introductory dialogue that opens with a liturgical greeting by the priest and the response of the congregation or choir. Classic call and response ties together the response of the priest and congregation to the Glory of God; the priest exhorts those participating in the liturgy to lift up their hearts.
When they express their agreement, he introduces the great theme of thanksgiving, in Greek εὐχαριστία, saying: "Let us give thanks to the Lord our God.". This hymn is introduced by the expression of the desire of the community to unite itself with the heavenly Angelic liturgy. Post-Sanctus: is a prayer, it can be short or resume the great theme of thanksgiving, giving ground for the following requests. Institution narrative: is an account of the Last Supper, in which are pronounced the Words of Institution spoken by Jesus Christ, changing the bread and wine into his Body and Blood. Anamnesis: is the statement in which the Church refers to the memorial character of the Eucharist itself and/or to the Passion and Ascension of Christ. Oblation: is the offering to the Lord of the sacrifice of the Eucharistic bread and wine and of the prayers and thanksgiving of faithfuls. Epiclesis: is the "invocation" or "calling down from on high" by which the priest invokes the Holy Spirit upon the Eucharistic bread and wine.
In this section there is the request to God to grant to the believers the same glory given to Mary and to the saints. The list of the living people who are commemorated includes the name of the current pope, bishop recognized by the community; this structure can have variations in liturgical families different from the Antiochene one: in the East Syriac Rites the Epiclesis is just before the final doxology and in one case the Institution narrative is missing. An Epiclesis can be found before the Institution narrative in the Alexandrian Rite, this place of the Epiclesis is the standard in the Roman Canon and in the Latin rites; the anaphoras are addressed by the Church to the Father if in antiquity there were cases of Eucharistic prayers addressed to Christ, as the anaphora of Gregory Nazianzen or the Third Anaphora of St. Peter. Most parts of the anaphora, as the Preface, the Institution narrative, the Epiclesis, are always reserved to the celebrant, a bishop or a priest, while the faithfuls sung the Sanctus and some acclamations, which can be more or less frequent and length according to the specific rite.