In Greek mythology, Minos was the first King of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa. Every nine years, he made King Aegeus pick seven young boys and seven young girls to be sent to Daedalus's creation, the labyrinth, to be eaten by the Minotaur. After his death, Minos became a judge of the dead in the underworld; the Minoan civilization of Crete has been named after him by the archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. "Minos" is interpreted as the Cretan word for "king", or, by a euhemerist interpretation, the name of a particular king, subsequently used as a title. There is a name in Minoan Linear A mi-nu-te. According to La Marle's reading of Linear A, criticised as arbitrary, we should read mwi-nu ro-ja on a Linear A tablet; the royal title ro-ja is read on several documents, including on stone libation tables from the sanctuaries, where it follows the name of the main god, Asirai. La Marle suggests that the name mwi-nu is expected to mean'ascetic' as Sanskrit muni, fits this explanation to the legend about Minos sometimes living in caves on Crete.
If royal succession in Minoan Crete descended matrilinearly— from the queen to her firstborn daughter— the queen's husband would have become the Minos, or war chief. Some scholars see a connection between Minos and the names of other ancient founder-kings, such as Menes of Egypt, Mannus of Germany, Manu of India, with Meon of Phrygia and Lydia, Mizraim of Egypt in the Book of Genesis and the Canaanite deity Baal. Minos appears in Greek literature as the king of Knossos as early as Homer's Odyssey. Thucydides tells, he reigned over the islands of the Aegean Sea three generations before the Trojan War. He lived at Knossos for periods of nine years, where he received instruction from Zeus in the legislation which he gave to the island, he was the founder of its naval supremacy. On the Athenian stage Minos is a cruel tyrant, the heartless exactor of the tribute of Athenian youths to feed to the Minotaur. To reconcile the contradictory aspects of his character, as well as to explain how Minos governed Crete over a period spanning so many generations, two kings of the name of Minos were assumed by poets and rationalizing mythologists, such as Diodorus Siculus and Plutarch— "putting aside the mythological element", as he claims— in his life of Theseus.
According to this view, the first King Minos was the son of Zeus and Europa and brother of Rhadamanthys and Sarpedon. This was the'good' king Minos, he was held in such esteem by the Olympian gods that, after he died, he was made one of the three'Judges of the Dead', alongside his brother Rhadamanthys and half-brother Aeacus; the wife of this'Minos I' was said to be Itone or Crete, he had a single son named Lycastus, his successor as King of Crete. Lycastus had a son named Minos, after his grandfather, born by Lycastus' wife, daughter of Corybas. This'Minos II'— the'bad' king Minos— is the son of this Lycastus, was a far more colorful character than his father and grandfather, it would be to this Minos that we owe the myths of Theseus, Pasiphaë, the Minotaur, Daedalus and Nisus. Unlike Minos I, Minos II fathered numerous children, including Androgeus, Deucalion, Ariadne and Glaucus — all born to him by his wife Pasiphaë. Through Deucalion, he was the grandfather of King Idomeneus. Doubtless there is a considerable historical element in the legend in the Phoenician origin of Europa.
Minos himself is said to have died at Camicus in Sicily, whither he had gone in pursuit of Daedalus, who had given Ariadne the clue by which she guided Theseus through the labyrinth. He was killed by the daughter of Cocalus, king of Agrigentum, who poured boiling water over him while he was taking a bath. Subsequently his remains were sent back to the Cretans, who placed them in a sarcophagus, on, inscribed: "The tomb of Minos, the son of Zeus." The earlier legend knows Minos as a beneficent ruler and suppressor of piracy. His constitution was said to have formed the basis of that of Lycurgus for Sparta. In accordance with this, after his death he became judge of the shades in the underworld. In versions and Rhadamanthus were made judges as well, with Minos leading as the "appeals court" judge. By his wife, Pasiphaë, he fathered Ariadne, Deucalion, Glaucus, Catreus and Xenodice. By a nymph, Pareia, he had four sons, Nephalion and Philolaus, who were killed by Heracles in revenge for the murder of the latter's two companions.
By Dexithea, one of the Telchines, he had a son called Euxanthius. By Androgeneia of Phaestus he had Asterion, who commanded the Cretan contingent in the war between Dionysus and the Indians. Given as his children are Euryale the mother of Orion with Poseidon, Pholegander, eponym of the island Pholegandros. Minos, along with his brothers and Sarpedon, were raised by King Asterion of Crete; when Asterion died, his throne was claimed by Minos who banished Sarpedon and, according to some sources, Rhadamanthys too. Asterion, king of Crete, adopted the three sons of Zeus and Europa, Minos and Rhadamanthus. According to the Odyssey
In Greek mythology, the Minotaur is a mythical creature portrayed in Classical times with the head and tail of a bull and the body of a man or, as described by Roman poet Ovid, a being "part man and part bull". He dwelt at the center of the Labyrinth, an elaborate maze-like construction designed by the architect Daedalus and his son Icarus, on the command of King Minos of Crete; the Minotaur was killed by the Athenian hero Theseus. The term Minotaur derives from the Ancient Greek Μῑνώταυρος, a compound of the name Μίνως and the noun ταύρος "bull", translated as " Bull of Minos". In Crete, the Minotaur was known by the name Asterion, a name shared with Minos' foster-father."Minotaur" was a proper noun in reference to this mythical figure. The use of "minotaur" as a common noun to refer to members of a generic species of bull-headed creatures developed much in 20th-century fantasy genre fiction. After he ascended the throne of the island of Crete, Minos competed with his brothers to rule. Minos prayed to the sea god, to send him a snow-white bull, as a sign of support.
He was to kill the bull to show honor to the deity, but decided to keep it instead because of its beauty. He thought Poseidon would not care if he sacrificed one of his own. To punish Minos, Poseidon made Pasiphaë, Minos's wife, fall in love with the bull. Pasiphaë had craftsman Daedalus make a hollow wooden cow, climbed inside it in order to mate with the white bull; the offspring was the monstrous Minotaur. Pasiphaë nursed him, but he grew and became ferocious, being the unnatural offspring of a woman and a beast. Minos, after getting advice from the oracle at Delphi, had Daedalus construct a gigantic labyrinth to hold the Minotaur, its location was near Minos' palace in Knossos. The Minotaur is represented in Classical art with the body of a man and the head and tail of a bull. One of the figurations assumed by the river spirit Achelous in seducing Deianira is as a man with the head of a bull, according to Sophocles' Trachiniai. From Classical times through the Renaissance, the Minotaur appears at the center of many depictions of the Labyrinth.
Ovid's Latin account of the Minotaur, which did not elaborate on which half was bull and which half man, was the most available during the Middle Ages, several versions show the reverse of the Classical configuration, a man's head and torso on a bull's body, reminiscent of a centaur. This alternative tradition survived into the Renaissance, still figures in some modern depictions, such as Steele Savage's illustrations for Edith Hamilton's Mythology. Androgeus, son of Minos, had been killed by the Athenians, who were jealous of the victories he had won at the Panathenaic festival. Others say he was killed at Marathon by the Cretan Bull, his mother's former taurine lover, which Aegeus, king of Athens, had commanded him to slay; the common tradition is that Minos won. Catullus, in his account of the Minotaur's birth, refers to another version in which Athens was "compelled by the cruel plague to pay penalties for the killing of Androgeos." Aegeus had to avert the plague caused by his crime by sending "young men at the same time as the best of unwed girls as a feast" to the Minotaur.
Minos required that seven Athenian youths and seven maidens, drawn by lots, be sent every seventh or ninth year to be devoured by the Minotaur. When the third sacrifice approached, Theseus volunteered to slay the monster, he promised his father, that he would put up a white sail on his journey back home if he was successful, but would have the crew put up black sails if he was killed. In Crete, Minos' daughter Ariadne fell madly in love with Theseus and helped him navigate the labyrinth. In most accounts she gave him a ball of thread. Theseus killed the Minotaur with the sword of Aegeus and led the other Athenians back out of the labyrinth. On the way home, Theseus continued, he neglected, however. King Aegeus, from his lookout on Cape Sounion, saw the black-sailed ship approach and, presuming his son dead, committed suicide by throwing himself into the sea, since named after him; this act secured the throne for Theseus. This Athenian view of the Minotaur as the antagonist of Theseus reflects the literary sources, which are biased in favour of Athenian perspectives.
The Etruscans, who paired Ariadne with Dionysus, never with Theseus, offered an alternative Etruscan view of the Minotaur, never seen in Greek arts: on an Etruscan red-figure wine-cup of the early-to-mid fourth century Pasiphaë tenderly cradles an infant Minotaur on her knee. The contest between Theseus and the Minotaur was represented in Greek art. A Knossian didrachm exhibits on one side the labyrinth, on the other the Minotaur surrounded by a semicircle of small balls intended for stars. While the ruins of Minos' palace at Knossos were discovered, the labyrinth never was; the enormous number of rooms and corridors in the palace has led some archaeologists to suggest that the palace itself was the source of the labyrinth myth, an idea discredited today. Homer, describing the shield of Achilles, remarked that Daedalus had constructed a ceremonial dancing ground for Ariadne, but does not associate this with the term labyrinth; some modern mythologists regard the Minotaur as a solar personification and a Minoan adaptation of the Baal-
In Greek mythology, Gaia spelled Gaea, is the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities. Gaia is the ancestral mother of all life: the primal Mother Earth goddess, she is the immediate parent of Uranus, from whose sexual union she bore the Titans and the Giants, of Pontus, from whose union she bore the primordial sea gods. Her equivalent in the Roman pantheon was Terra; the Greek name Γαῖα is a epic, collateral form of Attic Γῆ, Doric Γᾶ meaning "Earth", a word of uncertain origin. Robert S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin. In Mycenean Greek Ma-ka contains the root ga-. Hesiod's Theogony tells how, after Chaos, "wide-bosomed" Gaia arose to be the everlasting seat of the immortals who possess Olympus above, and after Gaia came "dim Tartarus in the depth of the wide-pathed Earth", next Eros the god of love. Hesiod goes on to say that Gaia brought forth her equal Uranus to "cover her on every side". Gaia bore the hills, Pontus, "without sweet union of love". Afterwards with Uranus she gave birth to the Titans, as Hesiod tells it: She lay with Heaven and bore deep-swirling Oceanus and Crius and Hyperion and Iapetus and Rhea, Themis and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoebe and lovely Tethys.
After them was born Cronos the wily and most terrible of her children, he hated his lusty sire. According to Hesiod, Gaia conceived further offspring with Uranus, first the giant one-eyed Cyclopes: Brontes and Arges; as each of the Cyclopes and Hecatonchires were born, Uranus hid them in a secret place within Gaia, causing her great pain. So Gaia devised a plan, she created a grey flint sickle. And Cronus used the sickle to castrate his father Uranus. From Uranus' spilled blood, Gaia produced the Giants and the Meliae. From the testicles of Uranus in the sea came forth Aphrodite. By her son Pontus, Gaia bore the sea-deities Nereus, Phorcys and Eurybia; because Cronus had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overthrown by one of his children, he swallowed each of the children born to him by his Titan sister Rhea. But when Rhea was pregnant with her youngest child, she sought help from Gaia and Uranus; when Zeus was born, Rhea gave Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling-clothes in his place, which Cronus swallowed, Gaia took the child into her care.
With the help of Gaia's advice, Zeus defeated the Titans. But afterwards, Gaia, in union with Tartarus, bore the youngest of her sons Typhon, who would be the last challenge to the authority of Zeus. According to Hyginus, along with Heaven and Sea were the children of Aether and Day. According to the mythographer Apollodorus and Tartarus were the parents of Echidna. Zeus hid one of his lovers, from Hera by stowing her under the earth, his son by Elara, the giant Tityos, is therefore sometimes said to be a son of Gaia, the earth goddess. Gaia made Aristaeus immortal. In classical art Gaia was represented in one of two ways. In Athenian vase painting she was shown as a matronly woman only half risen from the earth in the act of handing the baby Erichthonius,a future king of Athens, to Athena to foster). In mosaic representations, she appears as a woman reclining upon the earth surrounded by a host of Carpi, infant gods of the fruits of the earth. Oaths sworn in the name of Gaia, in ancient Greece, were considered the most binding of all.
She was worshipped under the epithet "Anesidora", which means "giver of gifts". Other epithets was Calligeneia and Pandôros. In ancient times, Gaia was worshipped alongside Demeter and as a part of the cult of Demeter, does not seem to have had a separate cult. Being a chthonic deity, black animals were sacrificed to her: Bring two lambs: let one be white and the other black for Gaia and Helios. Gaia is believed by some sources to be the original deity behind the Oracle at Delphi, it was thus said: "That word spoken from tree-clad mother Gaia's navel-stone." Depending on the source, Gaia passed her powers on to Apollo, or Themis. Pausanias wrote: Many and different are the stories told about Delphoi, more son about the oracle of Apollon. For they say that in earliest times the oracular seat belonged to Ge, who appointed as prophetess at it Daphnis, one of the Nymphai of the mountains. There is extant among the Greeks an hexameter poem, the name of, Eumolpia, it is assigned to Musaios, son of Antiophemos.
In it the poet states that the oracle belonged to Ge in common. The verses are these:--‘Forthwith the voice of Khthonie uttered a wise word, And with her Pyrkon, servant of the renown Earthshaker.’ They say that afterwards Ge gave her share to Themis, who gave it to Apollon as a gift. It is said. Apollo is the best-known as the oracle power behind Delphi, long established by the time of Homer, having killed Gaia's child Python th
Kaunos was a city of ancient Caria and in Anatolia, a few km west of the modern town of Dalyan, Muğla Province, Turkey. The Calbys river was the border between Lycia. Kaunos was a separate state. Kaunos was an important sea port, the history of, supposed to date back till the 10th century BC; because of the formation of İztuzu Beach and the silting of the former Bay of Dalyan, Kaunos is now located about 8 km from the coast. The city had two ports, the southern port at the southeast of Küçük Kale and the inner port at its northwest; the southern port was used from the foundation of the city till the end of the Hellenistic era, after which it became inaccessible due to its drying out. The inner or trade port could be closed by chains; the latter was used till the late days of Kaunos, but due to the silting of the delta and the ports, Kaunos had by long lost its important function as a trade port. After Caria had been captured by Turkish tribes and the serious malaria epidemic of the 15th century AD, Kaunos was abandoned.
In 1966 Prof. Baki Öğün started the excavations of ancient Kaunos; these have been continued up to the present day, are now supervised by Prof. Cengiz Işık; the archeological research is not limited to Kaunos itself, but is carried out in locations nearby e.g. near the Sultaniye Spa where there used to be a sanctuary devoted to the goddess Leto. According to mythology Kaunos was founded by King Kaunos, son of the Carian King Miletus and Kyane, grandson of Apollo. Kaunos had a twin sister by the name of Byblis who developed a unsisterly love for him; when she wrote her brother a love letter, telling him about her feelings, he decided to flee with some of his followers to settle elsewhere. His twin sister started looking for him and tried to commit suicide. Mythology says; the oldest find at the Kaunos archeological site is the neck of a Protogeometric amphora dating back to the 9th century BC, or earlier. A statue found at the western gate of the city walls, pieces of imported Attic ceramics and the S-SE oriented city walls show habitation in the 6th century BC.
However, none of the architectural finds at Kaunos itself dates back to earlier than the 4th century BC. Kaunos is first referred to by Herodotus in his book Histories, he narrates that the Persian general Harpagus marches against the Lycians and Kaunians during the Persian invasion of 546 BCE. Herodotus writes that the Kaunians fiercely countered Harpagus' attacks but were defeated. Despite the fact that the Kaunians themselves said they originated from Crete, Herodotus doubted this, he thought it was far more that the Kaunians were the original inhabitants of the area because of the similarity between his own Carian language and that of the Kaunians. He added that there were, great differences between the lifestyles of the Kaunians and those of their neighbours, the Carians and Lycians. One of the most conspicuous differences being their social drinking behaviour, it was common practice that the villagers -men and children alike- had get-togethers over a good glass of wine. Herodotus mentions.
Some important inscriptions in Carian language were found here, dating to c. 400 BC, including a bilingual inscription in Greek and Carian found in 1996. They helped to decipher the Carian alphabets. After Xerxes I was beaten in the Second Persian War and the Persians were withdrawn from the western Anatolian coast, Kaunos joined the Delian League, they only had to pay 1 talent of tax, an amount, raised by factor 10 in 425 BC. This indicates that by the city had developed into a thriving port due to increased agriculture and the demand for Kaunian export articles, such as salt, salted fish, pine resin and black mastic – the raw materials for tar used in boat building and repair – and dried figs. During the 5th and 4th centuries BC the city started to use the name Kaunos as an alternative for its ancient name Kbid, because of the increased Hellenistic influence; the myth about the foundation of the city dates back to this period. After the Peace of Antalcidas in 387 BC, Kaunos again came under Persian rule.
During the period that Kaunos was annexed and added to the province of Caria by the Persian rulers, the city was drastically changed. This was the case during the reign of the satrap Mausolos; the city was modeled with terraces and walled over a huge area. The city got a Greek character, with an agora and temples dedicated to Greek deities. Alexander the Great's 334 BC brought the city under the rule of the Macedonian empire. After Alexander's death, due to its strategic location, was disputed among the Diadochi, changing hands between the Antigonids and Seleucids; because of differences between the Hellenistic kingdoms, the Roman Republic was able to expand its influence in the area and annex a considerable number of Hellenistic kingdoms. In 189 BC the Roman senate put Kaunos under the jurisdiction of Rhodes. At that time it was known as the Rhodian Peraia. In 167 BC this led to a revolt by Kaunos and a number of other cities in western Anatolia against Rhodes; as a result, Rome discharged Rhodes from its task.
In 129 BC the Romans established the Province of Asia, which covered a large part of western Anatolia. Kaunos was assigned to Lycia. In 88 BC Mithridates invaded the province
Achaea or Achaia, sometimes transliterated from Greek as Akhaia, is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of West Greece and is situated in the northwestern part of the Peloponnese peninsula; the capital is Patras. Its population surpassed 300,000 for the first time in 2001. Achaea is bordered by Elis to the west and southwest, Arcadia to the south, Corinthia to the east and southeast; the Gulf of Corinth lies to its northeast, the Gulf of Patras to its northwest. The mountain Panachaiko, though not the highest of Achaea, dominates the coastal area near Patras. Higher mountains are found in the south, such as Erymanthos. Other mountain ranges in Achaea are Skollis, Omplos and Movri, its main rivers ordered from west to east are the Larissos, Peiros, Charadros and Vouraikos. Most of the forests are in the mountain ranges, though several are in the plains including the extreme west. There are barren lands in the highest areas. Achaea has mild winters. Sunny days dominate during the summer months in areas near the coast, while the summer can be cloudy and rainy in the mountains.
Snow is common during the winter in the mountains of Erymanthos and Aroania. Winter high temperatures are around the 10 °C mark throughout the low-lying areas; the regional unit Achaea is subdivided into 5 municipalities. These are: Aigialeia Erymanthos Kalavryta Patras West Achaea As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Achaea was created out of the former prefecture Achaea; the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. Province of Aigialeia - Aigio Province of Kalavryta - Kalavryta Province of Patras - PatrasNote: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece; the Achaean League was a Hellenistic-era confederation of city states in Achaea, founded in 280/281 BC. It grew until it included most of Peloponnese, much reducing the Macedonian rule in the area. After Macedon's defeat by the Romans in the early 2nd century BC, the League was able to defeat a weakened Sparta and take control of the entire Peloponnese.
However, as the Roman influence in the area grew, the league erupted into an open revolt against Roman domination, in what is known as Achaean War. The Achaeans were defeated at the Battle of Corinth, the League was dissolved by the Romans. In AD 51/52, Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus was proconsul of Achaea, presided over the trial of the Apostle Paul in Corinth; this event provides a secure date for the book of the Acts of the Apostles within the Bible. Achaea remained a province of the Byzantine Empire after the fall of the western Roman Empire. In the 6th and 7th centuries, Slavs invaded the Peloponnese, settled in parts of Achaea as well. By the 9th century, the whole peninsula was under Byzantine control again. However, after the Fourth Crusade several new crusader states were founded in Greece. One of these was the Principality of Achaea, founded in 1205, which like the Roman province covered a much larger area than traditional Achaea. Achaea was recaptured by the Byzantine Empire by 1430, became part of the Despotate of the Morea.
The Despotate of the Morea fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1460. As a part of the Morean War, the Republic of Venice captured Achaea in 1687 and held it until 1715, when the Ottomans recaptured the Peloponnese. Under Ottoman rule, Achaea was part of the Morea Eyalet. In the Greek War of Independence, Aigio was one of the first cities to be liberated by the Greeks and all of Achaea was liberated by the end of 1821. Achaea produced several heroes including Kanaris and Roufos and prime ministers of Greece including Andreas Michalakopoulos as well as some head of states. In the first administrative subdivision of independent Greece, Achaea was part of the Achaea and Elis Prefecture; this was divided into the prefectures of Achaea and Elis in 1899. Achaea and Elis were reunited in 1909, split again in 1930. Achaea saw an influx of refugees that arrived from Asia Minor during the Greco Turkish War of 1919-1922. Tens of thousands were relocated to their camps in the suburbs of Patras and a few villages within the coastline.
One of the camps was named Prosfygika. Achaea today has about one-third of the population of the Peloponnese. Patras, the capital of Achaea, is the third largest city in Greece, behind Athens-Piraeus and Thessaloniki. Two-thirds of the Achaean population live near Patras, more than half within the city limits; the main industrial areas are around Patras. The main cities and towns of Achaea are: Patras 169,034 Aigio 20,664 Kato Achaia 6,880 The monastery Agia Lavra is situated a few kilometres west of Kalavryta on the top of a hill. 12 to 20 km east, is Cave Lakes, with lakes inside. The length is around 300 to 500 m; the mountain hosts the most modern Greek telescope, named Aristarchus and operated by the National Observatory of Athens. A narrow gauge railway track runs for 30 km as a tourist attraction; the track ends off Diakopto. Patras is one of the main industrial and commerce centers in Greece. Temeni is a place, it is owned by a division of The Coca-Cola Company and a parent. There is a small oil refinery near Rio.
Intercity bus transport is provided by KTEL Achaias. The main bus terminal is in the city of Patras; the main highways are: Ionia Odos
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Homer is the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek kingdoms, it focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey focuses on the ten-year journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey. Modern scholars consider these accounts legendary; the Homeric Question – concerning by whom, when and under what circumstances the Iliad and Odyssey were composed – continues to be debated. Broadly speaking, modern scholarly opinion falls into two groups. One holds that most of the Odyssey are the works of a single poet of genius; the other considers the Homeric poems to be the result of a process of working and reworking by many contributors, that "Homer" is best seen as a label for an entire tradition.
It is accepted that the poems were composed at some point around the late eighth or early seventh century BC. The poems are in Homeric Greek known as Epic Greek, a literary language which shows a mixture of features of the Ionic and Aeolic dialects from different centuries. Most researchers believe that the poems were transmitted orally. From antiquity until the present day, the influence of the Homeric epics on Western civilization has been great, inspiring many of its most famous works of literature, music and film; the Homeric epics were the greatest influence on education. Today only the Iliad and Odyssey are associated with the name'Homer'. In antiquity, a large number of other works were sometimes attributed to him, including the Homeric Hymns, the Contest of Homer and Hesiod, the Little Iliad, the Nostoi, the Thebaid, the Cypria, the Epigoni, the comic mini-epic Batrachomyomachia, the Margites, the Capture of Oechalia, the Phocais; these claims are not considered authentic today and were by no means universally accepted in the ancient world.
As with the multitude of legends surrounding Homer's life, they indicate little more than the centrality of Homer to ancient Greek culture. Many traditions circulated in the ancient world concerning Homer. Modern scholarly consensus is; some claims were repeated often. They include that Homer was blind, that he was born in Chios, that he was the son of the river Meles and the nymph Critheïs, that he was a wandering bard, that he composed a varying list of other works, that he died either in Ios or after failing to solve a riddle set by fishermen, various explanations for the name "Homer"; the two best known ancient biographies of Homer are the Life of Homer by the Pseudo-Herodotus and the Contest of Homer and Hesiod. The study of Homer is one of the oldest topics in scholarship, dating back to antiquity. Nonetheless, the aims of Homeric studies have changed over the course of the millennia; the earliest preserved comments on Homer concern his treatment of the gods, which hostile critics such as the poet Xenophanes of Colophon denounced as immoral.
The allegorist Theagenes of Rhegium is said to have defended Homer by arguing that the Homeric poems are allegories. The Iliad and the Odyssey were used as school texts in ancient Greek and Hellenistic cultures, they were the first literary works taught to all students. The Iliad its first few books, was far more intently studied than the Odyssey during the Hellenistic and Roman periods; as a result of the poems' prominence in classical Greek education, extensive commentaries on them developed to explain parts of the poems that were culturally or linguistically difficult. During the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, many interpreters the Stoics, who believed that Homeric poems conveyed Stoic doctrines, regarded them as allegories, containing hidden wisdom; because of the Homeric poems' extensive use in education, many authors believed that Homer's original purpose had been to educate. Homer's wisdom became so praised that he began to acquire the image of a prototypical philosopher. Byzantine scholars such as Eustathius of Thessalonica and John Tzetzes produced commentaries and scholia to Homer in the twelfth century.
Eustathius's commentary on the Iliad alone is massive, sprawling nearly 4,000 oversized pages in a twenty-first century printed version and his commentary on the Odyssey an additional nearly 2,000. In 1488, the Greek scholar Demetrios Chalkokondyles published the editio princeps of the Homeric poems; the earliest modern Homeric scholars started with the same basic approaches towards the Homeric poems as scholars in antiquity. The allegorical interpretation of the Homeric poems, so prevalent in antiquity returned to become the prevailing view of the Renaissance. Renaissance humanists praised Homer as the archetypically wise poet, whose writings contain hidden wisdom, disguised through allegory. In western Europe during the Renaissance, Virgil was more read than Homer and Homer was seen through a Virgilian lens. In 1664, contradicting the widespread praise of Homer as the epitome of wisdom, François Hédelin, abbé d'Aubignac wrote a s