In Jainism, the word Śrāvaka or Sāvaga is used to refer the Jain laity. The word śrāvaka has its roots in the word śrāvana, i.e. the one. The tirthankara restores or organises the sangha, a fourfold order of muni, aryika, śrāvakas and śrāvikās. In Jainism, two kinds of votaries are there:- The householder The homeless ascetic According to Jain text, Puruşārthasiddhyupāya:Ascetics who establish themselves in pure and absolute consciousness observe complete abstinence; those who practice the path of partial abstinence are called Śrāvaka. Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, a major Jain text discusses the conduct of a Śrāvaka in detail. In Jainism, six essential duties are prescribed for a śrāvaka; these help the laity in achieving the principle of ahimsa, necessary for his/her spiritual upliftment. The six duties are: Worship of Pañca-Parameṣṭhi. Following the preachings of Jain saints. Study of Jain scriptures. Sāmāyika Following discipline in their daily engagement Charity of four kinds:Ahara-dāna- donation of food Ausadha-dāna- donation of medicine Jnana-dāna- donation of knowledge Abhaya-dāna- saving the life of a living being or giving of protection to someone under threat Jain ethical code prescribes five main vows and seven supplementary vows, which include three guņa vratas and four śikşā vratas.
In Jainism, both ascetics and householders have to follow five vows compulsorily. These five vows are: - Ahiṃsā - Not to hurt any living being by thoughts. Out of the five types of living beings, a householder is forbidden to kill, or destroy, all except the lowest. Satya- Not to lie or speak what is not commendable. Asteya- Not to take anything if not given. Brahmacharya - Refraining from indulgence in sex-passion. Aparigraha - Detachment from material property. One who observes the small vows is a householder digvrata- Restriction on movement with regard to directions. Bhogopabhogaparimana- Vow of limiting consumable and non-consumable things anartha-dandaviramana- Refraining from harmful occupations and activities. Samayika- Vow to meditate and concentrate periodically; the sāmayika vrata is intended to be observed three times a day if possible. Its objective is to enable the śrāvaka to abstain from all kinds of sins during the period of time fixed for its observance; the usual duration of the sāmayika vow is an antara mūharta.
During this period, which the layman spends in study and meditation, he vows to refrain from the commission of the five kinds of sin — injury, theft and love of material possessions in any of the three ways. These three ways are:-by an act of mind, speech or body, inciting others to commit such an act, approving the commission of such an act by others. In performing sāmayika the śrāvaka has to stand facing north or east and bow to the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi, he sit down and recites the Namokara mantra a certain number of times, devotes himself to holy meditation. Sāmayika can be performed anywhere- a temple, private residence and the like, but the place shouldn't be open to disturbance of any kind. Desavrata— Limiting movement to certain places for a fixed period of time. Upvas— Fasting at regular intervals. Atihti samvibhag— Vow of offering food to the ascetic and needy peopleA householder who observes these vows is called viratavirata, i.e. one who observes abstinence as well as non-abstinence. A householder who has observed all the prescribed vows to shed the karmas, takes the vow of sallekhanā at the end of his life.
According to the Jain text, Puruşārthasiddhyupāya, "sallekhana enable a householder to carry with him his wealth of piety". Sarak Pratima Balcerowicz, Piotr and the definition of religion, Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, ISBN 978-81-887-69292 Champat Rai Jain, The Practical Path, The Central Jaina Publishing House S. A. Jain. Reality. Jwalamalini Trust. Non-Copyright Jain, Vijay K. Acharya Umasvami's Tattvarthsutra, Uttarakhand: Vikalp Printers, ISBN 81-903639-2-1, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain. Jain, Vijay K. Acharya Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya: Realization of the Pure Self, With Hindi and English Translation, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-4-5, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain. Sangave, Dr. Vilas A. Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society and Culture, New Delhi: Bhartiya Jnanpith, ISBN 81-263-0626-2 Tukol, Justice T. K. Sallekhanā is Not Suicide, Ahmedabad: L. D. Institute of Indology, archived from the original on 2015
Compassion motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves. Compassion is regarded as having sensitivity, an emotional aspect to suffering, though when based on cerebral notions such as fairness and interdependence, it may be considered rational in nature and its application understood as an activity based on sound judgment. Compassion is a feeling. There is an aspect of equal dimension, such that individual's compassion is given a property of "depth", "vigor", or "passion"; the etymology of "compassion" is Latin, meaning "co-suffering." Compassion involves "feeling for another" and is a precursor to empathy, the "feeling as another" capacity for better person-centered acts of active compassion. Compassion involves allowing ourselves to be moved by suffering and experiencing the motivation to help alleviate and prevent it. An act of compassion is defined by its helpfulness. Qualities of compassion are wisdom, it is though not the key component in what manifests in the social context as altruism.
Expression of compassion is prone to be hierarchical and controlling in responses. Difference between sympathy and compassion is that the former responds to suffering from sorrow and concern while the latter responds with warmth and care; the English noun compassion, meaning to love together with, comes from Latin. Its prefix com- comes directly from com, an archaic version of the Latin preposition and affix cum. Compassion is thus related in origin and meaning to the English noun patient, from patiens, present participle of the same patior, is akin to the Greek verb πάσχειν and to its cognate noun πάθος. Ranked a great virtue in numerous philosophies, compassion is considered in all the major religious traditions as among the greatest of virtues. Theoretical perspectives of compassion have been developed through the years, the following three proposed perspectives show contrasts in their evolution and approaches to compassion. Compassion is a variation of love or sadness, not a distinct emotion.
From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, compassion can be viewed as a distinct emotional state, which can be differentiated from distress and love. Compassion as a synonym of empathic distress, characterized by the feeling of distress in connection with another person's suffering; this perspective of compassion is based on the finding that people sometimes emulate and feel the emotions of people around them. The more one person knows about the human condition and the associated experiences, the more vivid the route to identification with suffering becomes. Identifying with another person is an essential process for human beings, it is seen throughout the world as people adapt and change with new styles of clothing, behavior, etc., illustrated by infants who begin to mirror the facial expressions and body movements of their mother as early as the first days of their lives. Personality psychology agrees that people are inherently different and distinct from one another, which leads to the conclusion that human suffering is always individual and unique.
Suffering can result from psychological and physical trauma and it happens in acute forms as as chronically. Due to the inherent differences in people's personalities some may define their early stages of suffering to their external circumstances and those life events being quiet or not discussed; the stages may involve the person expressing their victimization and searching for help. Suffering has been defined as the perception of a person's impending destruction or loss of integrity, which continues until the threat is vanished or the person's integrity can be restored; the importance of identifying with others for compassion is contrasted by the negative physical and psychological effects of abandonment. Compassion is a characteristic element of democratic societies. Compassion is recognized through identifying with other people, the knowledge of human behavior, the perception of suffering, transfer of feelings, knowledge of goal and purpose changes in sufferers, leads to the absence of the suffering from the group.
The compassion process is related to identifying with the other person because sympathizing with others is possible among people from other countries, locations, etc. A possible source of this process of identifying with others comes from a universal category called "Spirit." Toward the late 1970s different cultures and nations around the world took a turn to religious fundamentalism, attributed to "Spirit". The role of compassion as a factor contributing to individual or societal behavior has been the topic of continuous debate. In contrast to the process of identifying with other people, a complete absence of compassion may require ignoring or disapproving identification with other people or groups. Earlier studies established the links between interpersonal violence and cruelty which leads to indifference; this concept has been illustrated throughout history: The Holocaust, European colonization of the Americas, etc. The essential step in these atrocities could be the definition of the victims as "not human" or "not us."
The atrocities committed throughout human history have only been relieved through the presence of compassio
Temperance is defined as moderation or voluntary self-restraint. It is described in terms of what an individual voluntarily refrains from doing; this includes restraint from retaliation in the form of non-violence and forgiveness, restraint from arrogance in the form of humility and modesty, restraint from excesses such as splurging now in the form of prudence, restraint from excessive anger or craving for something in the form of calmness and self-control. Temperance has been described as a virtue by religious thinkers and more psychologists in the positive psychology movement. In classical iconography, the virtue is depicted as a woman holding two vessels transferring water from one to another, it was one of the cardinal virtues in western thought found in Greek philosophy and Christianity, as well as eastern traditions such as Buddhism and Hinduism. Temperance is one of the six virtues in the positive psychology classification, included with wisdom, humanity and transcendence, it is characterized as the control over excess, expressed through characteristics such as chastity, humility, self-regulation, decorum, abstinence and mercy.
The term "temperance" can refer to the abstention from alcohol with reference to the temperance movement. The Greek definition of temperance translates to "moderation in thought, or feeling. Temperance is a major Athenian virtue. According to Aristotle, "temperance is a mean with regard to pleasures". In "Charmides", one of Plato's early dialogues, the one who possessed'sophrosune' is defined in four ways: one who has quietness, one who has modesty, one who does his own business, one who knows himself. Plato dismisses the three first definitions and argues against that if'sophrosune' would have been only the property of knowing what one knows or not it would be useless without knowledge about other matters. Themes of temperance can be seen across cultures and time. Temperance is an essential part of the Eightfold Path; the third and fifth of the five precepts reflect values of temperance: "misconduct concerning sense pleasures" and drunkenness are to be avoided. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, temperance is prolific.
The Old Testament emphasizes temperance as a core virtue, as evidenced in both Solomon's Book of Proverbs and in the Ten Commandments, with its admonitions against adultery and covetousness. The New Testament does so as well, with forgiveness being central to theology and self-control being one of the Fruits of the Spirit. With regard to Christian theology, the word temperance is used by the King James Version in Galatians 5:23 for the Greek word ἐγκρατεία, which means self-control or discipline. Thomas Aquinas promoted Plato's original virtues in addition to several others. Within the Christian church Temperance is a virtue akin to self-control, it is applied to all areas of life. It can be viewed in practice among sects like the Amish, Old Order Mennonites, Conservative Mennonites. In the Christian religion, temperance is a virtue that moderates attraction and desire for pleasure and "provides balance in the use of created goods". St. Thomas calls it a "disposition of the mind which binds the passions".
Temperance is believed to combat the sin of gluttony. Temperance is broken down into four main strengths: forgiveness, humility and self-regulation; the concept of dama in Hinduism is equivalent to temperance. It is sometimes written as damah; the word dama, Sanskrit derivative words based on it, connote the concepts of self-control and self-restraint. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, in verse 5.2.3, states that three characteristics of a good, developed person are self-restraint and love for all sentient life, charity. In Hinduism literature dedicated to yoga, self-restraint is expounded with the concept of yamas. According to ṣaṭsampad, self-restraint is one of the six cardinal virtues; the list of virtues that constitute a moral life evolve in upanishads. Over time, new virtues were conceptualized and added, some replaced. For example, Manusamhita listed ten virtues necessary for a human being to live a dharmic life: Dhriti, Dama, Saucha, Indriyani-graha, vidya, akrodha. In verses this list was reduced to five virtues by the same scholar, by merging and creating a more broader concept.
The shorter list of virtues became: Ahimsa, Asteya, Satyam. This trend of evolving concepts continue in classical Sanskrit literature, Dama with Ahimsa and few other virtues present in the evolving list of virtues necessary for a moral life. Five types of self-restraints are considered essential for a moral and ethical life in Hindu philosophy: one must refrain from any violence that causes injury to others, refrain from starting or propagating deceit and falsehood, refrain from theft of other's property, refrain from sexually cheating on one's partner, refrain from avarice; the scope of self-restraint includes one's action, the words one speaks or writes, in one's though
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are a collection of 196 Indian sutras on the theory and practice of yoga. The Yoga Sutras were compiled prior to 400 CE by Sage Patanjali who synthesized and organized knowledge about yoga from older traditions; the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali was the most translated ancient Indian text in the medieval era, having been translated into about forty Indian languages and two non-Indian languages: Old Javanese and Arabic. The text fell into relative obscurity for nearly 700 years from the 12th to 19th century, made a comeback in late 19th century due to the efforts of Swami Vivekananda, the Theosophical Society and others, it gained prominence again as a comeback classic in the 20th century. Before the 20th century, history indicates that the medieval Indian yoga scene was dominated by the various other texts such as the Bhagavad Gita and the Yoga Vasistha, texts attributed to Yajnavalkya and Hiranyagarbha, as well as literature on hatha yoga, tantric yoga and Pashupata Shaivism yoga rather than the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali.
In the 20th century, modern practitioners of yoga elevated the Yoga Sutras to a status it never knew previously. Hindu orthodox tradition holds the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali to be one of the foundational texts of classical Yoga philosophy. However, the appropriation - and misappropriation - of the Yoga Sutras and its influence on systematizations of yoga has been questioned by scholars such as David Gordon White; the Yoga Sūtras text is attributed to Patanjali. Much confusion surrounds this Patañjali, because an author of the same name is credited to be the author of the classic text on Sanskrit grammar named Mahābhāṣya, yet the two works in Sanskrit are different in subject matter. Furthermore, before the time of Bhoja, no known text states. Philipp A. Maas assesses Patañjali's Yogasutra's date to be about 400 CE, based on tracing the commentaries on it published in the first millennium CE, a review of extant literature. Edwin Bryant, on the other hand, surveys the major commentators in his translation of the Yoga Sūtras.
He observes that "Most scholars date the text shortly after the turn of the Common Era, but that it has been placed as early as several centuries before that." Bryant concludes that "A number of scholars have dated the Yoga Sūtras as late as the fourth or fifth century C. E. but these arguments have all been challenged.... All such arguments are problematic."Michele Desmarais summarizes a wide variety of dates assigned to Yogasutra, ranging from 500 BCE to 3rd century CE, noting that there is a paucity of evidence for any certainty. She states the text may have been composed at an earlier date given conflicting theories on how to date it, but latter dates are more accepted by scholars; the Yoga Sutras are a composite of various traditions. The levels of samādhi taught in the text resemble the Buddhist jhanas. According to Feuerstein, the Yoga Sutras are a condensation of two different traditions, namely "eight limb yoga" and action yoga; the kriya yoga part is contained in chapter 1, chapter 2 sutras 1-27, chapter 3 except sutra 54, chapter 4.
The "eight limb yoga" is described in chapter 2 sutras 28-55, chapter 3 sutras 3 and 54. According to Maas, Patañjali's composition was entitled Pātañjalayogaśāstra and consisted of both Sūtras and Bhāṣya. According to Wujastyk, referencing Maas, Patanjali integrated yoga from older traditions in Pātañjalayogaśāstra, added his own explanatory passages to create the unified work that, since 1100 CE, has been considered the work of two people. Together the compilation of Patanjali's sutras and the Vyasabhasya, is called Pātañjalayogaśāstra. According to Maas, this means that the earliest commentary on the Yoga Sūtras, the Bhāṣya, ascribed to some unknown author Vyāsa, was Patañjali's own work. Patañjali divided his Yoga Sutras into four chapters or books, containing in all 196 aphorisms, divided as follows: Samadhi Pada. Samadhi refers to a state of direct and reliable perception where the yogi's self-identity is absorbed into the object meditated upon, collapsing the categories of witness and witnessed.
Samadhi is the main technique the yogin learns by which to dive into the depths of the mind to achieve Kaivalya. The author describes yoga and the nature and the means to attaining samādhi; this chapter contains the famous definitional verse: "Yogaś citta-vritti-nirodhaḥ". Sadhana Pada. Sadhana is the Sanskrit word for "practice" or "discipline". Here the author outlines two forms of Yoga: Ashtanga Yoga. * Kriyā Yoga in the Yoga Sūtras is the practice of three of the Niyamas of Aṣṭāṅga Yoga: tapas, svādhyaya, iśvara praṇidhana – austerity, self-study, devotion to god. * Aṣṭāṅga Yoga is the yoga of eight limbs: Yama, Niyama, Āsana, Prāṇāyāma, Pratyahara, Dhāraṇa, Dhyāna, Samādhi. Vibhuti Pada. Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for "power" or "manifestation".'Supra-normal powers' are acquired by the practice of yoga. Combined simultaneous practice of Dhāraṇā, Dhyana and Samādhi is referred to as Samyama, is considered a tool of achieving various perfections, or Siddhis; the text warns. Kaivalya Pada. Kaivalya translates to "isolation", but as used in the Sutras stands for emancipation or liberation and is used where other texts employ the term moksha.
The Kaivalya Pada describes the process of liberation a
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Sarvārthasiddhi is a famous Jain text authored by Ācārya Pujyapada. It is the oldest commentary on Ācārya Umaswami's Tattvārthasūtra. A commentary is a line-by-line explication of a text. Ācārya Pujyapada, the author of Sarvārthasiddhi was a famous Digambara monk. Pujyapada was a poet, philosopher and a profound scholar of Ayurveda; the author begins with an explanation of the invocation of the Tattvārthasūtra. The ten chapters of Sarvārthasiddhi are: Faith and Knowledge The Category of the Living The Lower World and the Middle World The Celestial Beings The Category of the Non-Living Influx of Karma The Five Vows Bondage of Karma Stoppage and Shedding of Karma Liberation Prof. S. A. Jain translated the Sarvārthasiddhi in English language. In the preface to his book, he wrote: Shri Pujyapada’s Sarvārthasiddhi has exercised a great fascination on my mind since I commenced the study of this great work. Few works of the world’s literature have inspired me to the same extent or have provided satisfactory answers to the world’s riddles, which have perplexed the greatest thinkers of all ages.
No philosophical work that I know of treats of the great issues that confront humanity with the same simplicity, charm and freedom. S. A. Jain, Jwalamalini Trust, archived from the original on 2015, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain. Jain, Vijay K, Acarya Pujyapada's Istopadesa – the Golden Discourse, ISBN 9788190363969
Virtue is moral excellence. A virtue is a trait or quality, deemed to be morally good and thus is valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. Personal virtues are characteristics valued as promoting individual greatness. In other words, it is a behavior. Doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong; the opposite of virtue is vice. The four classic cardinal virtues in Christianity are temperance, prudence and justice. Christianity derives the three theological virtues of faith and love from 1 Corinthians. Together these make up the seven virtues. Buddhism's four brahmavihara can be regarded as virtues in the European sense; the Japanese Bushidō code is characterized by up to ten virtues, including rectitude and benevolence. The ancient Romans used the Latin word virtus to refer to all of the "excellent qualities of men, including physical strength, valorous conduct, moral rectitude." The French words vertu and virtu came from this Latin root. In the 13th century, the word virtue was "borrowed into English".
During Egyptian civilization, Maat or Ma'at spelled māt or mayet, was the ancient Egyptian concept of truth, order, law and justice. Maat was personified as a goddess regulating the stars and the actions of both mortals and the deities; the deities set the order of the universe from chaos at the moment of creation. Her counterpart was Isfet, who symbolized chaos and injustice; the four classic cardinal virtues are: temperance: σωφροσύνη prudence: φρόνησις courage: ἀνδρεία justice: δικαιοσύνη This enumeration is traced to Greek philosophy and was listed by Plato in addition to piety: ὁσιότης, with the exception that wisdom replaced prudence as virtue. Some scholars consider either of the above four virtue combinations as mutually reducible and therefore not cardinal, it is unclear whether multiple virtues were of construct, whether Plato subscribed to a unified view of virtues. In Protagoras and Meno, for example, he states that the separate virtues cannot exist independently and offers as evidence the contradictions of acting with wisdom, yet in an unjust way.
In his work Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle defined a virtue as a point between a deficiency and an excess of a trait. The point of greatest virtue lies not in the exact middle, but at a golden mean sometimes closer to one extreme than the other. However, the virtuous action is not the "mean" between two opposite extremes; as Aristotle says in the Nicomachean Ethics: "at the right times, about the right things, towards the right people, for the right end, in the right way, is the intermediate and best condition, this is proper to virtue." This is not splitting the difference between two extremes. For example, generosity is a virtue between the two extremes of miserliness and being profligate. Further examples include: courage between cowardice and foolhardiness, confidence between self-deprecation and vanity. In Aristotle's sense, virtue is excellence at being human. Seneca, the Roman Stoic, said. Thus, in considering all consequences, a prudent person would act in the same way as a virtuous person.
The same rationale was expressed by Plato in Meno, when he wrote that people only act in ways that they perceive will bring them maximum good. It is the lack of wisdom. In this way, wisdom is the central part of virtue. Plato realized that because virtue was synonymous with wisdom it could be taught, a possibility he had earlier discounted, he added "correct belief" as an alternative to knowledge, proposing that knowledge is correct belief, thought through and "tethered". The term "virtue" itself is derived from the Latin "virtus", had connotations of "manliness", "honour", worthiness of deferential respect, civic duty as both citizen and soldier; this virtue was but one of many virtues which Romans of good character were expected to exemplify and pass on through the generations, as part of the Mos Maiorum. Romans distinguished between the spheres of private and public life, thus, virtues were divided between those considered to be in the realm of private family life, those expected of an upstanding Roman citizen.
Most Roman concepts of virtue were personified as a numinous deity. The primary Roman virtues, both public and private, were: Auctoritas – "spiritual authority" – the sense of one's social standing, built up through experience and Industria; this was considered to be essential for a magistrate's ability to enforce order. Comitas – "humour" – ease of manner, courtesy and friendliness. Constantia – "perseverance" – military stamina, as well as general mental and physical endurance in the face of hardship. Clementia – "mercy" – mildness and gentleness, the ability to set aside previous transgressions. Dignitas – "dignity" – a sense of self-worth, personal self-respect and self-esteem. Disciplina – "discipline" – considered essential to military excellence. Firmitas – "tenacity" – strength of mind, the ability to stick to one's purpose at hand without wavering. Frugalitas – "frugality" – economy and