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The asthenosphere is the viscous, mechanically weak and ductile region of the upper mantle of the Earth. It lies below the lithosphere, at depths between 80 and 200 km below the surface; the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary is referred to as LAB. The asthenosphere is solid, although some of its regions could be molten; the lower boundary of the asthenosphere is not well defined. The thickness of the asthenosphere depends on the temperature. However, the rheology of the asthenosphere depends on the rate of deformation, which suggests that the asthenosphere could be formed as a result of a high rate of deformation. In some regions the asthenosphere could extend as deep as 700 km, it is considered the source region of mid-ocean ridge basalt. The asthenosphere is a part of the upper mantle just below the lithosphere, involved in plate tectonic movement and isostatic adjustments; the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is conventionally taken at the 1300 °C isotherm. Below this temperature the mantle behaves in a rigid way.

Seismic waves pass slowly through the asthenosphere compared to the overlying lithospheric mantle, thus it has been called the low-velocity zone, although the two are not the same. This was the observation that alerted seismologists to its presence and gave some information about its physical properties, as the speed of seismic waves decreases with decreasing rigidity; this decrease in seismic wave velocity from lithosphere to asthenosphere could be caused by the presence of a small percentage of melt in the asthenosphere. The lower boundary of the LVZ lies at a depth of 180–220 km, whereas the base of the asthenosphere lies at a depth of about 700 km. In the oceanic mantle, the transition from the lithosphere to the asthenosphere is shallower than for continental mantle with a sharp and large velocity drop. At the mid-ocean ridges the LAB rises to within a few kilometers of the ocean floor; the upper part of the asthenosphere is believed to be the zone upon which the great rigid and brittle lithospheric plates of the Earth's crust move about.

Due to the temperature and pressure conditions in the asthenosphere, rock becomes ductile, moving at rates of deformation measured in cm/yr over lineal distances measuring thousands of kilometers. In this way, it flows like a convection radiating heat outward from the Earth's interior. Above the asthenosphere, at the same rate of deformation, rock behaves elastically and, being brittle, can break, causing faults; the rigid lithosphere is thought to "float" or move about on the flowing asthenosphere, allowing the movement of tectonic plates. Although its presence was suspected as early as 1926, the global presence of the asthenosphere was confirmed by analyses of seismic waves from the 9.5 Mw Great Chilean earthquake of May 22, 1960. Turcotte, Donald L.. Geodynamics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66624-4. Retrieved 24 January 2016. McBride, Neil. An Introduction to the Solar System. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54620-1. Retrieved 24 January 2016. San Diego State University, "The Earth's internal heat energy and interior structure"

Peter Ramsey

Peter A. Ramsey is an American film director and writer, he is best known for directing DreamWorks Animation's Rise of the Guardians and Sony Pictures Animation's Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse, the latter of which he co-directed alongside Bob Persichetti and Rodney Rothman. He is the first African American to be nominated for and win an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Ramsey grew up in the Crenshaw District of South Los Angeles, graduated at 17 from Pali High, he studied painting at UCLA for two years before enrolling in film classes at Los Angeles City College. His first job in Hollywood was painting a mural, but soon he was working as a storyboard artist and production illustrator on 26 films including Predator 2, Independence Day, Fight Club and A. I. Artificial Intelligence, he was a second unit director for Higher Learning, Tank Girl and Godzilla. Aron Warner, the producer of Tank Girl, suggested he join DreamWorks Animation. After being uninterested, Ramsey joined DreamWorks as a story artist for Shrek the Third and Shrek the Halls.

In 2012 he directed Rise of the Guardians, based on William Joyce's The Guardians of Childhood books, making him the first African-American to direct a big budget animated feature. In 2018, he co-directed Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse, which won the 2019 Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Ramsey is a member of the Directors Guild of America and The Animation Guild. Monsters vs. Aliens: Mutant Pumpkins from Outer Space Rise of the Guardians Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse Poetic Justice Higher Learning Tank Girl Godzilla A Nightmare on Elm Street 5: The Dream Child Predator 2 Tank Girl Eye for an Eye Independence Day Men in Black Godzilla Being John Malkovich Fight Club How the Grinch Stole Christmas Cast Away A. I. Artificial Intelligence The Affair of the Necklace Panic Room Minority Report Adaptation; the Core Spartan Shark Tale Penguins of Madagascar Sausage Party Duck Duck Goose A Wrinkle in Time Backdraft Far and Away Bram Stoker's Dracula The Shadow Batman Forever EDtv Shrek the Third Shrek the Halls Almost an Angel Monsters vs. Aliens Puss in Boots Hair Love Peter Ramsey on IMDb Peter A. Ramsey at AllMovie

Darshan (film)

Darshan is a 2004 Kannada suspense thriller film starring Darshan and Navaneeth in leading roles, along with a supporting cast of Srujan Lokesh and Chithra Shenoy. Rahul returns to his foster father Appaji, a terrorist after completing his studies. Appaji reveals the death of Rahul's parents at the hands of Ramamurthy and sends him to seek revenge to pioneer a terrorist attack. Ramamurthy lives a happy life with his wife Janaki, mother Renukamma and daughters Surabhi and Nandini. Surabhi's marriage is fixed with an NRI. Rahul and his fake mother Sumitra rescues Ramamurthy's family while they are attacked and soon becomes a part of the Murthy family. Nandini falls in love with him. An attack is made on the defense minister from. After marriage Surabhi and her husband goes to airport to leave the country but is killed in the airplane blast; the defense minister was travelling in the same plane. It is shown. Murthy approaches Rahul with Nandini's marriage proposal. On the day of engagement Nandini reveals the true nature of Rahul and the assistant police commissioner holds Rahul at point blank.

However he dies in a car blast. Rahul who has survived the blast asks Nandini to marry him. A deranged Rahul turns into a killing machine vandalising the family of Nandini, he kills the assistant commissioner with the help of a sub inspector. He kills Sanjay, Nandini's fiancé in front of her eyes. After confessing his crimes he asks Nandini to enter his life. However, unable to forgive and forget, an angry Nandini shoots Rahul; as she walks away he opens his eyes indicating that he is still alive and will be an immortal as long as there is war in this world. Darshan - Rahul Navaneeth - Nandini Srinath - Ramamurthy Srujan Lokesh - Sanjay Renukamma Murugodu - Renukamma Chitra Shenoy - Janaki Sathyajith - Appaji The Music Was Composed By Sadhu Kokila and Released by Anand Audio Video

Lake Seminole (Pinellas County, Florida)

Lake Seminole is a freshwater lake in urban Pinellas County in the U. S. state of Florida. The lake is located in the city of Seminole, about 20 miles west of Tampa. Lake Seminole is the second largest lake in Pinellas County, with a surface area of 700 acres. Once a tidal estuary, Lake Seminole was created in the 1940s by closing the upper portion of Long Bayou. Lake Seminole's watershed is unusually small for a lake of its size, draining only 5.5 miles of the county, in developed Seminole and Largo. The watershed was much larger than its current limits, but was altered in the early 1970s to divert runoff into Long Bayou for flood relief. Due to the low volume of water, the nutrient and pollutant rich drainage from the urbanized area surrounding the lake, water quality has been a concern, with the county developing the Lake Seminole Watershed Management Plan to protect water quality and habitat. On the east shore of Lake Seminole is Lake Seminole Park, a 250 acre county park that provides year-round public access to the lake.

Popular activities on the lake include boating, jet skiing, water-skiing, fishing. The park is popular with families and nature enthusiasts, includes a two-mile multi-use trail that winds through pine flat woods, a softball field, volleyball courts. Information at Pinellas County website

SUSTAIN (military)

Small Unit Space Transport and INsertion or SUSTAIN is a concept first proposed in 2002 by the United States Air Force and United States Marine Corps to deploy Marines via spaceflight to any location on Earth. Project Hot Eagle, launched by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the Air Force Research Laboratory, is an investigation into the development and use of suborbital spacecraft to fulfill this vision. Hot Eagle would use a craft based on a design similar to Space Ship One, which could launch a squad on a suborbital trajectory in two stages and deliver them anywhere on two hours' notice. Delivery of soldiers by rocket has been proposed before, including by General John B. Medaris, head of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency in the 1950s; the lander itself is designed to hold a 13-man squad and land in any terrain at any time, avoiding diplomatic concern for airspace rights. Space marine "Marines in Spaaaaaace!". Defense September 19, 2005. Retrieved 2006-04-03. "Why We Must SUSTAIN Human Spaceflight".

Space Daily. October 13, 2003. Retrieved 2006-12-27. "Semper Fly: Marines in Space". Popular Science. January 2007. Archived from the original on February 21, 2007. Retrieved 2016-04-16. CS1 maint: unfit url Marines Want Spaceplane July 10, 2006 Future Launch - A few visionary Marines would take expeditionary warfare to new heights Navy League of the United States, February 2006 Military space systems: the road ahead The Space Review, February 27, 2006 Marines eyeing a ride in space: Trading Muddy Boots for Moon Boots Aviation Week, September 12, 2005

Bellot Strait

Bellot Strait is a strait in Nunavut that separates Somerset Island on the north from the Boothia Peninsula on the south. At its eastern end is the Murchison Promontory, the northernmost part of mainland North America; the two-kilometre-wide and 25-kilometre-long strait connects the Gulf of Boothia and Prince Regent Inlet on the east with Peel Sound and Franklin Strait on the west. The north side of the strait rises steeply to 450 metres, the south shore to 750 metres; the current in the strait can run at up to 8 knots and changes its direction. It is often filled with small icebergs which pose a danger to ships in the strait; the first Europeans to see the strait were William Kennedy and Joseph René Bellot, who reached it by dogsled from Batty Bay in 1852. This proved that Prince Regent Inlet had a difficult westward exit. In 1858, Francis Leopold McClintock had to abandon the attempt; the strait was first crossed from west to east by the Hudson's Bay Company ship Aklavik in 1937, piloted by Scotty Gall.

Henry Larsen crossed it in 1942 on the first west-east transit of the Northwest Passage. The Fort Ross trading post on the northern shore was established in 1937, lasted for 11 years. However, the building has been refurbished and strengthened, acts as a refuge for researchers and crews of small boats passing through. Media related to Bellot Strait at Wikimedia Commons