Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field. One of the two codes of rugby, it originated in Northern England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players, its rules progressively changed with the aim of producing a faster, more entertaining game for spectators. In rugby league, points are scored by carrying the ball and touching it to the ground beyond the opposing team's goal line; the opposing team attempts to stop the attacking side scoring points by tackling the player carrying the ball. In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals. After each try, the scoring team gains a free kick to try at goal with a conversion for further points. Kicks at goal may be awarded for penalties, field goals can be attempted at any time. Rugby league is the national sport of Papua New Guinea, is a popular sport in Northern England, the states of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, South Auckland in New Zealand, southwest France and Lebanon.
The Super League and the National Rugby League are the premier club competitions. Rugby league is played internationally, predominantly by European and Pacific Island countries, is governed by the Rugby League International Federation; the first Rugby League World Cup was held in France in 1954. Rugby league football takes its name from the bodies that split to create a new form of rugby, distinct from that run by the Rugby Football Unions, in Britain and New Zealand between 1895 and 1908; the first of these, the Northern Rugby Football Union, was established in 1895 as a breakaway faction of England's Rugby Football Union. Both organisations played the game under the same rules at first, although the Northern Union began to modify rules immediately, thus creating a new faster, stronger paced form of rugby football. Similar breakaway factions split from RFU-affiliated unions in Australia and New Zealand in 1907 and 1908, renaming themselves "rugby football leagues" and introducing Northern Union rules.
In 1922, the Northern Union changed its name to the Rugby Football League and thus over time the sport itself became known as "rugby league" football. In 1895, a schism in Rugby football resulted in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union. Although many factors played a part in the split, including the success of working class northern teams, the main division was caused by the RFU decision to enforce the amateur principle of the sport, preventing "broken time payments" to players who had taken time off work to play rugby. Northern teams had more working class players who could not afford to play without this compensation, in contrast to affluent southern teams who had other sources of income to sustain the amateur principle. In 1895, a decree by the RFU banning the playing of rugby at grounds where entrance fees were charged led to twenty-two clubs meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield on 29 August 1895 and forming the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than 200 RFU clubs had left to join the rugby revolution.
In 1897, the line-out was in 1898 professionalism introduced. In 1906, the Northern Union changed its rules, reducing teams from 15 to 13 a side and replacing the ruck formed after every tackle with the play the ball. A similar schism to that which occurred in England took place in Australia. There, on 8 August 1907 the New South Wales Rugby Football League was founded at Bateman's Hotel in George Street. Rugby league went on to displace rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales and Queensland. On 5 May 1954 over 100,000 spectators watched the 1953–54 Challenge Cup Final at Odsal Stadium, England, setting a new record for attendance at a rugby football match of either code. In 1954 the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French. In 1966, the International Board introduced a rule that a team in possession was allowed three play-the-balls and on the fourth tackle a scrum was to be formed; this was increased to six tackles in 1972 and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover.
1967 saw. The first sponsors, Joshua Tetley and John Player, entered the game for the 1971–72 Northern Rugby Football League season. Television would have an enormous impact on the sport of rugby league in the 1990s when Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation sought worldwide broadcasting rights and refused to take no for an answer; the media giant's "Super League" movement saw big changes for the traditional administrators of the game. In Europe, it resulted in a move from a winter sport to a summer one as the new Super League competition tried to expand its market. In Australasia, the Super League war resulted in long and costly legal battles and changing loyalties, causing significant damage to the code in an competitive sporting market. In 1997 two competitions were run alongside each other in Australia, after which a peace deal in the form of the National Rugby League was formed; the NRL has since become recognised as the sport's flagship competition and since that time has set record TV ratings and crowd figures.
The objective in rugby league is to score more points through tries and field goals than the opposition within the 80 minutes of play. If after two halves of play, each consisting of forty minutes, the two teams are drawing, a draw may be declar
Matthew Elliott (rugby league)
Matthew Elliott is an Australian professional rugby league football coach and former player. He has coached National Rugby League clubs, the Canberra Raiders, the Penrith Panthers and the New Zealand Warriors, as well as a Super League club, the Bradford Bulls, the United States national team. Born on Thursday Island, Elliott grew up in Townsville in far north Queensland. Elliott was an Eastern Suburbs Roosters lower grade player, he played two seasons with French club, Le Pontet, winning the league and cup double in 1987-88. Between 1989 and 1992 Elliott played 61 games for the St. George Dragons. At the end of the 1992 NSWRL season Elliott played for the Dragons off the bench in their grand final loss against the Brisbane Broncos. Injury cut Elliotts playing career short and he became an assistant to Brian Smith at the Dragons. Elliott followed Smith to the Bradford Bulls before taking over as head coach. Elliott won the Super League title in his first season. In 1997 and 1999 he was named the Super League coach of the Year.
He coached the Bradford Bulls to the 1999 Super League Grand Final, lost to St. Helens. After serving as assistant to Canberra Raiders coach Mal Meninga during the 2001 NRL season, Elliott was made coach for the 2002 premiership. During his tenure at the Raiders, Canberra won 59 and drew one of their 125 games, including four finals appearances in five seasons. Elliott's most successful coaching season was 2003, when the Raiders won 16 of 24 games but were eliminated from the finals without winning a game. On 19 February 2006, it was announced that Elliott would coach the Penrith Panthers from 2007 onwards, having signed a three-year deal. Elliott succeeded John Lang in this position. In September 2008, Elliott was criticized for Penrith's consistent poor showings and it was speculated that he would be prematurely sacked before he saw through his three-year contract with the club. Elliott however defied the pressure and criticism and managed to convince the board into letting him remain in charge for the 2009 season.
After a promising start to the 2009 season, Elliott's contract was extended to the end of the 2011 season. In the 2010 season, the Panthers finished second in the ladder, but they did not win a match in the finals series, their 645 was the most points scored in the regular season, the second highest being 559. On 25 April 2011, Elliott was informed by the Penrith board that his services would not be required beyond 2011, he vowed to continue at the helm for the rest of the season at the time on 20 June announced his resignation with immediate effect. He is the current coach of the United States national side. Following the 2011 NRL season Elliott coached the United States national rugby league team to a 40-4 victory over Jamaica to qualify for the 2013 Rugby League World Cup, their first ever. In 2012 Elliott served as Sydney Roosters assistant coach. On 12 October 2012 Elliott was appointed head coach of the New Zealand Warriors for two seasons, replacing Brian McClennan, sacked during the 2012 New Zealand Warriors season.
He resigned as the USA coach before the 2013 Rugby League World Cup, to concentrate on the Warriors' off season. On 7 April 2014, he was sacked from the Warriors
Fullback (rugby league)
Fullback is one of the positions in a rugby league football team. Wearing jersey number 15, the fullback is a member of the team's'back-line'; the position's name comes from their duty of standing the furthest back in defence, behind the forwards, half backs and the three-quarter backs. Fullbacks are therefore the last line of defence, having to tackle any opposition players and regather the ball from any kicks that make it through their teammates, it is for this reason that the fullback is referred to as the sweeper or custodian. Being able to secure high bomb kicks is a sought quality in fullbacks. Fullback is one of the most important positions in attack, handling the ball nearly every set of six and running into open space on the field. Therefore, together with the two half backs and hooker, fullback is one of the four key positions that make up what is referred to as a team's'spine'; because the fullback makes the most support runs, players in the role complete more high-intensity running than any other position.
The Rugby League International Federation's Laws of the Game state that the'fullback' is to be numbered 1. However, traditionally players' jersey numbers have varied, in the modern Super League, each squad's players are assigned individual numbers regardless of position. Fullbacks who feature in their respective nations' rugby league halls of fame are France's Puig Aubert, Australia's Clive Churchill and Charles Fraser, Wales' Jim Sullivan and New Zealand's Des White. Churchill's attacking flair as a player in the 1950s is credited with having changed the role of the fullback. So too is Darren Lockyer's. Rugby league positions Rugby league gameplay
The Connecticut Wildcats were an American rugby league football team based in South Norwalk, Connecticut that played from 2003 until 2015. The Wildcats, along with the Washington D. C. Slayers, joined the American National Rugby League as expansion teams for the 2003 season, they remained in the league until it folded in 2014. They folded after the season. In the AMNRL they won the league championship four times, in 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2013; the team was founded in 2003. Along with the Washington D. C. Slayers, they joined the American National Rugby League that season, increasing the number of teams to eight, their inaugural roster consisted of experienced players who played for the New York Knights and other AMNRL teams, giving them an early advantage. They went on to win the Grand Final in their inaugural season, defeating perennial champions the Glen Mills Bulls, they met the Bulls in the Grand Final four more times from 2004–2007, winning in the 2006 and 2007 seasons. In doing so they were the first AMNRL team to win titles in two consecutive years.
In 2006 they were coached by former National Rugby League player Nathan Hollingsworth and in 2007 they went through the season undefeated under the guidance of Captain/Coach Tim Gee. In 2008 the club began worked on building a new image and new attitude under the leadership efforts of CEO and Current USA Tomahawk co-captain Curtis Cunz, they advanced to playoffs in the 2010 season. The Wildcats competed in the AMNRL until it folded in 2014; the following year they joined the USA Rugby League, along with other surviving AMNRL clubs. They folded after the 2015 season; the Connecticut Wildcats have a team partnership with the Wests Tigers of Australia's National Rugby League, with its two feeder teams, the Western Suburbs Magpies and Balmain Tigers. Their home stadium is Andrews Field near Norwalk High School. 2007, 2006, 2003 AMNRL premiers Mothers' Day Sevens winners Kristian Freed Sebastian Berdichevsky Ian Taylor Curtis Cunz Mark Offerdahl James Everett Luke Barron William Garcia Gareth Gibbs Mike Pitassi Darragh Lynch Theodore Cacciola John Nugent Mike Schacter Phill Shacter Matt Walsh Charlie Rizzo AMNRL Championship: 2003 2006 AMNRL season 2007 AMNRL season Fairfield Yankees RFC club team in Fairfield County Official website Connecticut Wildcats at amnrl.com
The Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs are an Australian professional rugby league football club based in Belmore, a suburb in the Canterbury-Bankstown region of Sydney. They compete in the National Rugby League premiership, as well as the New South Wales Rugby League junior competitions; the club was admitted to the New South Wales Rugby Football League premiership, predecessor of the current NRL competition, in 1935. They won their first premiership in their fourth year of competition with another soon after, after spending the 1950s and most of the 1960s on the lower rungs went through a strong period in the 1980s, winning four premierships in that decade. Known in the 1990s as the Sydney Bulldogs, as a result of the Super League war the club competed in that competition in 1997 before changing their name to the geographically indistinct Bulldogs and continuing to play every season of the re-unified NRL, winning their most recent premiership in 2004. In 2012 the Bulldogs won the minor premiership, but lost to the Melbourne Storm 14–4 in the Grand Final, in October.
In 2014 they came from 7th to make the Grand Final against the Rabbitohs, but lost 30-6. In 1935 – thirteen years after a meeting above "The Ideal Milk Bar" in Campsie led to the creation of the Canterbury-Bankstown Junior Rugby League – the Canterbury club was admitted into the elite New South Wales Rugby Football League premiership, it took the new club, nicknamed "Country Bumpkins" because of their rural recruiting and CB emblem, four years to win their first premiership in 1938. The grand final-winning effort was repeated in 1942 before a 38-year premiership drought. In 1967, having ended the 11-year premiership reign of St. George by defeating them in the final, "The Berries" lost to the South Sydney Rabbitohs in the Grand Final, but the return to the top end of the table set the scene for off-field restructuring that laid the foundations for the club to become one of the most consistent achievers in the remaining decades of the 20th century. In 1978 Canterbury became known as "The Bulldogs".
Nicknames such as "Cantabs" "CBs" and "Berries" were seen to be "soft" and the club wanted something to signify determination and grit. A grand final appearance in 1979, followed by a grand final win in 1980 with a young and free-running side dubbed "The Entertainers", was the beginning of a golden era, to produce three more grand final wins in the 1980s: 1984, 1985 and 1988. In the mid-1990s’ Super League war, the Bulldogs aligned themselves with the Super League competition, playing in the 1997 premiership season. In 1998 the Bulldogs came close to adding another premiership trophy after qualifying for the Grand Final where they met the Brisbane Broncos and lost 38–12. On the way to the 1998 Grand Final, the Bulldogs had two come-from-behind wins; the first was against the Newcastle Knights in the third week of the finals – behind 16–0 in the second half, they fought back to 16-all at full-time and went on to win in extra time. A week they trailed Parramatta in the preliminary final by 16 points with 9 minutes remaining.
Three tries and a conversion in the final minutes got them back level at 18-all, the Bulldogs went on to win. Following indifferent form in 1999, 2000 and 2001 where they had varying levels of success, the club was found to have systematically and deliberately breached the NRL salary cap in 2002, was penalized all 37 competition points which it had amassed up to that point for 2002; this resulted in the club falling from first to last place on the ladder, at the end of the season the Bulldogs received their first "wooden spoon" since 1964. The Bulldogs returned to finals contention in 2003, however they fell one step short of yet another Grand Final after losing to the Roosters 28–18 in the Preliminary Final; the club went through some off-field dramas in 2004, the most serious of which included rape allegations during a pre-season match in Coffs Harbour. The team managed to focus on football and triumphed when they held out the Sydney Roosters 16–13 with a try-saving tackle by Andrew Ryan in the dying seconds of the 2004 Grand Final.
The game was to be the last for departing captain Steve Price, but he missed the match due to a leg injury. 2005 saw the Bulldogs unable to mount a serious defence of their premiership title as injuries and contract negotiations saw the year start and finish on a sour note for the club. Due to the extent of injuries suffered, the team was under-strength for most of the year; this took its toll in the final six weeks of the season, with the club suffering successive heavy losses and missing the finals series. In 2006, little was expected from the club after a poor 2005 season, but despite some doubt over the strength of their side, the Bulldogs' forward pack helped them to a better than expected result for the year, finishing a game short of the Grand Final, losing to eventual premiers the Brisbane Broncos. Inconsistency and a poor finish to the 2007 season meant the Bulldogs were knocked out of the finals in week two. In 2008, having lost Mark O'Meley to the Sydney Roosters, Willie Mason left the club.
Further into the off-season the Bulldogs lost halfback Brent Sherwin, prospects for the 2008 season began to look dim. Although they recorded at the start of the season a couple of victories, the injury toll and the departure Sonny Bill Williams mid-season demoralised the club and players, the Bulldogs' earned their second wooden spoon of the decade. Another source of discontent in 2008 was the battle for election to the football club board. Many contenders believed that the board of the time was steering the club in the wrong direction then-CEO Malcolm Noad
National Rugby League
The National Rugby League is a league of professional men's rugby league teams in Australia. Run by the Australian Rugby League Commission, the NRL's main competition is known as the Telstra Premiership due to sponsorship from Telstra Corporation and is contested by sixteen teams, fifteen of which are based in Australia with one based in New Zealand, it attended rugby league club competition in the world. The National Rugby League is Australia's top-level domestic men's rugby-league club competition, it contains clubs from the original Sydney club Rugby League competition, running continuously since 1908. The NRL formed in the aftermath of the 1990s' Super League war as a joint partnership between the Australian governing body, the Australian Rugby League and media giant News Corporation-controlled Super League, after both organisations ran premierships parallel to each other in 1997; this partnership was dissolved in February 2012, with control of the NRL going to the independently formed Australian Rugby League Commission.
NRL matches are played in New Zealand from March to October. The season culminates in the premiership-deciding game, the NRL Grand Final, traditionally one of Australia's most popular sporting events and one of the world's largest attended sporting championship games. In addition, the NRL premiers play in the World Club Challenge, a pre-season match against the champions of the Super League competition; the reigning premiers are the Sydney Roosters winning their fourteenth official premiership. The New South Wales Rugby League ran the major rugby league competition of New South Wales from its inception in 1908 until 1994. Following the introduction of a new format for interstate rugby league, the State of Origin series in 1980, the decade of the 1980s brought about expansion of the NSWRL premiership, with the introduction of commercial sponsorship, the Winfield Cup, the addition of non-Sydney-based teams and Illawarra in 1982. Although this move brought more interest in the competition statewide in New South Wales, it would spell the beginning of the demise of some of the traditional Sydney-based clubs as well as having a negative effect on the Brisbane Rugby League premiership.
Following the 1983 season, Sydney foundation club Newtown Jets were forced to withdraw from the competition because of financial difficulties. Further expansion of the league followed in 1988, with another three teams based outside Sydney introduced to the competition; the Brisbane and Newcastle sides proved to be successful and popular and paved the way towards a push for a national competition. This was attempted in 1995 with control of the premiership passing from the NSWRFL to the Australian Rugby League, who invited four more teams from outside NSW to participate in 1995; this competition failed, but in its demise the National Rugby League was born, incorporating the traditional Sydney clubs coercing the Sydney market to follow the newly created national competition. The prospect of a national rugby league competition in addition to the introduction of pay television in Australia attracted the attention of global media organisation, News Corporation, it followed that professional rugby league was shaken to its foundations in the mid-1990s with the advent of the Super League war.
A conflict over broadcasting rights, it became a dispute as to who controlled the sport and which traditional clubs would survive into the new national era, as News Limited formed their own Super League and admitted some former ARL clubs, poaching players from the original ARL league with high salaries. With twenty-two teams of varying quality playing in two competitions that year, crowd attendances and corporate sponsorships were spread thinly, many teams found themselves in financial difficulty; the ARL undertook moves to invite the traditional clubs that had moved to the Super League competition back into a re-unified competition. Following a period of negotiation with News Corporation, on 23 September 1997 the ARL announced that it was forming a new company to conduct the competition in 1998. On 7 October News' Manaaki Ranginui announced that he was confident that there would be a single competition in 1998. On 19 December, representatives of clubs affiliated with the Australian Rugby League gathered at the Sydney Football Stadium to decide whether to accept News Limited's offer of a settlement – voting in favour by 36 votes to 4.
As a result, in the following months the National Rugby League, jointly owned by the ARL and News Limited, was formed. It was announced that the inaugural National Rugby League season of 1998 would have 20 teams competing, 19 remaining Super League and ARL teams plus the Melbourne Storm, who were created by Super League for their 1998 season. Clubs on both sides of the war were shut down. Super League decided to close the Hunter Mariners and the financially ruined Perth Reds, who were $10 million in debt at the end of 1997, while the ARL decided to close down the South Queensland Crushers, who were in severe financial trouble. Additionally, at the end of 1998 the NRL decided to close down former Super League club, the Adelaide Rams and former ARL club, the Gold Coast Chargers, despite the Gold Coast franchise being one of the few clubs to make a profit during the Super League war. One condition of the peace agreement between the ARL and News Limited was that there would be a 14 team competition in 2000.
The 20 clubs that played in 1998 would be assessed on various items such as sponsorship, crowds, on-field success and the like. It was announced that clubs that merged would
Glen Mills, Pennsylvania
Glen Mills is an unincorporated community in Concord Township, Delaware County, United States about 27 miles west of Philadelphia. The zip code for Glen Mills is 19342; the area around Glen Mills was part of the original land grant given to William Penn in 1681. George Cheyney was the first settler here, for; this land was sold and divided. The name Glen Mills is taken from two paper mills built by the Willcox family, one in 1835 and the second in 1846. From 1864 to 1878, these mills supplied the United States government with a special, patented paper for the printing of government bonds and notes; the Glen Mills are no longer standing, but the grist mill built by Nathaniel Newlin in 1704 still stands and is a popular destination for picnickers and history buffs alike. A blacksmith shop was built on the former property in 1975; the Newlin Mill Complex was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. The West Chester and Philadelphia Railroad arrived in Glen Mills c. 1858, provided train service between Philadelphia and West Chester.
The Pennsylvania Railroad took control of the rail line in 1880. Passenger trains through Glen Mills were operated by SEPTA until 1986; the West Chester Railroad, a heritage railway operates trains between Glen Mills and West Chester on weekends. A "wild west" themed restaurant/roadside attraction known as "The Longhorn Ranch" operated in Glen Mills during the 1960s. In the 1980s, that same site was the location of Pulsations nightclub; the site is the location of a retirement community. A Glen Mills resident, pilot Michael R. Horrocks, died in 2001 attacks, he was the first officer on Flight 175. The Golf Course at Glen Mills is connected to the Glen Mills Schools; the golf facility is used to train students in turf management. The Glen Mills zip code, 19342, is unusual in the numerous geographic boundaries, it is located entirely in Delaware County In order of land share: Concord Township, Delaware County Thornbury Township, Delaware County Edgmont Township, Delaware County Middletown Township, Delaware County Thornbury Township, Chester County Chadds Ford Township, Delaware County Chester Heights In order of land share: Garnet Valley School District West Chester Area School District Rose Tree Media School District Unionville-Chadds Ford School District.
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