Broadway is a road in the U. S. state of New York. Broadway runs from State Street at Bowling Green for 13 mi through the borough of Manhattan and 2 mi through the Bronx, exiting north from the city to run an additional 18 mi through the municipalities of Yonkers, Hastings-On-Hudson, Dobbs Ferry and Tarrytown, terminating north of Sleepy Hollow in Westchester County, it is the oldest north–south main thoroughfare in New York City, dating to the first New Amsterdam settlement, although most of it did not bear its current name until the late 19th century. The name Broadway is the English-language literal translation of Brede weg. Broadway in Manhattan is known as the heart of the American theatre industry, is used as a metonym for it. Broadway was the Wickquasgeck Trail, carved into the brush of Manhattan by its Native American inhabitants. Wickquasgeck means "birch-bark country" in the Algonquian language; this trail snaked through swamps and rocks along the length of Manhattan Island. Upon the arrival of the Dutch, the trail soon became the main road through the island from Nieuw Amsterdam at the southern tip.
The Dutch explorer and entrepreneur David Pietersz. de Vries gives the first mention of it in his journal for the year 1642. The Dutch named the road "Breede Weg". Although current street signs are labeled as "Broadway", in a 1776 map of New York City, Broadway is explicitly labeled "Broadway Street". In the mid-eighteenth century, part of Broadway in what is now lower Manhattan was known as Great George Street. An 1897 City Map shows a segment of Broadway as Kingsbridge Road in the vicinity of what is now the George Washington Bridge. In the 18th century, Broadway ended at the town commons north of Wall Street, where traffic continued up the East Side of the island via Eastern Post Road and the West Side via Bloomingdale Road; the western Bloomingdale Road would be widened and paved during the 19th century, called "Western Boulevard" or "The Boulevard" north of the Grand Circle, now called Columbus Circle. On February 14, 1899, the name "Broadway" was extended to the entire Broadway/Bloomingdale/Boulevard road.
Broadway once was a two-way street for its entire length. The present status, in which it runs one-way southbound south of Columbus Circle, came about in several stages. On June 6, 1954, Seventh Avenue became southbound and Eighth Avenue became northbound south of Broadway. None of Broadway became one-way, but the increased southbound traffic between Columbus Circle and Times Square caused the city to re-stripe that section of Broadway for four southbound and two northbound lanes. Broadway became one-way from Columbus Circle south to Herald Square on March 10, 1957, in conjunction with Sixth Avenue becoming one-way from Herald Square north to 59th Street and Seventh Avenue becoming one-way from 59th Street south to Times Square. On June 3, 1962, Broadway became one-way south of Canal Street, with Trinity Place and Church Street carrying northbound traffic. Another change was made on November 10, 1963, when Broadway became one-way southbound from Herald Square to Madison Square and Union Square to Canal Street, two routes – Sixth Avenue south of Herald Square and Centre Street, Lafayette Street, Fourth Avenue south of Union Square – became one-way northbound.
At the same time as Madison Avenue became one-way northbound and Fifth Avenue became one-way southbound, Broadway was made one-way southbound between Madison Square and Union Square on January 14, 1966, completing its conversion south of Columbus Circle. In 2001, a one-block section of Broadway between 72nd Street and 73rd Street at Verdi Square was reconfigured, its easternmost lanes, which hosted northbound traffic, were turned into a public park when a new subway entrance for the 72nd Street station was built in the exact location of these lanes. Northbound traffic on Broadway is now channeled onto Amsterdam Avenue to 73rd Street, makes a left turn on the three-lane 73rd Street, a right turn on Broadway shortly afterward. In August 2008, two traffic lanes from 42nd to 35th Streets were taken out of service and converted to public plazas. Additionally, bike lanes were added on Broadway from 42nd Street down to Union Square. Since May 2009, the portions of Broadway through Duffy Square, Times Square, Herald Square have been closed to automobile traffic, except for cross traffic on the Streets and Avenues, as part of a traffic and pedestrianization experiment, with the pavement reserved for walkers and those lounging in temporary seating placed by the city.
The city decided that the experiment was successful and decided to make the change permanent in February 2010. Though the anticipated benefits to traffic flow were not as large as hoped, pedestrian injuries dropped and foot traffic increased in the designated areas; the current portions converted into pedestrian plazas are between West 47th Street and West 42nd Street within Times and Duffy Squares, between West 35th Street and West 33rd Street in the Herald Square area. Additionally, portions of Broadway in the Madison Square and Union Square have been narrowed, allowing ample pedestrian plazas to exist along the side of the road. In May 2013, the NYCDOT decided to redesign Broadway between 35th and 42nd Streets for the second time in five years, owing to poor connections between pedestrian plazas and decreased vehicular traffic. With the new redesign, the bike lane is now on the right side of the street.
A market, or marketplace, is a location where people gather for the purchase and sale of provisions and other goods. In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a souk, bazaar, a fixed mercado, or itinerant tianguis, or palengke; some markets operate daily and are said to be permanent markets while others are held once a week or on less frequent specified days such as festival days and are said to be periodic markets. The form that a market adopts depends on its locality's population, culture and geographic conditions; the term market covers many types of trading, as market squares, market halls and food halls, their different varieties. Due to this, marketplaces can be situated both indoors. Markets have existed for as long; the earliest bazaars are believed to have originated in Persia, from where they spread to the rest of the Middle East and Europe. Documentary sources suggest that zoning policies confined trading to particular parts of cities from around 3,000 BCE, creating the conditions necessary for the emergence of a bazaar.
Middle Eastern bazaars were long strips with stalls on either side and a covered roof designed to protect traders and purchasers from the fierce sun. In Europe, unregulated markets made way for a system of formal, chartered markets from the 12th century. Throughout the Medieval period, increased regulation of marketplace practices weights and measures, gave consumers confidence in the quality of market goods and the fairness of prices. Around the globe, markets have evolved in different ways depending on local ambient conditions weather and culture. In the Middle East, markets tend to be covered, to protect shoppers from the sun. In milder climates, markets are open air. In Asia, a system of morning markets trading in fresh produce and night markets trading in non-perishables is common. In many countries, shopping at a local market is a standard feature of daily life. Given the market's role in ensuring food supply for a population, markets are highly regulated by a central authority. In many places, designated market places have become listed sites of historic and architectural significance and represent part of a town or nation's cultural assets.
For these reasons, they are popular tourist destinations. The term market comes from the Latin mercatus; the earliest recorded use of the term market in English is in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 963, a work, created during the reign of Alfred the Great and subsequently distributed, copied throughout English monasteries. The exact phrase was “Ic wille þæt markete beo in þe selue tun,” which translates as “I want to be at that market in the good town.” Markets have existed since ancient times. Some historians have argued that a type of market has existed since humans first began to engage in trade. Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia, Phoenecia, Egypt and on the Arabian peninsula. However, not all societies developed a system of markets; the Greek historian, Herodotus noted. Across the Mediterranean and Aegean, a network of markets emerged from the early Bronze Age. A vast array of goods were traded including: salt, lapiz-lazuli, cloth, pots, statues and other implements. Archaeological evidence suggests that Bronze Age traders segmented trade routes according to geographical circuits.
Both produce and ideas travelled along these trade routes. In the Middle-East, documentary sources suggest that a form of bazaar first developed around 3,000 BCE. Early bazaars occupied a series of alleys along the length of the city stretching from one city gate to a different gate on the other side of the city; the bazaar at Tabriz, for example, stretches along 1.5 kilometres of street and is the longest vaulted bazaar in the world. Moosavi argues that the Middle-Eastern bazaar evolved in a linear pattern, whereas the market places of the West were more centralised; the Greek historian, noted that in Egypt, roles were reversed compared with other cultures and Egyptian women frequented the market and carried on trade, while the men remain at home weaving cloth. He described a The Babylonian Marriage Market. In antiquity, markets were situated in the town's centre; the market was surrounded by alleyways inhabited by skilled artisans, such as metal-workers, leather workers and carpenters. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but prepared goods for sale on market days.
Across ancient Greece market places were to be found in most city states, where they operated within the agora. Between 550 and 350 BCE, Greek stallholders clustered together according to the type of goods carried - fish-sellers were in one place, clothing in another and sellers of more expensive goods such as perfumes and jars were located in a separate building; the Greeks organised trade into all located near the city centre and known as stoa. A freestanding colonnade with a covered walkway, the stoa was both a place of commerce and a public promenade, situated within or adjacent to the agora. At the market-place in Athens, officials were employed by the government to oversee weights and coinage to ensure that the people were not cheated in market place transactions; the rocky and mountainous terrain in Greece made it difficult for producers to transport goods or surpluses to local markets, giving rise to a specialised type of retailer who operated as an intermediary purchasing produce from farmers
Jules Guérin (artist)
Jules Guérin was an American muralist, architectural delineator, illustrator. Jules Vallée Guérin was born in St Louis, Missouri on November 18, 1866 and moved to Chicago to study art in 1880. In 1889 he is known to have shared a studio with the noted cartoonist, they influenced each other in their use of daring points of view. In 1893 Guerin made a painting of one of the buildings at the Chicago World's Fair, his only confirmed art instruction occurred in Chicago, Jules attended evening life drawing classes for two years from 1892 to 1894 at The School of The Art Institute of Chicago, though biographies claim that he studied in Paris. Though of French Huguenot descent, he is not to have spoken French fluently as a child. Nothing in his style or method indicates a Beaux Arts education. In 1900 he established a studio in New York, where he made his name as an architectural delineator and illustrator, his first major break occurred when he was hired by Charles Follen McKim to create some illustrations for the Senate Parks Commission for Washington.
These were exhibited and published in 1902. Architects began hiring Guérin to make dramatic renderings of their buildings, he worked in watercolor and tempera on colored board. His fame as a colorist soon spread, he took on more work as a magazine illustrator and sold lithographs. Guérin was a frequent contributor to Scribner's Magazine and Century Magazine during the first decade of the Twentieth Century; as a result of his success in Washington, Daniel Burnham and Edward Bennett hired Guérin to make perspective illustrations for their monumental work, The Plan of Chicago in 1907. The spectacular color views of the proposed city, many from a bird's eye perspective, are his most famous works; the majority of these original renderings—by Guérin and other artists—are in the collection of the Department of Architecture at The Art Institute of Chicago, while others are owned by the Chicago Historical Society. In 1912, when the architect Henry Bacon was competing with John Russell Pope to win the commission for the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.
C. he hired Guérin to create renderings of alternative designs. The paintings, still in the National Archives, were influential in Bacon's triumph. After he received the commission, Bacon retained Guerin to paint two large murals and Emancipation, that decorate the cella of the memorial above the Gettysburg and Second Inaugural Addresses, they were cleaned, revealing a subtle color palette that complements Daniel Chester French’s Seated Lincoln statue. In 1916 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member and became a full Academician in 1931; as an adjunct to his work as an illustrator, Guérin took an active part in the international expositions of his day, showing at the Pan American Expo in Buffalo, New York, 1901, the Louisiana Purchase Expo held in St Louis in 1904 at which he won a silver medal, the Lewis & Clark Expo in Portland, Oregon in 1905. He published illustrations of these fairs in popular magazines of the day. In 1915, Guérin was asked by Edward Bennett to serve as Director of Color at the Panama Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco.
Unlike previous fairs, this west coast effort used a palette of Mediterranean colors to accent the buildings to take advantage of the local climate and flora. It is that connections that he made there led to his one-man show at the University of California, Berkeley two years followed by several large murals in the old Federal Reserve Bank Building of San Francisco; because of his early Chicago based background, Guérin was a frequent collaborator with the Chicago architectural firm Graham, Probst & White. Most notable of these commissions was the dramatic fire curtain for the theatre in GAPW's Chicago Civic Opera Building in 1929. Guérin's work as a book illustrator came as a result of magazine commissions. Articles in The Century by Maria Hornor Lansdale resulted in her 1906 travel book, The Chateaux of Touraine, which supplements its many photographs with Guérin's paintings. From 1909 to 1911 the painter traveled with Robert Hichens to create similar illustrations for his popular books on Egypt, the Holy Land, the Near East.
The superb color lithography in these books, as well as two he published with Maxfield Parish, has made them collectible today. Despite his wish to be regarded as a major serious artist, Jules Guérin is most regarded as an illustrator and architectural delineator. Indeed, he stands tall among a distinguished group of American artists who brought to life the scenes and buildings of the Progressive Era in the emerging print media of the early Twentieth Century. Pennsylvania Station, McKim, Mead & White, New York, NY 1911 Liberty Memorial, Harold Van Buren Magonigle, Kansas City, MO 1921-35 Lincoln Memorial, Henry Bacon, Washington, D. C. 1922 Union Trust Building, Anderson, Probst & White, Cleveland, OH 1924 Cleveland Terminal Group, Anderson, Probst & White, Cleveland, OH 1924 Illinois Merchants Bank, Anderson, Probst & White, Chicago, IL 1924 Federal Reserve Bank Building of San Francisco, George Kelham, San Francisco, CA 1924 Chicago Civic Opera, Anderson, Probst & White, Chicago, IL 1929 Merchandise Mart, Anderson, Probst & White, Chicago, IL 1930 Louisiana State Capitol, Solis Seiferth, Baton Rouge, LA 1932 Books by Robert Hichens, illustrated By Jules Guérin.
The Fruitful Vine Egypt and Its Monuments The Holy Land The Near East - Dalmatia and Cons
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Tracy and Swartwout
Tracy and Swartwout was a prominent New York City architectural firm headed by Evarts Tracy and Egerton Swartwout. Evarts Tracy was the son of first cousins Jeremiah Evarts Martha Sherman Greene, his paternal grandmother Martha Sherman Evarts and maternal grandmother Mary Evarts were the sisters of William M. Evarts. Evarts Tracey graduated from Yale in 1890. Egerton Swartwout was the first son of Charlotte Elizabeth Edgerton. Swartwout graduated from Yale University in 1891. Both Swartwout and Tracy had trained and worked as draftsmen with the renowned firm, McKim and White. From 1904-1909, Tracy and Swartwout were joined by architect James Riely Gordon, forming the firm Gordon, Tracy & Swartwout. In 1909-1912 the firm was joined by Electus Darwin Litchfield, a graduate of the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and the Stevens Institute of Technology; the firm was at this time named Swartwout & Litchfield. Evarts Tracy died January 31, 1922, of chronic myocarditis. Egerton Swartwout continued working on his own after Evarts Tracy's death.
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New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
William Vincent Astor was an American businessman and member of the prominent Astor family. Called Vincent, he was born in New York City on November 15, 1891, he was the elder son of John Jacob Astor IV, a wealthy businessman and inventor, his first wife, Ava Lowle Willing, an heiress from Philadelphia. He graduated in 1910 from St. George's School in Middletown, Rhode Island, attended Harvard University from 1911 to 1912, leaving school without graduating. Like his father, Astor belonged to the New York Society of Colonial Wars, he served as commodore of the New York Yacht Club from 1928 to 1930. Astor was interested in trains. In the early 1930s, he established an estate in Bermuda which included a private narrow-gauge railway and union station with the Bermuda Railway; the estate is now divided between none of whom are part of the Astor family. As as 1992, the remains of some of his rolling stock were visible. Vincent Astor was, according to family biographer Derek Wilson, "a hitherto unknown phenomenon in America: an Astor with a developed social conscience."
He was 20 when his father died, having inherited a massive fortune, dropped out of Harvard University. He set about to change the family image from that of miserly, aloof slum landlords who enjoyed the good life at the expense of others. Over time, he sold off the family's New York City slum housing and reinvested in reputable enterprises, while spending a great deal of time and energy helping others, he was responsible for the construction of a large housing complex in the Bronx that included sufficient land for a large children's playground, in Harlem, he transformed a valuable piece of real estate into another playground for children. Astor appeared as No. 12 on the first list of America's richest people, compiled by Forbes magazine. His net worth at the time was estimated at $75 million. Amongst his holdings was Newsweek magazine, he was its chairman; the magazine had for a time its headquarters in the former Knickerbocker Hotel, built by his father. He inherited Ferncliff, the Astor family's 2,800-acre estate near Rhinebeck, New York, where his father had been born.
Vincent Astor, would be the last family owner of the estate and occupant of the "Ferncliff Casino", a Stanford White—McKim Mead & White designed 1904 Beaux Arts style 40,000 square feet building, inspired by the Grand Trianon at Versailles. On his death in 1959, Astor bequeathed a main house at Ferncliff to the Benedictine Hospital in Kingston, New York, his widow, Brooke donated "Ferncliff Casino" to the Catholic Archdiocese of New York, sold off many parcels of the estate. In 1963, Homer Staley, a local retired businessman in the area, asked Brooke Astor to preserve the remaining natural acreage of woodlands from development, she donated the land to the Rotary Club of Rhinebeck, to become the Ferncliff Forest Game Refuge and Forest Preserve. Astor married Helen Dinsmore Huntington, on April 30, 1914. At the ceremony, he was stricken with a disease that made him sterile; the couple divorced in 1940. A year Helen became the second wife of Lytle Hull, a real-estate broker, a friend and business associate of her former husband.
Shortly after his divorce, Astor married Mary Benedict Cushing, the eldest daughter of Dr. Harvey Williams Cushing and Katharine Stone Crowell. Mary's sisters were Barbara "Babe" Cushing, they divorced in September 1953, the following month, Mary wed James Whitney Fosburgh, a painter who worked as an art lecturer at the Frick Museum. On October 8, 1953, several weeks after divorcing his second wife, Astor married the once-divorced, once-widowed Roberta Brooke Russell. According to an often-told story in society circles, Astor agreed to divorce his second wife only after she had found him a replacement spouse, her first suggestion was Janet Newbold Ryan Stewart Bush, the newly divorced wife of James Smith Bush II, who turned Astor down with startling candor, saying, "I don't like you." Astor proceeded to tell her that he was not well and, though only in his early 60s, he could not be expected to live for long, whereupon she would inherit his millions. At that, Janet Bush replied, "What if you do live?"
Mary Cushing proposed Brooke. Together and Brooke developed the Vincent Astor Foundation, a foundation, designed to give back to New York City. Brooke died in 2007 at the age of 105. Astor joined the Naval Reserve shortly after it was founded and was commissioned as an ensign on December 28, 1915, he was called to active duty as part of the New York Naval Militia in February 1917 by order of Governor Charles S. Whitman to help guard bridges and aqueducts against possible German sabotage. Astor was assigned to help guard the Manhattan bridges. Following the declaration of war against Germany, Astor took advice from his friend and future president Franklin Delano Roosevelt and volunteered for active duty with the Navy on April 7, 1917, he went overseas on June 9 on the USS Noma. He was assigned to the armed yacht USS Aphrodite, he was promoted to lieutenant on January 1, 1918, to lieutenant on July 1, 1918. He was joined in France by his wife, who did charity work with the YMCA at the naval base in Bordeaux, while he served as Port Officer at Royan.
His last assignment was as an officer on the captured German minelaying submarine U-117 during her voyage to the United States. Astor re