Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kalocsa-Kecskemét
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kalocsa–Kecskemét is an Archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary. Since 1993, its official name is Archdiocese of Kalocsa-Kecskemét; the diocese is the metropolitan of the Diocese of Szeged-Csanád. The patron saint is Saint Paul; the current archbishop is Balázs Bábel, appointed in 1999. In his monography about the early history of the Archbishopric of Kalocsa, the Hungarian historian László Koszta concludes that the "establishment of the Diocese of Kalocsa is one of the most debated issues of our ecclesiastic history in the Age of the Árpáds". Indeed, several important details of the early history of the episcopal see; the date of its establishment is unknown. According to Hartvik, an early-12th-century biographer of the first king of Hungary, Stephen I, the king "divided his territories into ten bishoprics", making the archbishopric of Esztergom "the metropolitan and master of the others", bestowed "the dignity of the bishop of Kalocsa" on Abbot Astrik.
Astrik, continued Hartvik, was appointed to the see of Esztergom to substitute Archbishop Sebastian who had gone blind, but Asterik "returned to Kalocsa with the pallium" when Sebastian received back his sight three years later. Stephen's earlier hagiography, the longer version of the Life of Saint Stephen, King of Hungary, did not mention this episode and referred to Astrik as archbishop of Esztergom; the cathedral church at Kalocsa was dedicated to Paul the Apostle, renowned for his missionary activities. The patron saint implies that the see was established as a missionary bishopric aimed at the conversion of the so-called Black Hungarians. Most historians developed, they accept that the see of Kalocsa was set up as a bishopric shortly after Stephen I's coronation in the first decade of the 11th century. According to a scholarly hypothesis, not only the lands between the rivers Danube and Tisza, but the southern region of Transdanubia, the Banat were included in the new bishopric. One George was the first archbishop mentioned in a contemporanous source: in 1050 or 1051 he was one of the prelates who assisted Pope Leo IX to celebrate a mass in Lotharingia.
The Archdiocese of Kalocsa was originally set up as a Bishopric by King Stephen I of Hungary, but it became the second Archbishopric in 1009. Its original suffragans were the bishops of Transylvania. Around 1028 the bishop of the newly established Diocese of Csanád became a suffragan to the Archdiocese of Kalocsa; the Archbishops of Kalocsa were, from the 15th century to 1776, the perpetual counts. Astrik George Mikó Andrew Saul Győr John Bertoldo de Merania † Ugrin Csák † Benedict Thomas Hahót Smaragd Stephen Báncsa John Hont-Pázmány Nicholas Vásári Nicholas Apáti Thomas Telegdi Juraj Drašković † Martin Pethe Štefan Szuhay † Ján Telegdy † Ján Gubasóczy † Leopold Karl, Graf von Kollonitsch † Imre Csáky Herman Gabrijel Patačić József Batthyány † baron Adam Patačić Ladislav Kolonić Peter Klobusiczky † József Kunszt † Lajos Haynald † Juraj Császka † János Csernoch † Árpád Lipót Várady † Gyula Zichy † Gyula Glattfelder † József Grósz † Endre Hamvas † József Ijjas † László Dankó † Balázs Bábel Catholic-Hierarchy entry.
Official website Catholic Encyclopedia: Archdiocese of Kalocsa-Bacs
Anno II was Archbishop of Cologne from 1056 until his death. From 1063 to 1065 he acted as regent of the Holy Roman Empire for the minor Emperor Henry IV. Anno is venerated as a saint of the Catholic Church, he was born to the edelfrei Steusslingen family at Altsteußlingen in Swabia, was educated in Bamberg, where he subsequently became head of the cathedral school. In 1046 he became chaplain to the Salian emperor Henry III, accompanied him on his campaigns against KIng Andrew I of Hungary in 1051 and 1052; the emperor appointed him provost at the newly erected Cathedral of Goslar in 1054 and Archbishop of Cologne two years later. Due to his dominant position at the imperial court, Anno was able to influence other appointments. Anno's nephew, was made Bishop of Halberstadt in 1059, in 1063, his brother, became Archbishop of Magdeburg. According to contemporary sources, Anno was open to reform, he was a fearsome adversary to anyone perceived as a threat to the interests of his archdiocese. His plans to seize the prosperous monastery in Malmedy, challenging the authority of the Imperial abbey of Stavelot-Malmedy, caused much controversy and failed.
On the other hand, he founded the Benedictine abbey of Michaelsberg, modelled on the Italian Abbey of Fruttuaria, which soon evolved to a centre of the Cluniac Reforms in Germany. After the death of Emperor Henry III in 1056, the archbishop took a prominent part in the government of the empire during the minority of the six-year-old heir to the throne, Henry IV, he was the leader of the party which in April 1062 seized the person of Henry in the Coup of Kaiserswerth, deprived his mother, Empress Agnes, of power. Agnes with the support of Pope Victor II, had stirred up several German princes against her rule by assigning extended fiefs to presumed supporters and by appointing her confidant Bishop Henry II of Augsburg regent. After he had secured the Imperial regalia for himself, Anno for a short time was able to exercise the chief authority in the Empire, but he was soon obliged to share this with his fellow conspirators, Archbishop Adalbert of Bremen and Archbishop Siegfried of Mainz, retaining for himself the supervision of Henry's education and the title of magister.
The office of archchancellor of the Imperial Kingdom of Italy was at this period regarded as an appanage of the Archbishopric of Cologne, this was the reason why Anno had a considerable share in settling a papal dispute brewing since 1061: relying on an assessment by his nephew Bishop Burchard of Halberstadt, he declared Alexander II to be the rightful pope at a synod held at Mantua in May 1064, took other steps to secure his recognition against Empress Agnes' candidate Antipope Honorius II. Returning to Germany, however, he found the chief power in the hands of Archbishop Adalbert of Bremen, as he was disliked by the young emperor, Anno lost ground at the imperial court though he regained some of his former influence when Adalbert fell from power in 1066. In the same year he was able to secure the succession of his nephew, Conrad of Pfullingen, as Archbishop of Trier. By 1072 he had become imperial administrator and thus the second most powerful man, acting as an arbitrator in the rising Saxon Rebellion.
In the course of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the City of Cologne attained great prosperity. Local crafts flourished. No city north of the Alps was so rich in great churches, sanctuaries and religious communities, it was known as the "German Rome,". With the growth of the municipal prosperity, the pride of the citizens and their desire for independence increased, caused them to feel more dissatisfied with the sovereignty of the archbishop; this resulted in bitter feuds between the bishops and the city, which lasted for two centuries with varying fortunes. The first uprising occurred under Anno II, at Easter of the year 1074; the citizens rose against the archbishop, but were defeated within three days, punished. It was reported he had allied himself with William the Conqueror, King of England, against the emperor. Having cleared himself of this charge, Anno took no further part in public business and died in Siegburg Abbey on 4 December 1075, where he was buried, he was canonised in 1183 by Pope Lucius III.
He was a founder or co-founder of monasteries and a builder of churches, advocated clerical celibacy and introduced a strict discipline in a number of monasteries. He was a man of great energy and ability, whose action in recognizing Alexander II was of the utmost consequence for Henry IV and for Germany, he is the patron of gout sufferers. Anno was the subject of two important literary works, the Latin Vita Annonis, the Middle High German Annolied. Vita Annonis archiepiscopi Coloniensis, R. Koepke ed. MGH Scriptores 11 462-518. Anno von Köln, Epistola ad monachos Malmundarienses, Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft für altere deutsche Geschichtskunde XIV. Dunphy, Graeme 2003. Opitz's Anno: The Middle High German Annolied in the 1639 Edition of Martin Opitz. Scottish Papers in Germanic Studies, Glasgow.. Lindner, T. Anno II der Heilige, Erzbischof von Köln. Jenal, G. Erzbischof Anno II. von Köln und sein politisches Wirken. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Reichs- und Territorialpolitik im 11. Jahrhundert.
Monographien zur Geschichte des Mittelalters 8, 2 vol.. Schieffer, R. Die Romreise deutscher Bischöfe im
Saul from the kindred Győr was a prelate in the Kingdom of Hungary at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries. He was Bishop of Csanád between 1188 and 1191/92 Archbishop of Kalocsa from 1192 until his death. Saul was born into the Óvár branch of the gens Győr of German origin, as one of the five sons of Stephen I, his brothers were Maurus, Ban of Primorje, the ancestor of the Gyulai, Geszti and Kéméndi noble families. In his youth, Saul belonged to the court clergy and was a member of the royal chapel during the reign of Béla III of Hungary, he first appeared in contemporary records in 1183. In this capacity, he formulated that royal diploma, which contained a grant of privilege for the Archdiocese of Split. However, in the same year, Saul was styled as "chancellor" by two dubious documents. Saul bore the title "protonotarius", which emphasized the establishment of a separate Royal Chancery during Béla's reign. Saul's title suggests, it is presumable that the title reflects the royal chapel's restoration attempts following the dismissal of chancellor Kalán Bár-Kalán.
The above-mentioned donation letter was formulated by Saul, while Redabanus, the head of the royal chapel used the royal seal to authenticate it. Thus "chancellor" Saul had more limited powers than his predecessor Kalán, his appointment was a short-lived attempt to restore the pre-1181 institutional situation by the court clergy, he was appointed chancellor by 1188. In the same time, he functioned as Bishop-elect of Csanád, but his episcopate was mentioned by only non-authentic charters, it is certain that the dignity has been filled by him in the period between 1188 and 1192. One of the non-authentic charters from 1190 refers to Saul as bishop. Historian Norbert C. Tóth questions that Saul held both offices, while András Kubinyi argued the charter's corroboratio is authentic. Kálmán Juhász argued Saul functioned as chancellor until his confirmation as bishop in the same year. Saul Győr became Archbishop of Kalocsa following the death of his predecessor Peter; the archdiocese suffered serious damage and material loss because of the continuous wars and clashes between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Byzantine Empire in the second half of the 12th century.
He was the first archbishop who moved his seat from Bács to Kalocsa for the first time since the episcopate of Fabian. To ensure its prestige and financially establish smooth operation, he transferred the tithe and ship taxes of numerous surrounding villages to the local chapter. Pope Innocent III confirmed the donations in June 1198. In the same letter, the pope authorized Saul to expel the monks of Abraham of the Valley of Hebron from the Kő monastery because of their undisciplined and immoral behavior, to return it to the Benedictine Order. After verification that the Benedictines have been unable to return, Saul intended to populate the abandoned monastery with Augustinians. Decades Ugrin Csák established the Diocese of Syrmia there. Saul Győr persuaded the Orthodox-rite Slavic subjects of his diocese to pay the church tax. Béla III died in April 1196, he was succeeded by his elder son Emeric, whose whole reign was characterized by his struggles against his rebellious younger brother, Duke Andrew.
In the civil war, Saul Győr supported the king, but not without any reservations. In May 1198, Pope Innocent authorized archbishops Job of Esztergom and Saul of Kalocsa to excommunicate Andrew and his partisans and put their places of residence under interdict if they continue the rebellion against the royal power. Elvin, Bishop of Várad was accused of act of offense by the local chapter; some canons appeared in the court of Saul in mid-1197 to request his intervention. Elvin refused to assist the investigation, thus Saul ruled in favor of the chapter and excommunicated Elvin in 1198; as the bishop became a supporter of Andrew, this dissension was a chapter of a wider conflict between the partisans of Emeric and the duke. Thereafter Elvin asked for the penalty to be suspended from Saul; the archbishop required Elvin's written confession and compulsory pilgrimage to the Roman Curia to exercise penance. After Elvin met the request, Saul lifted the excommunication. King Emeric opposed Saul's decision, but thee archbishop wished to keep secular sphere out of church affairs.
When Emeric forced Boleslaus, Bishop of Vác, a supporter of Andrew, to give him documents that proved the conspiracy against him, his army looted the Vác Cathedral in March 1199, Pope Innocent urged Saul to investigate the events and call upon the king to compensation. However Emeric prevented the visitation of Saul to the royal court, they remained allies in the conflict, Saul had to balance between the king and the Roman Curia. Sometimes after 1199, the Győr brothers founded a Benedictine monastery in their possession seat Lébény, Győr County. There they built a Romanesque church, dedicate
The pallium is an ecclesiastical vestment in the Roman Catholic Church peculiar to the Pope, but for many centuries bestowed by him on metropolitans and primates as a symbol of the jurisdiction delegated to them by the Holy See. In that context, it has remained connected to the papacy; the pallium, in its present Western form, is a narrow band, "three fingers broad", woven of white lamb's wool from sheep raised by Trappist monks, with a loop in the centre resting on the shoulders over the chasuble and two dependent lappets and behind. It is decorated with six black crosses, one on each tail and four on the loop, is doubled on the left shoulder, sometimes is garnished and front, with three jeweled gold pins; the two latter characteristics seem to survive from the time when the Roman pallium was a simple scarf doubled and pinned on the left shoulder. In origin, the pallium and the omophor are the same vestment; the omophor is a wide band of cloth, much larger than the modern pallium, worn by all Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic bishops of the Byzantine Rite.
A theory connects its origin with the figure of the Good Shepherd carrying the lamb on his shoulders, so common in early Christian art. The ceremonial connected with the preparation of the pallium and its bestowal upon the pope at his coronation, suggests some such symbolism; the lambs whose wool is destined for the making of the pallia are solemnly presented at the altar by the nuns of the convent of Saint Agnes. The Benedictine nuns of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere weave the lambs' wool into pallia. At present, only the pope, metropolitan archbishops, the Latin Rite Patriarch of Jerusalem wear the pallium. Under the 1917 Code of Canon Law, a metropolitan had to receive the pallium before exercising his office in his ecclesiastical province if he was metropolitan elsewhere, but these restrictions were absent in the revised 1983 Code of Canon Law. No other bishops non-metropolitan archbishops or retired metropolitans, are allowed to wear the pallium unless they have special permission. An explicit exception is made for the realised scenario in which a person not yet a bishop is elected pope, in which case the bishop ordaining the new pope wears the pallium during the ceremony.
When a pope or metropolitan dies, he is buried wearing the last pallium he was granted, the other pallia are rolled up and placed in the coffin. It is unknown when the pallium was first introduced. Although Tertullian wrote an essay no than 220 AD titled De Pallio, according to the Liber Pontificalis, it was first used when Pope Marcus conferred the right to wear the pallium on the Bishop of Ostia, because the consecration of the pope appertained to him, it seems that earlier, the pope alone had the absolute right of wearing the pallium. We hear of the pallium being conferred on others, as a mark of distinction, no earlier than the sixth century; the honour was conferred on metropolitans those nominated vicars by the pope, but it was sometimes conferred on simple bishops. The use of the pallium among metropolitans did not become general until the eighth century, when a synod convened by St Boniface laid an obligation upon Western metropolitans of receiving their pallium only from the pope in Rome.
This was accomplished by journeying there or by forwarding a petition for the pallium accompanied by a solemn profession of faith, all consecrations being forbidden them before the reception of the pallium. The oath of allegiance which the recipient of the pallium takes today originated in the eleventh century, during the reign of Paschal II, replaced the profession of faith; the awarding of the pallium became controversial in the Middle Ages, because popes charged a fee from those receiving them, acquiring hundreds of millions of gold florins for the papacy and bringing the award of the pallium into disrepute. It is certain that a tribute was paid for the reception of the pallium as early as the sixth century; this was abrogated by Pope Gregory I in the Roman Synod of 595, but was reintroduced as partial maintenance of the Holy See. This process was condemned by the Council of Basel in 1432, which referred to it as "the most usurious contrivance invented by the papacy"; the fee was abandoned amid charges of simony.
There are many different opinions concerning the origin of the pallium. Some trace it to an investiture by Constantine I. Others declare that its origin is traceable to a mantle of St. Peter, symbolic of his office as supreme pastor. A fourth hypothesis finds its origin in a liturgical mantle, used by the early popes, which over time was folded into the shape of a band. There is no solid evidence tracing the pallium to an investiture of the emperor, the ephod of the Jewish High Priest, or a fabled mantle of St. Pe
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
A crosier is a stylized staff carried by high-ranking Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and some Lutheran, United Methodist and Pentecostal prelates. Other typical insignia of many of these prelates are the mitre, the pectoral cross, the episcopal ring. A crosier staff is a part of the tradition of Jewish Christianity; the origin of the crozier as a staff of authority is uncertain, but there were many secular and religious precedents in the ancient world. One example is the lituus, the traditional staff of the ancient Roman augurs, as well as the staff of Moses in the Hebrew Bible. Many other types of the staff of office were found in periods, some continuing to the modern day in ceremonial contexts. In the Western Church the usual form has been a shepherd's crook, curved at the top to enable animals to be hooked; this relates to the many metaphorical references to bishops as the shepherds of their "flock" of Christians, following the metaphor of Christ as the Good Shepherd.
The Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholic crosier is found in two common forms. One is tau-shaped, with curved arms, surmounted by a small cross; the other has a top comprising a pair of sculptured serpents or dragons curled back to face each other, with a small cross between them. The symbolism in the latter case is of the bronze serpent made by Moses as related in Numbers 21:8-9, it is reminiscent of the caduceus of Hermes or the rod of the ancient Greek god Asclepius, whose worship was centered around the Aegean, including Asia Minor, indicating the role of the bishop as healer of spiritual diseases. The staff of Moses is first mentioned in the Book of Exodus, when God appears to Moses in the burning bush. God asks what Moses has in his hand, Moses answers "a staff"; the staff is miraculously transformed into a snake and back into a staff. The staff is thereafter referred to as the "rod of God" or "staff of God". "And thou shalt take this rod in thine hand, wherewith thou shalt do signs."
And Moses went and returned to Jethro, his father in law, said unto him, "Let me go, I pray thee, return unto my brethren which are in Egypt and see whether they be yet alive." And Jethro said to Moses, "Go in peace." The LORD said unto Moses in Midian, "Go, return into Egypt: for all the men are dead which sought thy life." And Moses set them upon an ass. Moses and Aaron appear before the pharaoh; the pharaoh's sorcerers are able to transform their own rods into serpents, but Aaron's swallows them. Aaron's rod is again used to turn the Nile blood-red, it is used several times on God's command to initiate the plagues of Egypt. During the Exodus, Moses stretches out his hand with the staff to part the Red Sea. While in the "wilderness" after leaving Egypt, Moses does not follow God's command to " speak ye unto the rock before their eyes" instead he strikes the rock with the rod to create a spring for the Israelites from which to drink; because Moses did not sanctify God before them but said "Hear now, ye rebels.
Thus, Moses not God. For not doing what God commanded, God punished Moses by not letting him enter into the Promised Land. Moses uses the staff in the battle at Rephidim between the Israelites and the Amalekites; when he holds up the "rod of God", the Israelites "prevail". When he drops it, their enemies gain the upper hand. Aaron and Hur help him to keep the staff raised; the crosier is the symbol of the governing office of Apostle. In Western Christianity, the crosier is shaped like a shepherd's crook. A bishop or church head bears this staff as "shepherd of the flock of God" the community under his canonical jurisdiction, but any bishop, whether or not assigned to a functional diocese, may use a crosier when conferring sacraments and presiding at liturgies; the Catholic Caeremoniale Episcoporum says that, as a sign of his pastoral function, a bishop uses a crosier within his territory, but any bishop celebrating the liturgy solemnly with the consent of the local bishop may use it. It adds that, when several bishops join in a single celebration, only the one presiding uses a crosier.
A bishop holds his crosier with his left hand, leaving his right hand free to bestow blessings. The Caeremoniale Episcoporum states that the bishop holds the crosier with the open side of the crook forward, or towards the people, it states that a bishop holds the crosier during a procession and when listening to the reading of the Gospel, giving a homily, accepting vows, solemn promises or a profession of faith, when blessing people, unless he must lay his hands on them. When the bishop is not holding the crosier, it is put in the care of an altar server, known as the "crosier bearer", who may wear around his shoulders a shawl-like veil called a vimpa, so as to hold the crosier without touching it with his bare hands. Another altar server wearing a vimpa, holds the mitre when the bishop is not wearing it. In the Anglican tradition, the crosier may be carried by someone else walking before the bishop in a procession; the crosier is conferred upon a bishop during his ordination to the episcopacy.
It is presented to an abbot at his blessing, an ancient custom symbolizing his shepherding of the monastic community. Although there is no provision for the presentation of a crosier in th
The Benedictine Pannonhalma Archabbey or Territorial Abbey of Pannonhalma is a medieval building in Pannonhalma, one of the oldest historical monuments in Hungary. Founded in 996, it is located on top of a hill. Saint Martin of Tours is believed to have been born at the foot of this hill, hence its former name, Mount of Saint Martin, from which the monastery took the alternative name of Márton-hegyi Apátság; this is the second largest territorial abbey in the world, after the one in Monte Cassino. Its sights include the Basilica with the Crypt, the Cloisters, the monumental Library with 360,000 volumes, the Baroque Refectory and the Archabbey Collection. Today there are about 50 monks living in the monastery; the abbey is supplemented by a boys' boarding school. It was founded as the first Hungarian Benedictine monastery in 996 by Prince Géza, who designated this as a place for the monks to settle, it soon became the centre of the Benedictine order; the monastery was built in honour of Saint Martin of Tours.
Géza's son, King Stephen I donated privileges to the monastery. Astrik served as its first abbot; the oldest surviving document to use the Hungarian language, the Charter of the Tihany Benedictine Abbey, dating back to 1055, is still preserved in the library. In 1096, on his way to the holy lands as leader of one of three crusader armies, Duke Godfrey of Bouillon spent a week here negotiating his army's safe passage through Hungary from king Coloman; the first buildings of the community were destroyed in 1137 rebuilt. The Basilica's pillars and the early Gothic vault were built in the early 13th century, using the walls of the former church. In 1486 the abbey was reconstructed under King Matthias in the Gothic style; the monastery became an archabbey in 1541, as a result of Ottoman incursions into Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries it was fortified. During one and a half centuries of the Turkish Occupation, the monks, had to abandon the abbey for shorter or longer periods of time. Only were they able to start the reconstruction of the damaged buildings.
During the time of Archabbot Benedek Sajghó, a major baroque construction was in progress in the monastery. In the 17th and 18th centuries, rich Baroque adornments and extensions were added to the complex and much of its current facade dates from this time, it received its present form in 1832, with the library and the tower, built in classicist style. The 18th century, the era of the Enlightenment influenced the life of the monasteries; the state and the monarchs judged the operation of the communities according to immediate utility, by and large tolerating only those orders which practised nursing and education. In the 1860s, Ferenc Storno organised major renovations in the basilica. After 1945 Hungary became a communist state and in 1950 the properties of the Order and the schools run by the Benedictines were confiscated by the state, not to be returned until after the end of communism in Hungary. In 1995, one year before the millennium, the complex was reconstructed and renovated. In 1996, "the Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural Environment" was elected among the World Heritage sites.
Pannonhalma was visited, among others, by Alexius II, Patriarch of Moscow in 1994, Pope John Paul II in 1996 and Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople and the Dalai Lama in 2000. In 2005, a film was made about the archabbot, Asztrik Várszegi, titled A közvetítő. Stéphanie, Crown Princess of Austria died here and her remains were interred here in 1945. In July 2011, the heart of former Crown Prince Otto of Austria and Hungary Otto von Habsburg's was buried in Pannonhalma Archabbey; the present church of Pannonhalma, a crowning achievement of the early Gothic style, was built at the beginning of the 13th century during the reign of Abbot Uros, was consecrated most in 1224. Recent archaeological findings under the floor level of the west end of the basilica date from the 11th century; the oldest segment seen in the basilica is the wall of the southern aisle. Dating from the 12th century, it is a remnant of the second church to stand on the site, consecrated in 1137 during the reign of Abbot Dávid.
During the archaeological excavations two walled-up gates were found in the sacristy. One of these could have been the northern entrance of Abbot Dávid's church, while the other that of Abbot Uros'. Found under the floor between the front altar and the sanctuary steps was a grave, most that of Abbot Uros; the church was extended during the reign of King Matthias, in which the present-day ceiling of the sanctuary, the eastern ends of the aisles and the Saint Benedict chapel were completed. During the Turkish occupation the furnishings were destroyed; the most significant renovation after the occupation started in the 1720s, under Archabbot Benedek Sajghó. Ferenc Storno was the last to undertake a major renovation of the church in the 1860s. At this time the main altar, the pulpit, the frescoes of the ceiling, the upper-level stained glass window depicting Saint Martin were added. In the Middle Ages one of the main entrances to the church was the Porta Speciosa; this portal leads to the church from the cloister and it was crafted in the 13th century.
In the Renaissance Pannonhalma was rather depopulated. Under King Matthias' rule, in 1472, today's cloister was created; the constructions were finished in 1486