A volcanic field is an area of the Earth's crust, prone to localized volcanic activity. They contain 10 to 100 volcanoes such as cinder cones and are in clusters. Lava flows may occur, they may occur as a polygenetic volcanic field. Atlin Volcanic Field, British Columbia Desolation Lava Field, British Columbia Garibaldi Lake volcanic field, British Columbia Mount Cayley volcanic field, British Columbia Tuya Volcanic Field, British Columbia Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field, British Columbia Wrangell Volcanic Field, Yukon Territory Boring Lava Field, Oregon Central Colorado volcanic field, Colorado Clear Lake Volcanic Field, California Coso Volcanic Field, California Indian Heaven, Washington Marysvale Volcanic Field, Utah Raton-Clayton volcanic field, New Mexico San Bernardino Volcanic Field, Arizona San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona San Juan volcanic field, Colorado Taos Plateau volcanic field, Taos County, New Mexico Trans-Pecos Volcanic Field, Texas Wrangell Volcanic Field, Alaska San Quintín Volcanic Field, Baja California Durango volcanic field, Durango Auckland volcanic field, North Island, New Zealand Bayuda Volcanic Field, Sudan Bombalai Hill, Malaysia Central Skåne Volcanic Province, Sweden Chaîne des Puys, France Cu-Lao Re Group, Vietnam Haruj, Libya In Teria volcanic field, Algeria Laguna Volcanic Field, Philippines Manzaz volcanic field, Algeria Meidob Volcanic Field, Sudan Nemours-Nedroma, Algeria Oujda volcanic field, Morocco Oulmés volcanic field, Morocco Rekkame volcanic field, Morocco Todra volcanic field, Niger Vulkan Eifel, Germany Volcanic arc – A chain of volcanoes formed above a subducting plate Volcanic belt – A large volcanically active region
The Solar System is the gravitationally bound planetary system of the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of the objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest are the eight planets, with the remainder being smaller objects, such as the five dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies. Of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly—the moons—two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury; the Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with the majority of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter; the four smaller inner planets, Venus and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets are giant planets, being more massive than the terrestrials; the two largest and Saturn, are gas giants, being composed of hydrogen and helium. All eight planets have circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic.
The Solar System contains smaller objects. The asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal. Beyond Neptune's orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, which are populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed of ices, beyond them a newly discovered population of sednoids. Within these populations are several dozen to tens of thousands of objects large enough that they have been rounded by their own gravity; such objects are categorized as dwarf planets. Identified dwarf planets include the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris. In addition to these two regions, various other small-body populations, including comets and interplanetary dust clouds travel between regions. Six of the planets, at least four of the dwarf planets, many of the smaller bodies are orbited by natural satellites termed "moons" after the Moon; each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects.
The solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, creates a bubble-like region in the interstellar medium known as the heliosphere. The heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of the interstellar medium; the Oort cloud, thought to be the source for long-period comets, may exist at a distance a thousand times further than the heliosphere. The Solar System is located in the Orion Arm, 26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way galaxy. For most of history, humanity did not understand the concept of the Solar System. Most people up to the Late Middle Ages–Renaissance believed Earth to be stationary at the centre of the universe and categorically different from the divine or ethereal objects that moved through the sky. Although the Greek philosopher Aristarchus of Samos had speculated on a heliocentric reordering of the cosmos, Nicolaus Copernicus was the first to develop a mathematically predictive heliocentric system.
In the 17th century, Galileo discovered that the Sun was marked with sunspots, that Jupiter had four satellites in orbit around it. Christiaan Huygens followed on from Galileo's discoveries by discovering Saturn's moon Titan and the shape of the rings of Saturn. Edmond Halley realised in 1705 that repeated sightings of a comet were recording the same object, returning once every 75–76 years; this was the first evidence that anything other than the planets orbited the Sun. Around this time, the term "Solar System" first appeared in English. In 1838, Friedrich Bessel measured a stellar parallax, an apparent shift in the position of a star created by Earth's motion around the Sun, providing the first direct, experimental proof of heliocentrism. Improvements in observational astronomy and the use of unmanned spacecraft have since enabled the detailed investigation of other bodies orbiting the Sun; the principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a G2 main-sequence star that contains 99.86% of the system's known mass and dominates it gravitationally.
The Sun's four largest orbiting bodies, the giant planets, account for 99% of the remaining mass, with Jupiter and Saturn together comprising more than 90%. The remaining objects of the Solar System together comprise less than 0.002% of the Solar System's total mass. Most large objects in orbit around the Sun lie near the plane of Earth's orbit, known as the ecliptic; the planets are close to the ecliptic, whereas comets and Kuiper belt objects are at greater angles to it. All the planets, most other objects, orbit the Sun in the same direction that the Sun is rotating. There are exceptions, such as Halley's Comet; the overall structure of the charted regions of the Solar System consists of the Sun, four small inner planets surrounded by a belt of rocky asteroids, four giant planets surrounded by the Kuiper belt of icy objects. Astronomers sometimes informally divide this structure into separate regions; the inner Solar System includes the asteroid belt. The outer Solar System is including the four giant planets.
Since the discovery of the Kuiper belt, the outermost parts of the Solar Sys
Menlo Park, California
Menlo Park is a city at the eastern edge of San Mateo County, in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, in the United States. It is bordered by San Francisco Bay on the north and east. Menlo Park is one of the most educated cities in the state of the United States. Menlo Park had 32,026 inhabitants according to the 2010 United States Census, which had grown to an estimated 34,357 inhabitants by 2017. Menlo Park is the site of Facebook's main campus. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 17.4 square miles, of which 9.8 square miles is land and 7.6 square miles is water. The total area is 43.79% water. Menlo Park is narrow on a northeast to southwest axis; the northeast portion borders the San Francisco Bay and includes the Dumbarton Bridge that connects Menlo Park to Fremont on the east side of the bay. The city shoreline includes the city's largest park, Bedwell Bayfront Park 160 acres and the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. San Francisquito Creek marks much of the southeast border of the city.
West Menlo Park along Alameda de las Pulgas nearly separates the southwestern part of the city from the rest. The extreme southwest is clipped by Interstate 280; the Bayshore Freeway traverses Menlo Park northwest to southeast near the shoreline and somewhat parallel to it to the southwest is El Camino Real. The intersection of El Camino Real and Santa Cruz Avenue is considered the heart of the city. Nearby, the Menlo Park Civic center is bounded by Ravenswood Avenue, Alma Street, Laurel Street and Burgess Drive, it contains the council offices, police station and Burgess Park which has various recreational facilities. Other major roads include Sand Hill Road in the Sharon Heights area; the residential areas of Menlo Park are unofficially divided into several neighborhoods. Belle Haven is the only neighborhood east of the Bayshore Freeway. Between Middlefield road and Bayshore are the neighborhoods of the Willows, Suburban Park, Lorelei Manor, Flood Triangle, Vintage Oaks, South of Seminary. Between Middlefield and El Camino Real are Felton Gables, Linfield Oaks, Park Forest.
West of El Camino Real until the hills are the neighborhoods of Downtown Menlo Park, Central Menlo Park, Allied Arts. In the hills are Sharon Heights and Stanford Hills. Several other neighborhoods are associated with Menlo Park but are in unincorporated San Mateo county; the area of Menlo Park was inhabited by the Ohlone people. In 1795 the Rancho de las Pulgas land grant was made. In 1851 two Irish immigrants, Dennis J. Oliver and his brother-in-law D. C. McGlynn, purchased a 1,700-acre tract of land on the former Rancho de las Pulgas. In 1854, they erected a gate with a wooden arch bearing the inscription "Menlo Park" and the date "August 1854" at the entrance to their property; the word "Menlo" derived from the owners' former home of Menlo in County Galway, is an Anglicized version of the original Irish name of the place, meaning "middle lake."In 1863, the San Francisco and San Jose Rail Road had built the railroad from San Francisco to as far as Mayfield and started running trains to the area.
They named a nearby station "Menlo Park" after the sign. The 1867 station building still stands on the platform of the current Caltrain station, used by the local Chamber of Commerce; the town of Menlo Park grew up around this station, becoming a popular home for San Francisco businessmen. A post office arrived in 1870, the city was incorporated in 1874; the original arch which gave its name to the stations and the city, survived until 1922, when the original arch was destroyed in an automobile accident. The origin of the name of Menlo Park, California pre-dates any work done by Thomas Edison in Menlo Park, New Jersey. In 1917/1918 a large portion of Menlo Park was the site of Camp Fremont, a training camp for, at its height, 27,000 men being sent to fight in World War I, it didn't last long, but army engineers paved the first streets in Menlo Park and laid the first water and gas lines. The army did retain the camp hospital, it is now the site of a Veterans Administration hospital off of Willow road in Menlo Park.
In the autumn of 1918 a flu pandemic hit Camp Fremont and killed 147. At the start of World War II, the US government bought the 260-acre estate of Timothy Hopkins from his widow and created the Palo Alto General Hospital renamed the Dibble General Hospital. After the war ended, some of the land was sold to the city and became the sites of the main library and city hall. More of
Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3, 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus. Mariner 10 was launched two years after Mariner 9 and was the last spacecraft in the Mariner program; the mission objectives were to measure Mercury's environment, atmosphere and body characteristics and to make similar investigations of Venus. Secondary objectives were to perform experiments in the interplanetary medium and to obtain experience with a dual-planet gravity assist mission. Mariner 10's science team was led by Bruce C. Murray at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Mariner 10 was the first spacecraft to make use of an interplanetary gravitational slingshot maneuver, using Venus to bend its flight path and bring its perihelion down to the level of Mercury's orbit; this maneuver, inspired by the orbital mechanics calculations of the Italian scientist Giuseppe Colombo, put the spacecraft into an orbit that brought it back to Mercury. Mariner 10 used the solar radiation pressure on its solar panels and its high-gain antenna as a means of attitude control during flight, the first spacecraft to use active solar pressure control.
The components on Mariner 10 can be categorized into four groups based on their common function. The solar panels, power subsystem, attitude control subsystem, computer kept the spacecraft operating properly during the flight; the navigational system, including the hydrazine rocket, would keep Mariner 10 on track to Venus and Mercury. Several scientific instruments would collect data at the two planets; the antennas would transmit this data to the Deep Space Network back on Earth, as well as receive commands from Mission Control. Mariner 10's various components and scientific instruments were attached to a central hub, the shape of an octagonal prism; the hub stored the spacecraft's internal electronics. The Mariner 10 spacecraft was manufactured by Boeing. NASA set a strict limit of $98 million for Mariner 10's total cost, which marked the first time the agency subjected a mission to an inflexible budget constraint. No overruns would be tolerated, so mission planners considered cost efficiency when designing the spacecraft's instruments.
Cost control was accomplished by executing contract work closer to the launch date than was recommended by normal mission schedules, as reducing the length of available work time increased cost efficiency. Despite the rushed schedule few deadlines were missed; the mission ended up about $1 million under budget. Attitude control is needed to keep a spacecraft’s instruments and antennas aimed in the correct direction. During course maneuvers, a spacecraft may need to rotate so that its rocket faces the proper direction before being fired. Mariner 10 determined its attitude using two optical sensors, one pointed at the Sun, the other at a bright star Canopus. Nitrogen gas thrusters were used to adjust Mariner 10's orientation along three axes; the spacecraft’s electronics were intricate and complex: it contained over 32,000 pieces of circuitry, of which resistors, diodes and transistors were the most common devices. Commands for the instruments could be stored on Mariner 10's computer, but were limited to 512 words.
The rest had to be broadcast by the Mission Sequence Working Group from Earth. Supplying the spacecraft components with power required modifying the electrical output of the solar panels; the power subsystem used two redundant sets of circuitry, each containing a booster regulator and an inverter, to convert the panels' DC output to AC and alter the voltage to the necessary level. The subsystem could store up to 20 ampere hours of electricity on a 39 volt nickel-cadmium battery; the flyby past Mercury posed major technical challenges for scientists to overcome. Due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun, Mariner 10 would have to endure 4.5 times more solar radiation than when it departed Earth—compared to previous Mariner missions, spacecraft parts needed extra shielding against the heat. Thermal blankets and a sunshade were installed on the main body. After evaluating different choices for the sunshade cloth material, mission planners chose beta cloth, a combination of aluminized Kapton and glass-fiber sheets treated with Teflon.
However, solar shielding was unfeasible for some of Mariner 10's other components. Mariner 10's two solar panels needed to be kept under 115 °C. Covering the panels would defeat their purpose of producing electricity; the solution was to add an adjustable tilt to the panels, so the angle at which they faced the sun could be changed. Engineers considered folding the panels toward each other, making a V-shape with the main body, but tests found this approach had the potential to overheat the rest of the spacecraft; the alternative chosen was to mount the solar panels in a line and tilt them along that axis, which had the added benefit of increasing the efficiency of the spacecraft’s nitrogen jet thrusters, which could now be placed on the panel tips. The panels could be rotated a maximum of 76 degrees. Additionally, Mariner 10's hydrazine rocket nozzle had to face the Sun to function properly, but scientists rejected covering the nozzle with a thermal door as an undependable solution. Instead, a special paint was applied to exposed parts on the rocket so as to reduce heat flow from the nozzle to the delicate instruments on the spacecraft.
Performing the gravity assist at Venus posed another hurdle. If Mariner 10 was to maintain a course to Mercury, its trajectory could deviate no more than 200 kilometres from a critical point in t
Deep Space 1
Deep Space 1 was a NASA technology demonstration spacecraft which flew by an asteroid and a comet. It was part of the New Millennium Program, dedicated to testing advanced technologies. Launched on 24 October 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft carried out a flyby of asteroid 9969 Braille, its primary science target; the mission was extended twice to include an encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly and further engineering testing. Problems during its initial stages and with its star tracker led to repeated changes in mission configuration. While the flyby of the asteroid was only a partial success, the encounter with the comet retrieved valuable information. Three of twelve technologies on board had to work within a few minutes of separation from the carrier rocket for the mission to continue; the Deep Space series was continued by the Deep Space 2 probes, which were launched in January 1999 piggybacked on the Mars Polar Lander and were intended to strike the surface of Mars. Deep Space 1 was the first NASA spacecraft to use ion propulsion rather than the traditional chemical-powered rockets.
The purpose of Deep Space 1 was technology validation for future missions. The asteroids in the inner Solar System move in relation to other bodies at a noticeable, predictable speed, thus a spacecraft can determine its relative position by tracking such asteroids across the star background, which appears fixed over such timescales. Two or more asteroids let. Existing spacecraft are tracked by their interactions with the transmitters of the NASA Deep Space Network, in effect an inverse GPS. However, DSN tracking requires many skilled operators, the DSN is overburdened by its use as a communications network; the use of Autonav reduces mission cost and DSN demands. The Autonav system can be used in reverse, tracking the position of bodies relative to the spacecraft; this is used to acquire targets for the scientific instruments. The spacecraft is programmed with the target's coarse location. After initial acquisition, Autonav keeps the subject in frame commandeering the spacecraft's attitude control.
The next spacecraft to use Autonav was Deep Impact. Primary power for the mission was produced by a new solar array technology, the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology, which uses linear Fresnel lenses made of silicone to concentrate sunlight onto solar cells. ABLE Engineering developed the concentrator technology and built the solar array for DS1, with Entech Inc, who supplied the Fresnel optics, the NASA Glenn Research Center; the activity was sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. The concentrating lens technology was combined with dual-junction solar cells, which had better performance than the GaAs solar cells that were the state of the art at the time of the mission launch; the SCARLET arrays generated 2.5 kilowatts at 1 AU, with less size and weight than conventional arrays. Although ion engines had been developed at NASA since the late 1950s, with the exception of the SERT missions in the 1960s, the technology had not been demonstrated in flight on United States spacecraft, though hundreds of Hall-effect engines had been used on Soviet and Russian spacecraft.
This lack of a performance history in space meant that despite the potential savings in propellant mass, the technology was considered too experimental to be used for high-cost missions. Furthermore, unforeseen side effects of ion propulsion might in some way interfere with typical scientific experiments, such as fields and particle measurements. Therefore, it was a primary mission of the Deep Space 1 demonstration to show long-duration use of an ion thruster on a scientific mission; the NASA Solar Technology Application Readiness electrostatic ion thruster, developed at NASA Glenn, achieves a specific impulse of 1000–3000 seconds. This is an order of magnitude higher than traditional space propulsion methods, resulting in a mass savings of half; this leads to much cheaper launch vehicles. Although the engine produces just 92 millinewtons thrust at maximal power, the craft achieved high speeds because ion engines thrust continuously for long periods; the next spacecraft to use NSTAR engines was Dawn, with three redundant units.
Remote Agent, remote intelligent self-repair software developed at NASA's Ames Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was the first artificial-intelligence control system to control a spacecraft without human supervision. Remote Agent demonstrated the ability to plan onboard activities and diagnose and respond to simulated faults in spacecraft components through its built-in REPL environment. Autonomous control will enable future spacecraft to operate at greater distances from Earth and to carry out more sophisticated science-gathering activities in deep space. Components of the Remote Agent software have been used to support other NASA missions. Major components of Remote Agent were a robust planner, a plan-execution system and a model-based diagnostic system. EUROPA was used as a ground-based planner for the Mars Exploration Rovers
Mars Climate Orbiter
The Mars Climate Orbiter was a 338-kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on December 11, 1998 to study the Martian climate, Martian atmosphere, surface changes and to act as the communications relay in the Mars Surveyor'98 program for Mars Polar Lander. However, on September 23, 1999, communication with the spacecraft was lost as the spacecraft went into orbital insertion, due to ground-based computer software which produced output in non-SI units of pound-force seconds instead of the SI units of newton-seconds specified in the contract between NASA and Lockheed; the spacecraft encountered Mars on a trajectory that brought it too close to the planet, it was either destroyed in the atmosphere or re-entered heliocentric space after leaving Mars' atmosphere. After the loss of Mars Observer and the onset of the rising costs associated with the future International Space Station, NASA began seeking less expensive, smaller probes for scientific interplanetary missions. In 1994, the Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology was established to set guidelines for future miniature spacecraft.
The panel determined that the new line of miniature spacecraft should be under 1000 kilograms with focused instrumentation. In 1995, a new Mars Surveyor program began as a set of missions designed with limited objectives, low costs, frequent launches; the first mission in the new program was Mars Global Surveyor, launched in 1996 to map Mars and provide geologic data using instruments intended for Mars Observer. Following Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Climate Orbiter carried two instruments, one intended for Mars Observer, to study the climate and weather of Mars; the primary science objectives of the mission included: determine the distribution of water on Mars monitor the daily weather and atmospheric conditions record changes on the Martian surface due to wind and other atmospheric effects determine temperature profiles of the atmosphere monitor the water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere look for evidence of past climate change. The Mars Climate Orbiter bus measured 1.6 meters wide and 2 meters deep.
The internal structure was constructed with graphite composite/aluminum honeycomb supports, a design found in many commercial airplanes. With the exception of the scientific instruments and main engine, the spacecraft included dual redundancy on the most important systems; the spacecraft was 3-axis included eight hydrazine monopropellant thrusters. Orientation of the spacecraft was determined by a star tracker, two Sun sensors and two inertial measurement units. Orientation was controlled by using three reaction wheels. To perform the Mars orbital insertion maneuver, the spacecraft included a LEROS 1B main engine rocket, providing 640N of thrust by burning hydrazine fuel with nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer; the spacecraft included a 1.3-meter high-gain antenna to transceive data with the Deep Space Network over the x-band. The radio transponder designed for the Cassini–Huygens mission was used as a cost-saving measure, it included a two-way UHF radio frequency system to relay communications with Mars Polar Lander upon an expected landing on December 3, 1999.
The space probe was powered with a 3-panel solar array. Deployed, the solar array measured 5.5 meters in length. Power was stored in 16-amp-hour Nickel hydrogen batteries; the batteries were intended to be recharged when the solar array received sunlight and power the spacecraft as it passed into the shadow of Mars. When entering into orbit around Mars, the solar array was to be utilized in the aerobraking maneuver, to slow the spacecraft until a circular orbit was achieved; the design was adapted from guidelines from the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative outlined in the book, Technology for Small Spacecraft. In an effort to simplify previous implementations of computers on spacecraft, Mars Climate Orbiter featured a single computer using an IBM RAD6000 processor capable of 5 MHz, 10 MHz and 20 MHz operations. Data storage was to be maintained on 18 MB of flash memory; the flash memory was intended to be used for important data, including triplicate copies of the flight system software. The cost of the mission was $327.6 million total for the orbiter and lander, comprising $193.1 million for spacecraft development, $91.7 million for launching it, $42.8 million for mission operations.
The Pressure Modulated Infrared Radiometer uses narrow-band radiometric channels and two pressure modulation cells to measure atmospheric and surface emissions in the thermal infrared and a visible channel to measure dust particles and condensates in the atmosphere and on the surface at varying longitudes and seasons. Its principal investigator was Daniel McCleese at JPL/CALTECH. Similar objectives were achieved with Mars Climate Sounder on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, its objectives: Map the three-dimensional and time-varying thermal structure of the atmosphere from the surface to 80 km altitude. Map the atmospheric dust loading and its global and temporal variation. Map the seasonal and spatial variation of the vertical distribution of atmospheric water vapor to an altitude of at least 35 km. Distinguish between atmospheric condensates and map their spatial and temporal variation. Map the seasonal and spatial variability of atmospheric pressure. Monitor the polar radiation balance; the Mars Color Imager is a two-camera imaging system designed to obtain pictures of the Martian surface and atmosphere.
Under proper conditions
United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station
The United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, is an astronomical observatory near Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. It is the national dark-sky observing facility under the United States Naval Observatory. NOFS and USNO combine as the Celestial Reference Frame manager for the U. S. Secretary of Defense; the Flagstaff Station is a command, established by USNO at a site five miles west of Flagstaff, Arizona in 1955, has positions for operational scientists and mechanical engineers, support staff. NOFS science supports every aspect of positional astronomy to some level, providing national support and beyond. Work at NOFS covers the gamut of astrometry and astrophysics in order to facilitate its production of accurate/precise astronomical catalogs. Owing to the celestial dynamics of the huge number of such moving objects across their own treks through space, the time expanse required to pin down each set of celestial locations and motions for a billion-star catalog, can be quite long. Multiple observations of each object may themselves take months or years, by themselves.
This, multiplied by the large number of cataloged objects that must be reduced for use, which must be analyzed after observation for a careful statistical understanding of all catalog errors, forces the rigorous production of most precise and faint astrometric catalogs to take many years, sometimes decades, to complete. The United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station celebrated its 50th anniversary of the move there from Washington, D. C. in late 2005. Dr. John Hall, Director of the Naval Observatory's Equatorial Division from 1947, founded NOFS. Dr. Art Hoag became its first director in 1955. NOFS has had 6 directors since 1955. NOFS remains active in supporting regional dark skies, both to support its national protection mission, to promote and protect a national resource legacy for generations of humans to come. NOFS is adjacent to Northern Arizona's San Francisco Peaks, on the alpine Colorado Plateau and geographically above the Mogollon Rim. Flagstaff and Coconino County minimize northern Arizona light pollution through legislation of progressive code – which regulates local lighting.
Indeed, despite a half-century-young history, NOFS has a rich heritage, derived from its parent organization, USNO, the oldest scientific institution in the U. S. Notable events have included support to the Apollo Astronaut program hosted by USGS' nearby Astrogeology Research Center. At an elevation of 7,500 feet, NOFS is home to a number of astronomical instruments. NOFS do fundamental science on the UKIRT Infrared telescope in Hawaii; the Navy provides stewardship of the facility and related dark sky protection efforts through its Navy Region Southwest, through Naval Air Facility El Centro. The 1.55-meter Kaj Strand Telescope remains largest telescope operated by the U. S. Navy. Congress appropriated funding in 1961 and it saw first light in 1964; this status will change when the NPOI four 1.8-meter telescopes see their own first light in the near future. KSAR rides in the arms of an equatorial fork mount; the telescope is used in both the visible spectrum, in the near infrared, the latter using a sub-30-kelvin, helium-refrigerated, InSb camera, "Astrocam".
In 1978, the 1.55-m telescope was used to "discover the moon of dwarf planet Pluto, named'Charon'".. The Charon discovery led to mass calculations which revealed how tiny Pluto was, caused the IAU to reclassify Pluto as a dwarf planet; the 1.55-meter telescope was used to observe and track NASA's Deep Impact Spacecraft, as it navigated to a successful inter-planetary impact with the celebrated Comet 9p/Tempel, in 2005. This telescope is well-suited to perform stellar parallax studies, narrow-field astrometry supporting space navigation, has played a key role in discovering one of the coolest-ever known brown dwarf objects, in 2002; the KSAR dome is centrally located on NOFS grounds, with support and office buildings attached to the dome structures. The large vacuum coating chamber facility is located in this complex; the chamber can provide accurate coatings and overcoatings of 100±2 Angstrom thickness, for small-to-multi-ton optics up to 1.8-meter in diameter, in a vacuum exceeding 7×106 Torr, using a vertical-optic, 1500-ampere discharge system.
A dielectric coating capability has been demonstrated. Large optics and telescope components can be moved about NOFS using its suite of cranes, cargo elevators and specialized carts; the main complex contains a controlled-environment and electronics lab for laser, adaptive optics, optics development, collimation and micro-electronic control systems needed for NOFS and NPOI. The KSAR Telescope's 18-meter diameter steel dome is quite large for the telescope's aperture, owing to its telescope's long f/9.8 focal ratio. It uses a wide 2-shutter, vertical slit. Development stu