New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus, independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater. Scuba divers carry their own source of breathing gas compressed air, allowing them greater independence and freedom of movement than surface-supplied divers, longer underwater endurance than breath-hold divers. Although the use of compressed air is common, a new mixture called enriched air has been gaining popularity due to its benefit of reduced nitrogen intake during repetitive dives. Open circuit scuba systems discharge the breathing gas into the environment as it is exhaled, consist of one or more diving cylinders containing breathing gas at high pressure, supplied to the diver through a regulator, they may include additional cylinders for range extension, decompression gas or emergency breathing gas. Closed-circuit or semi-closed circuit rebreather scuba systems allow recycling of exhaled gases; the volume of gas used is reduced compared to that of open circuit, so a smaller cylinder or cylinders may be used for an equivalent dive duration.
Rebreathers extend. Scuba diving may be done recreationally or professionally in a number of applications, including scientific and public safety roles, but most commercial diving uses surface-supplied diving equipment when this is practicable. Scuba divers engaged in armed forces covert operations may be referred to as frogmen, combat divers or attack swimmers. A scuba diver moves underwater by using fins attached to the feet, but external propulsion can be provided by a diver propulsion vehicle, or a sled pulled from the surface. Other equipment includes a mask to improve underwater vision, exposure protection, equipment to control buoyancy, equipment related to the specific circumstances and purpose of the dive; some scuba divers use a snorkel. Scuba divers are trained in the procedures and skills appropriate to their level of certification by instructors affiliated to the diver certification organisations which issue these certifications; these include standard operating procedures for using the equipment and dealing with the general hazards of the underwater environment, emergency procedures for self-help and assistance of a equipped diver experiencing problems.
A minimum level of fitness and health is required by most training organisations, but a higher level of fitness may be appropriate for some applications. The history of scuba diving is linked with the history of scuba equipment. By the turn of the twentieth century, two basic architectures for underwater breathing apparatus had been pioneered. Closed circuit equipment was more adapted to scuba in the absence of reliable and economical high pressure gas storage vessels. By the mid twentieth century, high pressure cylinders were available and two systems for scuba had emerged: open-circuit scuba where the diver's exhaled breath is vented directly into the water, closed-circuit scuba where the carbon dioxide is removed from the diver's exhaled breath which has oxygen added and is recirculated. Oxygen rebreathers are depth-limited due to oxygen toxicity risk, which increases with depth, the available systems for mixed gas rebreathers were bulky and designed for use with diving helmets; the first commercially practical scuba rebreather was designed and built by the diving engineer Henry Fleuss in 1878, while working for Siebe Gorman in London.
His self contained breathing apparatus consisted of a rubber mask connected to a breathing bag, with an estimated 50–60% oxygen supplied from a copper tank and carbon dioxide scrubbed by passing it through a bundle of rope yarn soaked in a solution of caustic potash, the system giving a dive duration of up to about three hours. This apparatus had no way of measuring the gas composition during use. During the 1930s and all through World War II, the British and Germans developed and extensively used oxygen rebreathers to equip the first frogmen; the British adapted the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus and the Germans adapted the Dräger submarine escape rebreathers, for their frogmen during the war. In the U. S. Major Christian J. Lambertsen invented an underwater free-swimming oxygen rebreather in 1939, accepted by the Office of Strategic Services. In 1952 he patented a modification of his apparatus, this time named SCUBA, which became the generic English word for autonomous breathing equipment for diving, for the activity using the equipment.
After World War II, military frogmen continued to use rebreathers since they do not make bubbles which would give away the presence of the divers. The high percentage of oxygen used by these early rebreather systems limited the depth at which they could be used due to the risk of convulsions caused by acute oxygen toxicity. Although a working demand regulator system had been invented in 1864 by Auguste Denayrouze and Benoît Rouquayrol, the first open-circuit scuba system developed in 1925 by Yves Le Prieur in France was a manually adjusted free-flow system with a low endurance, which limited its practical usefulness. In 1942, during th
Rena oil spill
The Rena oil spill occurred off the coast of Tauranga in New Zealand. The spill was caused by the grounding of MV Rena on the Astrolabe Reef; the Rena was a container ship and cargo vessel owned by the Greek shipping company Costamare Inc. through one of its subsidiary companies, chartered by the Mediterranean Shipping Company. The spill has been described as New Zealand's worst maritime environmental disaster. On Wednesday, 5 October 2011, at 2:20 AM while sailing in clear weather from Napier to Tauranga, at a speed of 17 knots, Rena ran aground on the Astrolabe Reef; the ship was carrying 1,368 containers, eight of which contained hazardous materials, as well as 1,700 tonnes of heavy fuel oil and 200 tonnes of marine diesel oil. The ship listed 11 degrees to port, with the front stuck on the reef. By Sunday, 9 October 2011, a 5 kilometres oil slick threatened wildlife and the area's rich fishing waters. Oil from Rena began washing ashore at Mount Maunganui beach on 10 October 2011. Bad weather that night had caused the ship to shift further onto the reef, the crew was evacuated.
The shifting of the ship caused further damage, resulting in a further 130 - 350 tonnes of oil leaking. Strong winds and bad weather on the night of 11 October 2011 caused the ship to list over to starboard 19 degrees. None of the containers contained hazardous cargo. Containers subsequently began washing ashore on Motiti Island. On the afternoon of 12 October 2011, aerial footage showed a large crack in the hull, increasing fears that the ship could break in two and sink, it showed a container floating in the water surrounded by smoke, suggesting that a chemical reaction was occurring. On 13 October 2011, Maritime New Zealand ordered beaches from Mount Maunganui to Maketu Point, including the Maketu Estuary, to be closed to the public. Volunteers were warned that contact with spilled oil could lead to vomiting and rashes, local residents were urged to close their windows to limit fumes. Costamare Shipping, the owners of Rena, apologised to the people of Tauranga, saying they were "deeply sorry" for the "disastrous event."
Although not obligated to do so, the charterer, Mediterranean Shipping Company, promised to help with the cleanup costs. On 14 October 2011, it was reported that the ship's hull had cracked in half, the bow and stern sections were held together only by internal structures and the reef. Calmer weather meant that preparations could be made to pump out the remainder of the ship's oil, but a change in the wind direction meant that oil was to spread as far east as Whakatane and Opotiki. On 14 October 2011, the Filipino crew of the Rena left New Zealand "for their safety" after a racist backlash against Filipinos in Tauranga. Calm weather on 15 October 2011, allowed salvage experts to board the vessel and begin preparations to pump the remaining oil to a barge. Platforms were attached to the side of the ship, pumping began on 16 October 2011. By 17 October only twenty tons of oil had been removed. On 16 October a mine-countermeasures team aboard HMNZS Manawanui began hunting for spilled containers.
After October, salvage efforts were focused on removing the ship's cargo before it broke apart. In January 2012, the Rena broke in half and the stern section slipped off of the reef and sank. A small amount of oil and containers escaped the ship. By 23 March 2012, 649 containers of cargo had been recovered and it was thought that only a few tens of tonnes of oil still remained in the ship; the incident was not brought to the public eye since it took place on 5 October 2011, the same day the well-known American businessman Steve Jobs died. In addition, media outlets had their hands full with the Occupy Wall Street Movement, taking place. Information about the oil spill did not surface on major news websites until four days when CBC News published an article on 9 October 2011. British newspaper The Guardian released a piece on the incident on 10 October 2011, followed by the BBC on 11 October 2011. Residents of Motiti Island voiced their concerns over the effects the oil spill was having on their lifestyles, since they relied on water filled in tanks and seafood from the affected waters for survival.
It cost islanders $100 to leave the island for food or water. New Zealand environmental minister, Nick Smith, said that the impact of this spill was the most significant in New Zealand history. Reporter Karen Barlow of Lateline said that it may not be the biggest oil spill, but it could be catastrophic for the pristine waters of the Bay of Plenty. World Wildlife Fund spokesperson, Bob Zuur, confirmed a major loss of wildlife. "The cleanup for the Rena Oil spill will take time," said New Zealand scientist Dr. Norm Duke. "Petroleum oil will break down - but this takes time and oxygenation. So, the longer the oil remains floating at sea - the safer it becomes. And, the rougher the weather - the better also."Maritime New Zealand used the oil dispersant Corexit 9500 to help in the cleanup process. Corexit is known to increase the toxicity of oil; the dispersant was applied for only a week. As of 2011, there were 400 trained responders to oil spills in the country. Marine Pollution Response Service advised that most of the responders had received low level training, estimating that only 60 of the 400 trained have achieved high level training.
The Marine Pollution Response Service suggested that a higher level of training wa
Motiti Island is located off the Bay of Plenty coast of New Zealand's North Island. It is 9.4 kilometres north-east of Papamoa. There were 18 homes occupied by 27 people on the island in the 2006 census. A flat island covering some 10 km2, Motiti Island is composed of Miocene volcanic rocks, overlaid with more recent sediments in the south; the principal activity on the island is agriculture, with a developing avocado plantation. Most residents and visitors travel to the island by air. There is no public infrastructure and the whole island is in private ownership. Access is expensive. Bay of Plenty Regional Council has regional council responsibility for Motiti Island. No territorial authority council is responsible for it – therefore residents pay no rates and there are no council services. Day-to-day administration is by the Department of Internal Affairs. On 2 November 1769, during his first voyage, Captain Cook sailed close inshore to Motiti Island, where he reported the most extensive complex of fortified villages he had yet seen.
In his journal he refers to it as the "Flat Island". On 9 October 2011, the 45' launch M/V Excalibur ran aground offshore in bad weather; the crew of six was rescued. In 2011 the MV Rena ran aground on Astrolabe Reef. Oil from the resulting spill, as well as shipping containers and their contents, reached the shoreline of the island. In October 2013, Motiti Island residents rejected an offer by the MV Rena's owners to start a development project for the island, in return for being able to leave the Rena wreckage where it lay; the plan included: Building a landing point for barges. Creating a one-lane, all-weather road to the airstrip. Installing a new cellphone tower to improve communications. Running an underground cable from the mainland to improve power supply. Putting a permanent beacon on Astrolabe Reef. Building a Rena memorial from the ship's anchor. Sunair operates from Motiti Island to Tauranga with Cessna 172 aircraft. List of islands of New Zealand
A reef is a bar of rock, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water. Many reefs result from natural, abiotic processes—deposition of sand, wave erosion planing down rock outcrops, etc.—but the best known reefs are the coral reefs of tropical waters developed through biotic processes dominated by corals and coralline algae. Artificial reefs sometimes have a role in enhancing the physical complexity of featureless sand bottoms, in order to attract a diverse assemblage of organisms algae and fish. Earth's largest reef system is the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, at a length of over 2,300 kilometres. There is a variety of biotic reef types, including oyster reefs and sponge reefs, but the most massive and distributed are tropical coral reefs. Although corals are major contributors to the framework and bulk material comprising a coral reef; these biotic reef types take on additional names depending upon how the reef lies in relation to the land, if any. Reef types include fringing reefs, barrier reefs, atolls.
A fringing reef is a reef, attached to an island. A barrier reef forms a calcareous barrier around an island resulting in a lagoon between the shore and the reef. An atoll is a ring reef with no land present; the reef front is a high energy locale whereas the internal lagoon will be at a lower energy with fine grained sediments. Ancient reefs buried within stratigraphic sections are of considerable interest to geologists because they provide paleo-environmental information about the location in Earth's history. In addition, reef structures within a sequence of sedimentary rocks provide a discontinuity which may serve as a trap or conduit for fossil fuels or mineralizing fluids to form petroleum or ore deposits. Corals, including some major extinct groups Rugosa and Tabulata, have been important reef builders through much of the Phanerozoic since the Ordovician Period. However, other organism groups, such as calcifying algae members of the red algae Rhodophyta, molluscs have created massive structures at various times.
During the Cambrian Period, the conical or tubular skeletons of Archaeocyatha, an extinct group of uncertain affinities, built reefs. Other groups, such as the Bryozoa have been important interstitial organisms, living between the framework builders; the corals which build reefs today, the Scleractinia, arose after the Permian–Triassic extinction event that wiped out the earlier rugose corals, became important reef builders throughout the Mesozoic Era. They may have arisen from a rugose coral ancestor. Rugose corals built their skeletons of calcite and have a different symmetry from that of the scleractinian corals, whose skeletons are aragonite. However, there are some unusual examples of well-preserved aragonitic rugose corals in the late Permian. In addition, calcite has been reported in the initial post-larval calcification in a few scleractinian corals. Scleractinian corals may have arisen from a non-calcifying ancestor independent of the rugosan corals. One useful definition distinguishes reefs from mounds as follows: Both are considered to be varieties of organosedimentary buildups – sedimentary features, built by the interaction of organisms and their environment, that have synoptic relief and whose biotic composition differs from that found on and beneath the surrounding sea floor.
Reefs are held up by a macroscopic skeletal framework. Coral reefs are an example of this kind. Corals and calcareous algae grow on top of one another and form a three-dimensional framework, modified in various ways by other organisms and inorganic processes. By contrast, mounds lack a macroscopic skeletal framework. Mounds are built by organisms that don't grow a skeletal framework. A microbial mound might be built or by cyanobacteria. Examples of biostromes formed by cyanobacteria occur in the Great Salt Lake in Utah, in Shark Bay on the coast of Western Australia. Cyanobacteria do not have skeletons, individuals are microscopic. Cyanobacteria can encourage the precipitation or accumulation of calcium carbonate to produce distinct sediment bodies in composition that have relief on the seafloor. Cyanobacterial mounds were most abundant before the evolution of shelly macroscopic organisms, but they still exist today. Bryozoans and crinoids, common contributors to marine sediments during the Mississippian, for instance, produced a different kind of mound.
Bryozoans are small and the skeletons of crinoids disintegrate. However and crinoid meadows can persist over time and produce compositionally distinct bodies of sediment with depositional relief; the Proterozoic Belt Supergroup contains evidence of possible microbial mat and dome structures similar to stromatolite reef complexes. Benjamin Kahn Coral reef Reef Hobbyist Magazine Placer Pseudo-atoll Shears N. T. Biogeography, community structure and biological habitat types of subtidal reefs on the South Island West Coast, New Zealand. Science for Conservation 281. P 53. Department of Conservation, New Zealand. Reef Rescue - Smithsonian Ocean Portal Coral Reefs of the Tropics: facts and movies from The Nature Conservancy NOAA Photo Library Reef Environmental Education Foundation NOS Data Explorer - A portal to obtain NOAA National Ocean Service data Reef formation Atoll
Bay of Plenty
The Bay of Plenty is a bight in the northern coast of New Zealand's North Island. It stretches 260 km from the Coromandel Peninsula in the west to Cape Runaway in the east; the Bay of Plenty Region is situated around this body of water incorporating several large islands in the bay. The bay was named by James Cook after he noticed the abundant food supplies at several Māori villages there, in stark contrast to the earlier observations he had made in Poverty Bay. According to local Māori traditions, the Bay of Plenty was the landing point of several migration canoes that brought Māori settlers to New Zealand; these include the Mataatua, Nukutere, Tākitimu and Tainui canoes. Many of the descendent iwi maintain their traditional homelands in the region, including Te Whānau-ā-Apanui, Te Whakatōhea, Ngāi Tai, Ngāi Tūhoe, Ngāti Awa, Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki Kawerau, Te Arawa, Ngāi Te Rangi, Ngāti Ranginui and Ngāti Pūkenga. Early Māori settlement gave rise to many of the city names used today; the first recorded European contact came when James Cook sailed through the Bay of Plenty in 1769.
Cook noted the abundance of food supplies, in comparison to Poverty Bay further back along the eastern coast of the North Island. Further reports of European contact are scarce prior to the arrival of missionary Samuel Marsden to the Tauranga area in 1820. During the 1820s and 1830s, northern iwi including Ngā Puhi invaded the Bay of Plenty during their campaign throughout the North Island, fighting local Māori tribes in what became known as the Musket Wars. However, the 1830s and 1840s saw increased contact between Bay of Plenty Māori and Europeans through trade, although few Europeans settled in the region. Missionary activity in the region increased during this time. In 1853, New Zealand was subdivided into provinces, with the Bay of Plenty incorporated into Auckland Province. Conflict returned to the Bay of Plenty during the 1860s with the New Zealand Land Wars; this stemmed from Tauranga iwi supporting the Waikato iwi in their conflict with the government. In retaliation, British Crown and government-allied Māori forces attacked the Tauranga iwi, including at the famous Battle of Gate Pā in 1864.
Further conflict with the government arose in 1865 when German missionary Carl Völkner and interpreter James Fulloon were killed by local Māori at Opotiki and Whakatane, respectively. The ensuing conflict resulted in the confiscation of considerable land from several Bay of Plenty iwi by the government. Confiscation of Māori land deprived local iwi of economic resources, provided land for expanding European settlement; the government established fortified positions, including at Tauranga and Opotiki. European settlers arrived throughout the latter half of the 19th century, establishing settlements in Katikati, Te Puke and the Rangitaiki area. In 1876, settlements were incorporated into counties following the nationwide dissolution of the provincial system. Initial settlements in the region struggled: the climate was ill-suited to sheep farming and the geography was inaccessible, further hindered by a lack of infrastructure. By the end of the century the population had started to dwindle, but after experimenting with different crops, settlers found success with dairy production.
Dairy factories sprang up across the Bay of Plenty in the 1900s, with butter and cheese feeding economic prosperity throughout the early 20th century. Timber became a major export in the 1950s, as kiwifruit did later; the present Bay of Plenty region was formed in 1989 after a nationwide review and shakeup of top-level local government in New Zealand. The new region incorporated the former counties of Tauranga, Rotorua and Opotiki. On 5 October 2011, the MV Rena ran aground on the Astrolabe Reef in the bay causing a large oil spill, described as New Zealand's worst environmental disaster; the region is subdivided into territorial authorities, which include the Western Bay of Plenty District, Tauranga City, Whakatane District, Kawerau District and Opotiki District, as well as parts of Rotorua District and the town of Rangitaiki in Taupo District. The Bay of Plenty Regional Council, which used the brand name Environment Bay of Plenty for a number of years, is the administrative body responsible for overseeing regional land use, environmental management and civil defence in the region.
It oversees local-tier governing councils for each of the territorial authorities. In 1989, Whakatane was selected as the seat for the regional council, as a compromise between the two dominant cities of Tauranga and Rotorua. Public health in New Zealand is broken into regions; the Bay of Plenty and Lakes district health boards have public health provided by Toi Te Ora - Public Health. The Bay of Plenty region covers 9,500 km ² of coastal marine area, it extends along the eastern coast of the North Island, from the base of the Coromandel Peninsula in the west to Cape Runaway in the east. The region extends 12 nautical miles from the mainland coastline, extends from the coastlines of several islands in the bay, notably Mayor Island/Tuhua, Motiti Island, Whale Island and the active volcano of Whakaari/White Island, it extends inland to the sparsely populated forest lands around Murupara. The geographical bay is defined by 259 km of open coastline used for economic and cultural purposes; the coastline from Waihi Beach in the west to Opape is defined as sandy coast, while the coast from Opape to Cape Runaway is rocky shore.
Sizeable harbours are located at Tauranga and Ohiwa. Major estuaries include Maketu, Little Waihi, Whakatane and Waioeka/Otara. Eight major rivers empty into the bay from inland
MV Rena was a 3,351 TEU container ship owned by the Greek shipping company Costamare Inc. through one of its subsidiaries, Daina Shipping Co. The ship was built in 1990 as ZIM America for the Israeli shipping company Zim by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG in Kiel, Germany, she was renamed Andaman Sea in 2007 and had sailed under her current name and owner since 2010. On 5 October 2011, due to navigation errors near the Astrolabe Reef, the Rena ran aground near Tauranga, New Zealand, resulting in an oil spill. Over the span of several months, she had been battered by consistent heavy winds and rough seas and on 8 January 2012 the Rena broke in two after a harsh night of bad weather. By 10 January the stern section had slipped off of the reef bank and sunk completely; the Rena was a 236-metre Panamax container ship with a container capacity of 3,351 twenty-foot equivalent units in seven holds. Her breadth was 32.2 metres, laden she had a draught of 12 metres. Her gross tonnage was net tonnage 16,454 and deadweight tonnage 47,231 tonnes.
The Rena was served by a crew of 20. The ship was propelled by a single eight-cylinder Cegielski-Sulzer 8RTA76 two-stroke low-speed diesel engine directly coupled to a fixed-pitch propeller; the main engine, which had a maximum output of 21,996 kW at 98 rpm, burned 90 tons of heavy fuel oil per day while giving the ship a service speed of 21 knots. For maneuvering at ports the ship was equipped with a bow thruster. Shipboard power was generated by two 1,240-kilowatt auxiliary generating sets. In the late 1980s the Israeli shipping company Zim launched a major renovation and fleet expansion project, which included ordering 15 new ships. One of the new ships was ZIM America, laid down on 4 October 1989 at the Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG shipyard in Kiel, Germany. Delivered on 1 April 1990 and registered in Haifa, the new 3351 TEU container ship enabled Zim to offer a weekly fixed-day sailing schedule for its customers; the ZIM America was re-registered under the Maltese flag of convenience in 2004 with Valletta as her home port, in 2007 she was renamed Andaman Sea.
In 2010 the Andaman Sea was sold to Daina Shipping Co. a subsidiary of the Greek shipping company Costamare Inc. She was registered in the port of Monrovia in Liberia. In 2011 the shipping company signed a five-year charter for Rena with the Mediterranean Shipping Company. On Wednesday, 5 October 2011, at 2:20 AM while sailing from Napier to Tauranga, the Rena ran aground on the Astrolabe Reef off the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand; the ship was carrying 1,368 containers, eight of which contained hazardous materials, as well as 1,700 tonnes of heavy fuel oil and 200 tonnes of marine diesel. By Sunday, 9 October, a 5-kilometre oil slick threatened wildlife and the area's rich fishing waters. Oil from the Rena began washing ashore at Mount Maunganui beach on 10 October. Bad weather that night caused the ship to shift on the reef, the crew were evacuated; the shifting of the ship caused further damage, resulting in a further 130–350 tonnes of oil leaking. On 11 October the spill was declared New Zealand's worst maritime environmental disaster by Environment Minister Nick Smith.
By 13 October the ship was listing by 20°, 88 of her 1368 containers had fallen into the sea. Due to increased pressure to her hull, Rena was expected at any point to split in two, furthering the environmental impact of the disaster, it was reported on 14 October 2011, that Rena had cracked in two, held together only by her internal structure and the reef itself. On 8 January 2012, it was reported that the Rena had broken in two, while the bow section remained grounded on the reef, the split had caused both sections to slew away from each other and settle lower in the water; this caused further oil to be released into the sea. By 10 January the stern section had been submerged completely, on 4 April it slipped further down the reef and disappeared from the surface. By June 2014, the wreck has been salvaged of 77% of the initial containers. Major pieces of the wreck have been removed, those include: the entire bow section being leveled one metre below the low tide mark, removal of the 350 tonne accommodation block and a major piece of port side.
All fuel and oils have been removed, except for about 1 tonne of clingage. There is an ongoing search for the last container of plastic beads. During the whole salvage, more than 850 tonnes of debris has been removed from the area. In a report by the ship's owner it was noted that the anti-fouling paint on the wreck contains zinc, diuron and tributyltin; the same report noted that there is "localised contamination of TBT in on-reef sediments at Astrolabe". The Sediment Quality Report submitted by the ship's owners as part of their resource consent application to leave the wreck on Astrolabe noted, "Sediment contaminant concentrations on Astrolabe Reef adjacent to the wreck indicates adverse effects on organisms are to be occurring due to elevated concentrations of copper, zinc, TBT, PAHs." List of oil spills