Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
Giuseppe Piazzi was an Italian Catholic priest of the Theatine order and astronomer. He was born in Ponte in Valtellina, died in Naples, he established an observatory at Palermo, now the Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo – Giuseppe S. Vaiana, his most famous discovery was the first dwarf planet, Ceres. No documented account of Piazzi's scientific education is available in any of the biographies of the astronomer in the oldest ones. Piazzi did some studies in Turin, quite attending Giovan Battista Beccaria's lessons. In the years 1768–1770 he was resident at the Theatines' Home in S. Andrea della Valle, while studying Mathematics under François Jacquier. In July 1770, he took the chair of Mathematics at the University of Malta. In December 1773, he moved to Ravenna as "prefetto degli studenti" and lecturer in Philosophy and Mathematics at the Collegio dei Nobili, where he stayed until the beginning of 1779. After a short period spent in Cremona and in Rome, in March 1781 Piazzi moved to Palermo as lecturer in Mathematics at the University of Palermo.
He kept this position until 19 January 1787. At the same time, he was granted permission to spend two years in Paris and London, to undergo some practical training in astronomy and to get some instruments to be specially built for the Palermo Observatory, whose foundation he was in charge of. In the period spent abroad, from 13 March 1787 until the end of 1789, Piazzi became acquainted with the major French and English astronomers of his time and was able to have the famous altazimuthal circle made by Jesse Ramsden, one of the most skilled instrument-makers of the 18th century; the circle was the most important instrument of the Palermo Observatory, whose official foundation took place on 1 July 1790. In 1817, King Ferdinand put Piazzi in charge of the completion of the Capodimonte Observatory, naming him General Director of the Naples and Sicily Observatories, he supervised the compilation of the Palermo Catalogue of stars, containing 7,646 star entries with unprecedented precision, including the star names "Garnet Star" from Herschel, the original Rotanev and Sualocin.
The work to observe the sky methodically. The catalogue wasn't finished for first edition publication until 1803, with a second edition in 1814. Spurred by the success discovering Ceres, in the line of his catalogue program, Piazzi studied the proper motions of stars to find parallax measurement candidates. One of them, 61 Cygni, was specially appointed as a good candidate for measuring a parallax, performed by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel; the star system 61 Cygni is sometimes still called variously Bessel's Star. Piazzi discovered Ceres. On 1 January 1801 Piazzi discovered a "stellar object". At first he thought it was a fixed star, but once he noticed that it moved, he became convinced it was a planet, or as he called it, "a new star". In his journal, he wrote: The light was a little faint, of the colour of Jupiter, but similar to many others which are reckoned of the eighth magnitude; therefore I had no doubt of its being any other than a fixed star. In the evening of the second I repeated my observations, having found that it did not correspond either in time or in distance from the zenith with the former observation, I began to entertain some doubts of its accuracy.
I conceived afterwards a great suspicion. The evening of the third, my suspicion was converted into certainty, being assured it was not a fixed star. Before I made it known, I waited till the evening of the fourth, when I had the satisfaction to see it had moved at the same rate as on the preceding days. In spite of his assumption that it was a planet, he took the conservative route and announced it as a comet. In a letter to astronomer Barnaba Oriani of Milan he made his suspicions known in writing: I have announced this star as a comet, but since it is not accompanied by any nebulosity and, since its movement is so slow and rather uniform, it has occurred to me several times that it might be something better than a comet, but I have been careful not to advance this supposition to the public. He was not able to observe it long enough. Unable to compute its orbit with existing methods, the mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss developed a new method of orbit calculation that allowed astronomers to locate it again.
After its orbit was better determined, it was clear that Piazzi's assumption was correct and this object was not a comet but more like a small planet. Coincidentally, it was almost where the Titius-Bode law predicted a planet would be. Piazzi named it "Ceres Ferdinandea," after the Roman and Sicilian goddess of grain and King Ferdinand IV of Naples and Sicily; the Ferdinandea part was dropped for political reasons. Ceres turned out to be the first, largest, of the asteroids existing within the asteroid belt. Ceres is today called a dwarf planet. Born in Italy and named in his honour was the astronomer Charles Piazzi Smyth, son of the astronomer William Henry Smyth. In 1871, a memorial statue of Piazzi sculpted by Costantino Corti was dedicated in the main plaza of his birthplace, Ponte. In 1923, the 1000th asteroid to be numbered was named 1000 Piazzia in his honour; the lunar crater Piazzi was named after him in 1935. More a large albedo feature a crater, imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope on Ceres, has been informally named Piazzi.
Niccolò Cacciatore, his assistant and successor on the post as director List of Roman Cat
Johann Elert Bode
Johann Elert Bode was a German astronomer known for his reformulation and popularisation of the Titius–Bode law. Bode suggested the planet's name. Bode was born in Hamburg; as a youth, he suffered from a serious eye disease which damaged his right eye. His early promise in mathematics brought him to the attention of Johann Georg Büsch, who allowed Bode to use his own library for study, he began his career with the publication of a short work on the solar eclipse of 5 August 1766. This was followed by an elementary treatise on astronomy entitled Anleitung zur Kenntniss des gestirnten Himmels, the success of which led to his being invited to Berlin by Johann Heinrich Lambert in 1772 for the purpose of computing ephemerides on an improved plan. There he founded, in 1774, the well-known Astronomisches Jahrbuch, 51 yearly volumes of which he compiled and issued, he became director of the Berlin Observatory in 1786, from which he retired in 1825. There he published the Uranographia in 1801, a celestial atlas that aimed both at scientific accuracy in showing the positions of stars and other astronomical objects, as well as the artistic interpretation of the stellar constellation figures.
The Uranographia marks the climax of an epoch of artistic representation of the constellations. Atlases showed fewer and fewer elaborate figures until they were no longer printed on such tables. Bode published another small star atlas, intended for astronomical amateurs, he is credited with the discovery of Bode's Galaxy. Comet Bode is named after him. Asteroid 998 Bodea, discovered on 6 August 1923 by Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg, was christened in his honour, the letter'a' added to its name to fulfil the convention that asteroids were given feminine names, his name became attached to the'law' discovered by Johann Daniel Titius in 1766. Bode first makes mention of it in the Anleitung zur Kenntniss des gestirnten Himmels in a footnote, although it is officially called the Titius–Bode law, it is commonly just called Bode's law; this law attempts to explain the distances of the planets from the Sun in a formula although it breaks down for the planet Neptune, discovered in Berlin. It was the discovery of Uranus at a position predicted by the law which aroused great interest in it.
There was a gap between Mars and Jupiter, Bode urged a search for a planet in this region which culminated in a group formed for this purpose, the so-called "Celestial Police". However before the group initiated a search, they were trumped by the discovery of the asteroid Ceres by Giuseppe Piazzi from Palermo in 1801, at Bode's predicted position. Latterly, the law fell out of favour when it was realised that Ceres was only one of a small number of asteroids and when Neptune was found not to be in a position required by the law; the discovery of planets around other stars has brought the law back into discussion. Bode himself was directly involved in research leading from the discovery of a planet – that of Uranus in 1781. Although Uranus was the first planet to be discovered by telescope, it is just about visible with the naked eye. Bode consulted older star charts and found numerous examples of the planet's position being given while being mistaken for a star, for example John Flamsteed, Astronomer Royal in Britain, had listed it in his catalogue of 1690 as a star with the name 34 Tauri.
These earlier sightings allowed an exact calculation of the orbit of the new planet. Bode was responsible for giving the new planet its name; the discoverer William Herschel proposed to name it after George III, not accepted so in other countries. Bode opted for Uranus, with the apparent logic that just as Saturn was the father of Jupiter, the new planet should be named after the father of Saturn. There were further alternatives proposed, but Bode's suggestion became the most used – however it had to wait until 1850 before gaining official acceptance in Britain when the Nautical Almanac Office switched from using the name Georgium Sidus to Uranus. In 1789, Bode's Royal Academy colleague Martin Klaproth was inspired by Bode's name for the planet to name his newly discovered element "uranium". From 1787 to 1825 Bode was director of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. In 1794, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In April 1789 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society.
Bode died in Berlin on 23 November 1826, aged 79. 1768 Anleitung zur Kentniss des Gestirnten Himmels 1774-1957 Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch für 1776–1959 1776 Sammlung astronomischer Tafeln 1776 Erläuterung der Sternkunde, an introductory book on the constellations and their tales, reprinted more than ten times 1782 Vorstellung der Gestirne... des Flamsteadschen Himmelsatlas Verzeichniss 1801 Uranographia sive Astrorum Descriptio Allgemeine Beschreibung und Nachweisung der Gestirne His works were effective in diffusing throughout Germany a taste for astronomy. Schwemin, Friedhelm. Der Berliner Astr
Sorrento is a town overlooking the Bay of Naples in Southern Italy. A popular tourist destination due to its variety of small antique shops and location on the Amalfi Coast, it can be reached from Naples and Pompeii as it is at the south-eastern end of the Circumvesuviana rail line; the town is most known for its small shops selling an arrangement of ceramics and marquetry. The Sorrentine Peninsula has views of Naples and the Isle of Capri; the Amalfi Drive, connecting Sorrento and Amalfi, is a narrow road that threads along the high cliffs above the Tyrrhenian Sea. Ferries and hydrofoils connect the town to Naples, Positano and Ischia. Sorrento's sea cliffs and luxury hotels have attracted celebrities including Enrico Caruso and Luciano Pavarotti. Limoncello, a digestif made from lemon rinds, alcohol and sugar, is produced in Sorrento. Other agricultural production includes citrus fruit, wine and olives; the Roman name for Sorrento was Surrentum. Legends indicate a close connection between Lipara and Surrentum, as though the latter had been a colony of the former.
The oldest ruins are Oscan, dating from about 600 BC. Before its control by the Roman Republic, Surrentum was one of the towns subject to Nuceria, shared its fortunes up to the Social War. Numerous sepulchral inscriptions of Imperial slaves and freedmen have been found at Surrentum. An inscription shows that Titus in the year after the earthquake of 79 AD restored the horologium of the town and its architectural decoration. A similar restoration of an unknown building in Naples in the same year is recorded in an inscription from the last-named town; the most important temples of Surrentum were those of Athena and of the Sirens. In antiquity, Surrentum was famous for its wine, its fish, its red Campanian vases; the position of Surrentum was secure, protected by deep gorges. The only exception to its natural protection was 300 metres on the south-west where it was defended by walls, the line of, followed by those of the modern town; the arrangement of the modern streets preserves that of the ancient town, the disposition of the walled paths which divide the plain to the east seems to date in like manner from Roman times.
No ruins are now preserved in the town itself, but there are many remains in the villa quarter to the east of the town on the road to Stabiae, of which traces still exist, running much higher than the modern road, across the mountain. Remains of other villas may be seen, but the most important ruin is the reservoir of the aqueducts just outside the town on the east, which had no less than twenty-seven chambers each about 270 by 60 cm. Greek and Oscan tombs have been found. Another suburb lay below the town and on the promontory on the west of it. To the north-west on the Capo di Sorrento is another villa, the so-called Bagni della Regina Giovanna, with baths, in the bay to the south-west was the villa of Pollius Felix, the friend of Statius, which he describes in Silvae ii. 2, of which remains still exist. Farther west again are villas, as far as the temple of Athena on the promontory named after her at the extremity of the peninsula. Neither of this nor of the famous temple of the Sirens are any traces existing.
According to the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus, Sorrento was founded by Liparus, son of Ausonus, king of the Ausoni and the son of Ulysses and Circe. The ancient city was connected to the Ausoni tribe, one of the most ancient ethnic groups in the area. In the pre-Roman age Sorrento was influenced by the Greek civilization: this can be seen in its plant and in the presence of the Athenaion, a great sanctuary according to the legend, founded by Ulysses and devoted to the cult of the Sirens, hence Sorrento's name. Sorrento became an archbishopric around 420 AD. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it was ruled by the Ostrogoths and returned to the Eastern Empire and subjected to Byzantium; the Lombards, who conquered much of southern Italy in the second half of the 6th century, besieged it in vain. In the following centuries the authority of the distant Empire of Byzantium faded, it fought against neighbouring/rival Amalfi, the Saracens and the nearby Lombardic duchies, such as that of Benevento, whose forces besieged it in 839, although Sorrento was able to resist with Neapolitan help.
Sorrentine forces took part in the anti-Saracen leagues at the battles of Licosa and Ostia. The duchy was ruled by figures elected by the people, which received honorary titles from the Byzantine Emperor. In 1035 the city was acquired by Guaimar IV of Salerno, who gave it to his brother Guy. After a brief return under the Duchy of Naples
In optical engineering, the objective is the optical element that gathers light from the object being observed and focuses the light rays to produce a real image. Objectives can be combinations of several optical elements, they are used in microscopes, cameras, slide projectors, CD players and many other optical instruments. Objectives are called object lenses, object glasses, or objective glasses; the objective lens of a microscope is the one at the bottom near the sample. At its simplest, it is a high-powered magnifying glass, with short focal length; this is brought close to the specimen being examined so that the light from the specimen comes to a focus inside the microscope tube. The objective itself is a cylinder containing one or more lenses that are made of glass. Microscope objectives are characterized by two parameters: numerical aperture; the magnification ranges from 4× to 100×. It is combined with the magnification of the eyepiece to determine the overall magnification of the microscope.
Numerical aperture for microscope lenses ranges from 0.10 to 1.25, corresponding to focal lengths of about 40 mm to 2 mm, respectively. A typical microscope has three or four objective lenses with different magnifications, screwed into a circular "nosepiece" which may be rotated to select the required lens; these lenses are color coded for easier use. The least powerful lens is called the scanning objective lens, is a 4× objective; the second lens is referred to as the small objective lens and is a 10× lens. The most powerful lens out of the three is referred to as the large objective lens and is 40–100×; some microscopes use an oil-immersion or water-immersion lens, which can have magnification greater than 100, numerical aperture greater than 1. These objectives are specially designed for use with refractive index matching oil or water, which must fill the gap between the front element and the object; these lenses give greater resolution at high magnification. Numerical apertures as high as 1.6 can be achieved with oil immersion.
Camera lenses need to cover a large focal plane so are made up of a number of optical lens elements to correct optical aberrations. Image projectors use objective lenses that reverse the function of a camera lens, with lenses designed to cover a large image plane and project it at a distance onto another surface. In a telescope the objective is the lens at the front end of a refractor or the image-forming primary mirror of a reflecting or catadioptric telescope. A telescope's light-gathering power and angular resolution are both directly related to the diameter of its objective lens or mirror; the larger the objective, the dimmer the object it can view and the more detail it can resolve. List of telescope parts and construction
Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents, its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. First settled by Greeks in the second millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope or Παρθενόπη was established on the Island of Megaride refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC; the city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society and a significant cultural centre under the Romans. It served as the capital of the Duchy of Naples of the Kingdom of Naples and of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.
Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by Benito Mussolini's government but subsequently sustained severe damage from Allied bombing during World War II, which led to extensive post-1945 reconstruction work. Naples has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Rome; the Port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe and home of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East. Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with a wide range of culturally and significant sites nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Naples is known for its natural beauties such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields and Vesuvius.
Neapolitan cuisine is synonymous with pizza – which originated in the city – but it includes many lesser-known dishes. The best-known sports team in Naples is the Serie A club S. S. C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the southwest of the city, in the Fuorigrotta quarter. Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period; the earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC. Sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC. By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. In the sixth century BC the new urban zone of Neápolis was founded on the plain becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia; the city grew due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse, became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. During the Samnite Wars, the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was captured by the Samnites.
During the Punic Wars, the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. Naples was respected by the Romans as a paragon of Hellenistic culture. During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their Greek language and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman villas and public baths. Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures were built, many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius and Tiberius. Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, resided in its environs, it was during this period. Januarius, who would become Naples' patron saint, was martyred there in the fourth century AD; the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was exiled to Naples by the Germanic king Odoacer in the fifth century AD. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
However, Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct. In 543, during the Gothic Wars, Totila took the city for the Ostrogoths, but the Byzantines seized control of the area following the Battle of Mons Lactarius on the slopes of Vesuvius. Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula. After the exarchate fell, a Duchy of Naples was created. Although Naples' Greco-Roman culture endured, it switched allegiance from Constantinople to Rome under Duke Stephen II, putting it under papal suzerainty by 763; the years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the Byzantine Emperor, with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne. Theoctistus was appointed without imperial approval. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, r
Carlo Brioschi was a painter and scenic designer, born in Milan, but active in Austria. Carlo was the son of the scenic designer Giuseppe Brioschi and father of the engaged Othmar and Anton, he was a student of Leopold Kupelwieser, Thomas Ender, Franz Steinfeld at the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna. In 1853, he worked in Paris. From 1856 to 1886, he worked with the Vienna State Opera. With Johann Kautsky and Hermann Burghart he established the cooperative enterprise of "Brioschi, Burghart und Kautsky, k.u.k. Hoftheatermaler in Wien", which employed dozens of carpenters, blacksmiths and clerks in addition to their painters; the studio received many orders from abroad as well as locally. Among their regular customers was the Metropolitan Opera in New York. Brioschi died in Vienna in 1895. Robin Thurlow Lacy: Brioschi, Carlo. In: A biographical dictionary of scenographers: 500 B. C. to 1900 A. D. Greenwood Press, New York 1990, ISBN 0-313-27429-0, pp. 82–83