Oriolo Romano Observatory is an amateur astronomical observatory in Oriolo Romano, Italy. Built in 2007, the observatory has a Celestron 8" Schmidt-Cassegrain F/10 telescope; the observatory was designed to be robotic, uses a QSI WS40 CCD camera with clear filter for data acquisition. The observatory is only used for educational outreach. Website contains a guide in Italy specialized in Physics. Astrophysics and Astronomy. In addition to the "orioloromano observatory" being an astronomical observatory, it functions as a local weather station with webcam always on line; the weather station's main purpose is to provide data for planning observing sessions by gathering information about the condition inside and outside the observatory. Conditions at the observatory are logged by a weather station; the station provides indoor and outdoor temperature as well as barometric pressure, rainfall, wind speed and dew point. The data is reported real time, as well as logged; the station is configured to upload data to this website in 15-minute intervals.
This data is made available to forecasters, ships or anyone who needs it
Imperial Free City of Trieste
The Imperial Free City of Trieste and its Suburbs was a Holy Roman Empire possession from the 14th century to 1804, called in German as Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest und ihr Gebiet and in Italian as Città Imperiale di Trieste e Dintorni. In 1719 it was declared a free port by Holy Roman Emperor. Trieste was part of the Holy Roman Empire and of the German Confederation and the Austrian Littoral; the city administration and economy were dominated by the city's Italian population element. In the 19th and early 20th century, the city attracted the immigration of workers from the city's hinterlands, many of whom were speakers of Slovene. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, Trieste was a Byzantine military outpost. In 567 AD the city was destroyed in the course of their invasion of northern Italy. In 788 it became part of the Frankish kingdom, under the authority of their count-bishop. From 1081 the city came loosely under the Patriarchate of Aquileia, developing into a free commune by the end of the 12th century.
After two centuries of war, Trieste came with the signing of a peace treaty on 30 October 1370 in front of St. Bartholomew's Church in the village of Šiška under the Republic of Venice; the Venetians retained the town until 1378, when it became the property of the Patriarchate of Aquileia. Discontent with the patriarch's rule, the main citizens of Trieste in 1382 petitioned Leopold III of Habsburg, Duke of Austria to become part of his domains, in exchange for his defence; this united Charlemagne's southern marches under Habsburg rule, subsequently consolidated as the Austrian Littoral. Following an unsuccessful Habsburg invasion of Venice in the prelude to the War of the League of Cambrai, the Venetians occupied Trieste again in 1508, under the terms of the peace were allowed to keep the city; the Habsburg Empire recovered Trieste a little over a year however, when conflict resumed. With their acquisition by the Habsburgs and the Julian March ceased to act as an east-facing outpost of Italy against the unsettled peoples of the Danube basin, becoming a region of contact between the land-based Austrian domains and the maritime republic of Venice, whose foreign policy depended on control of the Adriatic.
Austro-Venetian rivalry over the Adriatic weakened each state's efforts to repel the Ottoman Empire's expansion into the Balkans, paving the way for the success of Napoleon's invasion. On the Habsburg's annexation, Trieste had a patriciate, a bishop and his chapter, two municipal chapters totalling 200 people, armed forces and institutions of higher education. Italian irredentism was continually popular — writing in 1917, the Italian nationalist Litta Visconti Arese described the city as: The last of the Italian Comuni still struggling in the twentieth century against the Germanic Empire and the Invasion of the Barbarians. Trieste became an important trade hub. In June 1717, it was made a free port within the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Charles VI, effective from his visit to the city on 10 September 1718, remained a free port until 1 July 1891, when it was eclipsed by Fiume. From June 1734, Charles VI began assembling a navy in the city; the reign of Charles VI's successor, Maria Theresa, marked the beginning of a flourishing era for the city, starting with her order for the dismantling of the city walls in 1749, in order to allow the freer expansion of the city, ordering expansive building works and canal dredging.
In 1768, the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann was murdered by a robber in Trieste, while on his way from Vienna to Italy. Trieste was occupied by French troops three times during the Napoleonic Wars, in 1797, 1805 and in 1809. Between 1809 and 1813, it was annexed to the Illyrian Provinces, interrupting its status as a free port and causing a loss of the city's autonomy. For the French, the Illyrian Provinces provided a military frontier against the remaining Austrian lands and a military base against the Turks, as well as providing distant endowments for Marshals of the Empire; when Napoleon defeated the Republic of Venice in 1797, he found that Istria was populated by Italians on the coast and in the main cities, but the interior was populated by Croats and Slovenians. The restoration of Istria to the Austrian Empire was confirmed at the Congress of Vienna, but a nationalistic feud began to develop between the Slavs and the Italians. Following the Napoleonic Wars, Trieste continued to prosper as the free imperial city of Trieste, a status that granted economic freedom, but limited its political self-government.
The city's role as main Austrian trading port and shipbuilding centre was emphasised with the foundation of the merchant shipping line Austrian Lloyd in 1836, whose headquarters stood at the corner of the Piazza Grande and Sanità. By 1913, Austrian Lloyd had a fleet of 62 ships comprising a total of 236,000 tons. With the introduction of the constitutionalism in the Austrian Empire in 1860, the municipal autonomy of the city was restored, with Trieste becoming capital of the Adri
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space". Among the objects studied are the Sun, other stars, extrasolar planets, the interstellar medium and the cosmic microwave background. Emissions from these objects are examined across all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, the properties examined include luminosity, density and chemical composition; because astrophysics is a broad subject, astrophysicists apply concepts and methods from many disciplines of physics, including mechanics, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, relativity and particle physics, atomic and molecular physics. In practice, modern astronomical research involves a substantial amount of work in the realms of theoretical and observational physics; some areas of study for astrophysicists include their attempts to determine the properties of dark matter, dark energy, black holes.
Topics studied by theoretical astrophysicists include Solar System formation and evolution. Astronomy is an ancient science, long separated from the study of terrestrial physics. In the Aristotelian worldview, bodies in the sky appeared to be unchanging spheres whose only motion was uniform motion in a circle, while the earthly world was the realm which underwent growth and decay and in which natural motion was in a straight line and ended when the moving object reached its goal, it was held that the celestial region was made of a fundamentally different kind of matter from that found in the terrestrial sphere. During the 17th century, natural philosophers such as Galileo and Newton began to maintain that the celestial and terrestrial regions were made of similar kinds of material and were subject to the same natural laws, their challenge was. For much of the nineteenth century, astronomical research was focused on the routine work of measuring the positions and computing the motions of astronomical objects.
A new astronomy, soon to be called astrophysics, began to emerge when William Hyde Wollaston and Joseph von Fraunhofer independently discovered that, when decomposing the light from the Sun, a multitude of dark lines were observed in the spectrum. By 1860 the physicist, Gustav Kirchhoff, the chemist, Robert Bunsen, had demonstrated that the dark lines in the solar spectrum corresponded to bright lines in the spectra of known gases, specific lines corresponding to unique chemical elements. Kirchhoff deduced that the dark lines in the solar spectrum are caused by absorption by chemical elements in the Solar atmosphere. In this way it was proved that the chemical elements found in the Sun and stars were found on Earth. Among those who extended the study of solar and stellar spectra was Norman Lockyer, who in 1868 detected bright, as well as dark, lines in solar spectra. Working with the chemist, Edward Frankland, to investigate the spectra of elements at various temperatures and pressures, he could not associate a yellow line in the solar spectrum with any known elements.
He thus claimed the line represented a new element, called helium, after the Greek Helios, the Sun personified. In 1885, Edward C. Pickering undertook an ambitious program of stellar spectral classification at Harvard College Observatory, in which a team of woman computers, notably Williamina Fleming, Antonia Maury, Annie Jump Cannon, classified the spectra recorded on photographic plates. By 1890, a catalog of over 10,000 stars had been prepared that grouped them into thirteen spectral types. Following Pickering's vision, by 1924 Cannon expanded the catalog to nine volumes and over a quarter of a million stars, developing the Harvard Classification Scheme, accepted for worldwide use in 1922. In 1895, George Ellery Hale and James E. Keeler, along with a group of ten associate editors from Europe and the United States, established The Astrophysical Journal: An International Review of Spectroscopy and Astronomical Physics, it was intended that the journal would fill the gap between journals in astronomy and physics, providing a venue for publication of articles on astronomical applications of the spectroscope.
Around 1920, following the discovery of the Hertsprung-Russell diagram still used as the basis for classifying stars and their evolution, Arthur Eddington anticipated the discovery and mechanism of nuclear fusion processes in stars, in his paper The Internal Constitution of the Stars. At that time, the source of stellar energy was a complete mystery; this was a remarkable development since at that time fusion and thermonuclear energy, that stars are composed of hydrogen, had not yet been discovered. In 1
Extragalactic astronomy is the branch of astronomy concerned with objects outside the Milky Way galaxy. In other words, it is the study of all astronomical objects which are not covered by galactic astronomy; as instrumentation has improved, distant objects can now be examined in more detail. It is therefore useful to sub-divide this branch into Near-Extragalactic Astronomy and Far-Extragalactic Astronomy; the former deals with objects such as the galaxies of the Local Group, which are close enough to allow detailed analyses of their contents. Some topics include: Galaxy groups Galaxy clusters, Superclusters Galaxy filaments Active galactic nuclei, Quasars Radio galaxies Supernovae Intergalactic stars Intergalactic dust the observable universe Andromeda–Milky Way collision Galaxy color–magnitude diagram Galaxy formation and evolution Observational cosmology
The National Institute for Astrophysics is the most important Italian institution conducting scientific research in astronomy and astrophysics. Research performed by the scientific staff of the Institute ranges from the study of the planets and minor bodies of the Solar system up to the large-scale structure of the Universe and groups and clusters of galaxies on cosmological scales. INAF coordinates the activities of twenty research units, nineteen in Italy and one in Spain: Bologna Observatory Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Bologna Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna Cagliari Observatory Catania Observatory Arcetri Observatory Brera Observatory Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Milano Capodimonte Observatory Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova Palermo Observatory Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo Rome Observatory Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Roma Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario di Roma Collurania-Teramo Observatory Turin Observatory Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario di Torino Trieste Observatory Telescopio Nazionale Galileo Sardinia Radio Telescope Noto Radio Observatory INAF is involved in scientific collaborations with several international institutions, including: the European Southern Observatory the astronomical observatories located in Canary Islands the Large Binocular Telescope, in partnership with the United States and Germany the Very Long Baseline Interferometry consortium the European Space Agency the American National Aeronautic and Space Administration Stefano Cristiani, board member examples Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies, instrument for the ExoMars Rosalind Franklin rover Rapid Eye Mount telescope Official website of INAF Public and press website of INAF Website of the Italian Telescopio Nazione Galileo Website of the Large Binocular Telescope Italian Astronomical Archive Center VObs.it: Italian Virtual Observatory
The Morgan Line was the line of demarcation set up after World War II in the region known as Julian March which prior to the war belonged to the Kingdom of Italy. The Morgan Line was the border between two military administrations in the region: the Yugoslav on the east, that of the Allied Military Government on the west. After 15 September 1947, the Allied Military Government was composed of both the British Element Trieste Forces troops from the United Kingdom and the Trieste United States Troops from the United States; the Morgan Line established a temporary boundary between the Yugoslav and Allied administrations in the region of Julian March, contended by Italy and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, to reduce the possibility of combat between Allied and Yugoslav forces in the area. The line was named after the British representative at the negotiations in Duino that resulted in the demarcation, Lieutenant General Sir William Duthie Morgan. Morgan, chief of staff to Field Marshal Sir Harold Alexander, Supreme Allied Commander in the Mediterranean, had been sent to Belgrade on May 7 to remind Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito that Yugoslav forces were in violation of a February 1945 written agreement between Tito and Alexander in occupying the territory.
During the negotiations, Morgan drew up a line called the "Blue Line" and, when Allied troops of the British XIII Corps began moving forward to the blue line on May 22, Tito agreed in principle to the demarcation the next day, with the agreement signed in Duino on June 10, 1945. The line 70 miles in length, began on the coast just south of Trieste, curved 15 miles to the east and northwest to Gorizia, Italy north along the Isonzo/Soča River through Kobarid to Rateče near the Italian-Austrian border; the demarcation divided the Julian March into two zones, "Zone A" under Allied military administration and "Zone B" under the administration of the Yugoslav People's Army. Zone A comprised the western portion of the region, which included the current Italian provinces of Trieste and Gorizia, a strip of territory between the current Slovene-Italian border and the Soča/ Isonzo river, the Brda/ Collio hills, the lower Vipava Valley/ Valle del Vipacco, the western section of the Karst Plateau, the Istrian villages of Plavje, Spodnje Škofije and Hrvatini, now in Slovenia.
The Istrian coastal town of Pula was under Allied administration, forming an enclave of Zone A within the territory of Zone B. The Yugoslav-administered Zone B extended to two-thirds of the region, including the city of Rijeka/ Fiume, most of the Istrian peninsula, the Cres-Lošinj/ Cherso - Lussino archipelago, the eastern portion of the Slovene Littoral; the village of Opatje Selo/ Oppachiesella on the northwestern edge of the Karst Plateau formed a small enclave of Zone B within the territory of Zone A. The Morgan Line ceased to exist on 15 September 1947, when the Treaty of Peace with Italy came into effect; the Treaty established the border between Italy and Yugoslavia in the northern sections of the contended territory, as well as the border between Yugoslavia and the Free Territory of Trieste established as new independent, sovereign State under a provisional regime of Government under the direct responsibility of the United Nations Security Council in its southern part. Allied troops along the Morgan Line withdrew several miles to a parallel "French Line", part of which ran along sections of the former Morgan Line.
The Free Territory was divided into two administration zones, the demarcation line between the two zones ran along the Morgan line. In 1954, when both military governments handed over their mandate, to the Governments of Italy and Yugoslavia the villages of Plavje/ Plavie, Spodnje Škofije/ Albaro Vescovà, Elerji and Hrvatini/ Crevatini were entrusted to the administration of the Yugoslav Government annexed to YugoslaviaToday all of the former Morgan Line is within Slovenian territory. Only a small part still serves as a border between Italy and Slovenia, dividing the Italian municipality of San Dorligo della Valle from the Slovenian municipality of Koper / Capodistria. White's Political Dictionary, 1947
Merate Astronomical Observatory
Merate Astronomical Observatory is an old observatory in Merate, Italy. It has housed a 1-meter Zeiss telescope since 1926; this Zeiss di Merate is a reflecting telescope on an equatorial mount and is one of the largest telescopes funded by the Regno d'Italia before Italy became republic in 1946. The same type of Zeiss telescope was installed at the Hamburg-Bergedorf Observatory and the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Asiago Astrophysical Observatory Galileo National Telescope, 3.5m diameter aperture Italian National telescope. List of largest optical reflecting telescopes Telescope mount