Astronomical year numbering

Astronomical year numbering is based on AD/CE year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. Thus, it has a year 0. Astronomers use the Julian calendar for years before 1582, including the year 0, the Gregorian calendar for years after 1582, as exemplified by Jacques Cassini, Simon Newcomb and Fred Espenak; the prefix AD and the suffixes CE, BC or BCE are dropped. The year 1 BC/BCE is numbered 0, the year 2 BC is numbered −1, in general the year n BC/BCE is numbered "−"; the numbers of AD/CE years are written with either no sign or a positive sign. For normal calculation a number zero is needed, here most notably when calculating the number of years in a period that spans the epoch; the system is so named due to its use in astronomy. Few other disciplines outside history deal with the time before year 1, some exceptions being dendrochronology and geology, the latter two of which use'years before the present'. Although the absolute numerical values of astronomical and historical years only differ by one before year 1, this difference is critical when calculating astronomical events like eclipses or planetary conjunctions to determine when historical events which mention them occurred.

In his Rudolphine Tables, Johannes Kepler used a prototype of year zero which he labeled Christi between years labeled Ante Christum and Post Christum on the mean motion tables for the Sun, Saturn, Mars and Mercury. In 1702, the French astronomer Philippe de la Hire used a year he labeled Christum 0 at the end of years labeled ante Christum, before years labeled post Christum on the mean motion pages in his Tabulæ Astronomicæ, thus adding the designation 0 to Kepler's Christi. In 1740 the French astronomer Jacques Cassini, traditionally credited with the invention of year zero, completed the transition in his Tables astronomiques labeling this year 0, which he placed at the end of Julian years labeled avant Jesus-Christ, before Julian years labeled après Jesus-Christ. Cassini gave the following reasons for using a year 0: The year 0 is that in which one supposes that Jesus Christ was born, which several chronologists mark 1 before the birth of Jesus Christ and which we marked 0, so that the sum of the years before and after Jesus Christ gives the interval, between these years, where numbers divisible by 4 mark the leap years as so many before or after Jesus Christ.

Fred Espanak of NASA lists 50 phases of the Moon within year 0, showing that it is a full year, not an instant in time. Jean Meeus gives the following explanation: There is a disagreement between astronomers and historians about how to count the years preceding year 1. In, the'B. C.' years are counted astronomically. Thus, the year before the year +1 is the year zero, the year preceding the latter is the year −1; the year which historians call 585 B. C. is the year −584. The astronomical counting of the negative years is the only one suitable for arithmetical purpose. For example, in the historical practice of counting, the rule of divisibility by 4 revealing Julian leap-years no longer exists. B. C. In the astronomical sequence, these leap-years are called 0, −4, −8, −12... and the rule of divisibility by 4 subsists. Although he used the usual French terms "avant J.-C." and "après J.-C." to label years elsewhere in his book, the Byzantine historian Venance Grumel used negative years to label BC years and unsigned positive years to label AD years in a table.

He did so to save space and put no year 0 between them. Version 1.0 of the XML Schema language used to describe data interchanged between computers in XML, includes built-in primitive datatypes date and dateTime. Although these are defined in terms of ISO 8601 which uses the proleptic Gregorian calendar and therefore should include a year 0, the XML Schema specification states that there is no year zero. Version 1.1 of the defining recommendation realigned the specification with ISO 8601 by including a year zero, despite the problems arising from the lack of backward compatibility. Astronomical chronology Holocene calendar ISO 8601

Martin McBreen

Martin McBreen or Patrick Breen was an American saloonkeeper and criminal associate of the Gopher Gang. A well-known and colorful Hell's Kitchen figure known as Paddy the Priest, he was the owner of a Tenth Avenue saloon frequented by the Gophers and other underworld figures. Traditional accounts claim that McBreen was shot and killed by close friend and Gopher member John "Happy Jack" Mulraney. Mulraney had a facial disfigurement, caused by a partial paralysis of his face, which resembled a permanent "crooked-like" half smile; when McBreen asked why he did not smile on the other side of his face, Mulraney killed him over the perceived insult and robbed the till. When apprehended by police, Mulraney remarked to officers "I ain't smiling on either side of my face!". His murder was one of the first major trials during the first decade of the 20th century and, quoting Governor William Sulzer, was one of the most violent to have occurred in the city's history; the shooting, according to news reports of the time, was committed by Mulraney and John J. Dowling in a night-long crime spree.

He and Dowling were arrested with two other men, Martin Fay and Michael Saltzer, a week or so by police detectives at Park Street and 108th Street. Following their arrest, Dowling confessed to breaking into the saloon with the intention of robbery and claimed that Mulraney had shot McBreen in self-defense when he appeared to be going for a gun; the two fled and split up with Mulraney taking a trolley to Harlem while Dowling walked to the Bronx. Dowling, as well as the two others who accompanied them that night, were used as witnesses for the defense. Mulraney admitted in a signed confession that he and Dowling hid in a cellar on West 52nd Street where they attempted to destroy evidence of their crime by disposing of the gun and scattered papers; these were found by detectives and used to trace the murder to them. Mordecai Saltzman, an undercover detective for the Pinkerton Detective Agency, testified at the trial that his conversations with both Mulraney and Dowling that an unpaid debt of $50 may have been a motive for the murder.

The crime was referenced in the 2003 historical novel And All The Saints by Michael Walsh

2008 ISSF World Cup Final (rifle and pistol)

The 2008 ISSF World Cup Final in rifle and pistol events was held 3–5 November 2008 in Bangkok, Thailand, as the conclusion of the 2008 World Cup season. The final was held in Bangkok for the second consecutive time, third overall. There were twelve spots in each of the ten events; the defending champion from the 2007 World Cup Final and all medalists of the 2008 Olympics in Beijing qualified automatically for Bangkok. The remaining eight qualified through a special point-awarding system based on their best performance during the World Cup season, skipping past automatic qualifiers. Not counting the defending champion and the Olympic medalists, there was a maximum of two shooters per event from the same country; the qualification system awarded a win with 15 points, a silver medal with 10, a bronze medal with 8, a fourth place with 5, a fifth with 4, a sixth with 3, a seventh with 2 and an eighth place with 1 point. It gave out points for qualification scores within a certain range from the current world record: from 1 point for fourteen points off the record, to 15 points for equalling or raising it.

All times are local. DNS Did not start Tamas was replaced by Valérian Sauveplane. Bindra did not participate. EWR Equalled world record – WR World record Tan did not participate. Alifirenko and Raicea did not participate and were replaced by Cha Sang-jun, Alexey Klimov and Taras Magmet. Emmons did not participate. In addition, Thanyalak Chotphibunsin entered as the host country's wild card. Emmons and Lechner did not participate, were replaced by Beate Gauss. In addition, Thanyalak Chotphibunsin entered as the host country's wild card. EWR Equalled world record Kolly did not participate. In addition, Tanyaporn Prucksakorn entered as the host country's wild card. DNS Did not start Paderina and Csonka did not participate and were replaced by Michela Suppo. In addition, Tanyaporn Prucksakorn entered as the host country's wild card. Qualification standings at the ISSF website