Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising small amounts of money from a large number of people via the Internet. Crowdfunding is a form of alternative finance. In 2015, over US$34 billion was raised worldwide by crowdfunding. Although similar concepts can be executed through mail-order subscriptions, benefit events, other methods, the term crowdfunding refers to Internet-mediated registries; this modern crowdfunding model is based on three types of actors: the project initiator who proposes the idea or project to be funded, individuals or groups who support the idea, a moderating organization that brings the parties together to launch the idea. Crowdfunding has been used to fund a wide range of for-profit, entrepreneurial ventures such as artistic and creative projects, medical expenses and community-oriented social entrepreneurship projects, it has been criticised for funding quackery costly and fraudulent cancer treatments. Crowdfunding has a long history with several roots.
Books have been crowdfunded for centuries: authors and publishers would advertise book projects in praenumeration or subscription schemes. The book would be written and published if enough subscribers signaled their readiness to buy the book once it was out; the subscription business model is not crowdfunding, since the actual flow of money only begins with the arrival of the product. The list of subscribers has, the power to create the necessary confidence among investors, needed to risk the publication. War bonds are theoretically a form of crowdfunding military conflicts. London's mercantile community saved the Bank of England in the 1730s when customers demanded their pounds to be converted into gold - they supported the currency until confidence in the pound was restored, thus crowdfunded their own money. A clearer case of modern crowdfunding is Auguste Comte's scheme to issue notes for the public support of his further work as a philosopher; the "Première Circulaire Annuelle adressée par l'auteur du Système de Philosophie Positive" was published on 14 March 1850, several of these notes and with sums have survived.
The cooperative movement of the 19th and 20th centuries is a broader precursor. It generated collective groups, such as community or interest-based groups, pooling subscribed funds to develop new concepts and means of distribution and production in rural areas of Western Europe and North America. In 1885, when government sources failed to provide funding to build a monumental base for the Statue of Liberty, a newspaper-led campaign attracted small donations from 160,000 donors. Crowdfunding on the internet first gained popular and mainstream use in the arts and music communities; the first noteworthy instance of online crowdfunding in the music industry was in 1997, when fans underwrote an entire U. S. tour for the British rock band Marillion, raising US$60,000 in donations by means of a fan-based Internet campaign. They subsequently used this method to fund their studio albums. In the film industry, independent writer/director Mark Tapio Kines designed a website in 1997 for his then-unfinished first feature film Foreign Correspondents.
By early 1999, he had raised more than US$125,000 on the Internet from at least 25 fans, providing him with the funds to complete his film. In 2002, the "Free Blender" campaign was an early software crowdfunding precursor; the campaign aimed for open-sourcing the Blender 3D computer graphics software by collecting €100,000 from the community while offering additional benefits for donating members. The first company to engage in this business model was the U. S. website ArtistShare. As the model matured, more crowdfunding sites started to appear on the web such as Kiva, IndieGoGo, Kickstarter, GoFundMe, YouCaring; the phenomenon of crowdfunding is older than the term "crowdfunding". According to wordspy.com, the earliest recorded use of the word was in August 2006. The Crowdfunding Centre's May 2014 report identified two primary types of crowdfunding: Rewards crowdfunding: entrepreneurs presell a product or service to launch a business concept without incurring debt or sacrificing equity/shares.
Equity crowdfunding: the backer receives shares of a company in its early stages, in exchange for the money pledged. Reward-based crowdfunding has been used for a wide range of purposes, including motion picture promotion, free software development, inventions development, scientific research, civic projects. Many characteristics of rewards-based crowdfunding called non-equity crowdfunding, have been identified by research studies. In rewards-based crowdfunding, funding does not rely on location; the distance between creators and investors on Sellaband was about 3,000 miles when the platform introduced royalty sharing. The funding for these projects is distributed unevenly, with a few projects accounting for the majority of overall funding. Additionally, funding increases as a project nears its goal, encouraging what is called "herding behavior". Research shows that friends and family account for a large, or majority, portion of early fundraising; this capital may encourage subsequent funders to invest in the project.
While funding does not depend on location, observation shows that funding is tied to the locations of traditional financing options. In reward-based crowdfunding, funders are too hopeful about project returns and must revise expectations when returns are not met. Equity crowdfunding is the collective effort of individuals to support efforts initiated by other people or organizations through the provision of finance in the form of equity. In the United States, legislation, m
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Marathi cinema refers to Indian films produced in Marathi, the language of the state of Maharashtra, India. Based in old Mumbai, it is one of the pioneer film industries of India; the first Marathi film to be released in India was Shree Pundalik by Dadasaheb Torne on 18 May 1912 at Coronation Cinematograph, Mumbai. and a Marathi crew who were performing Marathi and Sanskrit Sangeet natikas and plays in Marathi at that period. The first Marathi talkie film, Ayodhyecha Raja, was released in 1932, just one year after Alam Ara the first Hindi talkie. Although the industry is much smaller than the large market driven Hindi cinema based in Mumbai, Marathi cinema is tax free, is experiencing growth in recent years. Raja Harishchandra, directed by Dadasaheb Phalke, was a Marathi film, now known as India's first full-length feature, released in 1913; the Dadasaheb Phalke Award is India's highest award in cinema given annually by the Government of Maharashtra for lifetime contribution to Indian cinema.
Marathi cinema is the oldest form of Indian cinema. The first Marathi movie released in India was Shree Pundalik by Dadasaheb Torne on 18 May 1912 at Coronation Cinematograph, Mumbai. Dadasaheb Phalke is known as the first founder of cinema in pre-Independence India, he brought the revolution of moving images to India with his first indigenously made film Raja Harishchandra in 1913, considered by IFFI and NIFD as part of Marathi cinema as it was made by a Marathi dialogues while shooting and Marathi crew. Kolhapur in Western Maharashtra was another centre of active film production in the twenties. In 1919 Baburao Mistry — popularly known as Baburao Painter — formed the Maharashtra Film Company with the blessings of the Maharaja of Kolhapur and released the first significant historical Sairandhari with Balasheb Pawar, Kamala Devi and Zunzarrao Pawar in stellar roles; because of his special interest in sets, costumes and painting, he chose episodes from Maratha history for interpreting in the new medium and specialised in the historical genre.
Baburao Painter made many silent movies till 1930. However, after a few more silent films, the Maharashtra Film Company pulled down its shutters with the advent of sound. Baburao was not keen on the talkies for he believed that they would destroy the visual culture so painfully evolved over the years; as cinema grew in Union of India, major production houses rose and one of them was again a company owned wholly by Maharashtrians, the Prabhat Film Company. Prabhat's Sant Tukaram was the first Indian work to win the Best Film Award at the Venice film festival in 1937. In 1954 at the first edition of the National Awards, Shyamchi Aai another Marathi film, won the first President's Gold Medal for Cinema, it was directed by Acharya P K Atre, it was an adaptation of the eponymous novel by Sane Guruji. Marathi cinema was in its full bloom by this time with the advent of greats like V. Shantaram, Master Vinayak, Bhalji Pendharkar, Acharya Atre, followed by Raja Paranjpe, Jyotiram,sonal and mumtaz, Dinkar D Patil, G. D. Madgulkar, Sudhir Phadke, Raja Thakur.
The 1960s saw the emergence of directors like Anant Mane who made Marathi films based on the folk art form Tamasha. Came directors like Datta Dharmadhikari and Raj Dutt who made traditional family dramas; the early 70s saw the advent of Dada Kondke. He went on to create satirical, pun-ridden films including social and political commentary, many of which became cult classics. By this time Marathi cinema was caught in either the Tamasha genre or tragedies revolving around traditional family dramas on one side and the comedies of Dada Kondke; the 1980s saw two comedy heroes catapult to Ashok Saraf and Laxmikant Berde. Around the mid-80s two young actors donned the director's mantle: Mahesh Kothare and Sachin Pilgaonkar. Pilgaonkar directed Navri Mile Navryala and around the same time Mahesh Kothare directed Dhumdhadaka. Pilgaonkar's film was a box-office hit while Mahesh Kothare's became a mega hit at the box-office, became a trend-setter, brought young audiences to Marathi cinema. Mahesh Kothare went on to make comedy films.
He made the first Marathi film shot on the anamorphic format — Dhadakebaaz. He brought a number of innovations in the technical quality of Marathi films and was the first to bring Dolby Digital sound to Marathi cinema with Chimni Pakhara, he made the first Marathi film with Digital Special Effects, Pachadlela, in 2004. He made first Marathi movie in 3D Zapatlela 2, in 2013; the 3D of this film was appreciated and technically this film was well made. This film went on to become a blockbuster. Mahesh Kothare is working on Zapatlela 3; this for the first time that a franchise has emerged in Marathi cinema. While the theatre of Maharashtra earned recognition at the national level, the cinema failed to make a mark. A major reason was the proximity to the production centre of Hindi cinema, which encroached on the identity of Marathi cinema. Other reasons include the shortage of cinema halls for distribution due to poor marketing, lack of money magnets, a vibrant theatre scene and the emergence of private television.
It lacked the powerful lobby at the national level unlike Bengali and South Indian cinema because state congress encouraged Hindi cinema for profit mainly. In past few years, the Marathi cinema industry has produced many films that are not only critically acclaimed but commercially successful as well, it has brought untouched subjects and deeper human sensitivity on the celluloid. Acclaimed director Dr Jabbar Patel explains th
A mahout is an elephant rider, trainer, or keeper. A mahout starts as a boy in the family profession when he is assigned an elephant early in its life, they remain bonded to each other throughout their lives. The word mahout derives from the Hindi words mahaut and mahavat, from the Sanskrit mahamatra. Another term is kornak, which entered many European languages via Portuguese; this word derives from the Sanskrit term karināyaka, a compound of karin and nayaka. In Tamil, the word used is pahan, which means "elephant keeper", in Sinhalese kurawanayaka. In Malayalam the word used. In Burma, the profession is called u-si; the most common tools used by mahouts are chains and the Goad Aṅkuśa – a sharp metal hook used in the training and handling of the elephant by stabbing the elephant in the head, in areas like the mouth and inner ear, where the animal is most sensitive. In India Kerala, mahouts use three types of device to control elephants; the thotti, 3.5 feet in length and about 1 inch thick. Elephants, therefore mahouts, have long been integral to politics and the economy throughout Southern and Southeastern Asia.
The animals are sometimes as gifts. In addition to more traditional occupations, today mahouts are employed in many countries by forestry services and the logging industry, as well as in tourism. In India there has been controversy over elephants attacking mahouts and villagers due to the torture some elephants endure from their mahouts during festivals. More than 90% of the elephants in Kerala, for example, are not obtained legally; the Singapore Zoo features a show called "elephants at work and play", where the elephants' caretakers are referred to as "mahouts", demonstrate how elephants are used as beasts of burden in south-east Asia. The verbal commands given to the elephants by the mahouts are all in Sinhalese, one of the two official languages of Sri Lanka. A shop display advertising "Mahout" cigarettes features prominently in the background of the "rain dance" sequence of the 1952 Gene Kelly film Singin' in the Rain; the word "mahout" features in the lyrics of the song "Drop the Pilot", by Joan Armatrading.
George Orwell's essay "Shooting an Elephant" discusses the relationship of an elephant to its mahout: "It was not, of course, a wild elephant, but a tame one which had gone'must.' It had been chained up, as tame elephants always are when their attack of'must' is due, but on the previous night it had broken its chain and escaped. Its mahout, the only person who could manage it when it was in that state, had set out in pursuit, but had taken the wrong direction and was now twelve hours' journey away..." National Geographic The Hindu Frontline Elephant glossary
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by around 83 million Marathi people of Maharashtra, India. It is the official language and co-official language in the Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India and is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. There were 83 million speakers in 2011. Marathi has the third largest number of native speakers after Hindi & Bengali. Marathi has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indian languages, dating from about 900 AD; the major dialects of Marathi are the Varhadi dialect. Koli, Malvani Konkani has been influenced by Marathi varieties. Marathi distinguishes inclusive and exclusive forms of'we' and possesses a three-way gender system that features the neuter in addition to the masculine and the feminine. In its phonology it contrasts apico-alveolar with alveopalatal affricates and alveolar with retroflex laterals ( and. Marathi is spoken in Maharashtra and parts of neighbouring states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, union-territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
The former Maratha ruled cities of Baroda, Gwalior and Tanjore have had sizable Marathi speaking populations for centuries. Marathi is spoken by Maharashtrian migrants to other parts of India and overseas. There were 83 million native Marathi speakers in India, according to the 2011 census, making it the third most spoken native language after Hindi and Bengali. Native Marathi speakers form 6.86% of India's population. Native speakers of Marathi formed 68.93% of the population in Maharashtra, 10.89% in Goa, 7.01% in Dadra and Nagar Haveli, 4.53% in Daman and Diu, 3.38% in Karnataka, 1.7% in Madhya Pradesh and 1.52% in Gujarat. Marathi is the official language of Maharashtra and co-official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. In Goa, Konkani is the sole official language. Marathi is included among the languages which stand a part of the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, thus granting it the status of a "scheduled language"; the Government of Maharashtra has submitted an application to the Ministry of Culture to grant classical language status to Marathi.
The contemporary grammatical rules described by Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad and endorsed by the Government of Maharashtra are supposed to take precedence in standard written Marathi. Traditions of Marathi Linguistics and the above-mentioned rules give special status to tatsamas, words adapted from Sanskrit; this special status expects the rules for tatsamas to be followed as in Sanskrit. This practice provides Marathi with a large treasure of Sanskrit words to cope with demands of new technical words whenever needed. In addition to all universities in Maharashtra, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda in Vadodara, Osmania University in Hyderabad, Karnataka University in Dharwad, Gulbarga University in Kalaburagi, Devi Ahilya University in Indore and Goa University in Goa have special departments for higher studies in Marathi linguistics. Jawaharlal Nehru University has announced plans to establish a special department for Marathi. Marathi Day is celebrated on the birthday of the poet Kusumagraj.
Indian languages, including Marathi, that belong to the Indo-Aryan language family are derived from early forms of Prakrit. Marathi is one of several languages. Further change led to the Apabhraṃśa languages like Old Marathi, this is challenged by Bloch, who states that Apabhraṃśa was formed after Marathi had separated from the Middle Indian dialect; the earliest example of Maharashtri as a separate language dates to 3rd century BCE: a stone inscription found in a cave at Naneghat, Junnar in Pune district had been written in Maharashtri using Brahmi script. A committee appointed by the Maharashtra State Government to get the Classical status for Marathi has claimed that Marathi existed at least 2300 years ago alongside Sanskrit as a sister language. Marathi, a derivative of Maharashtri, is first attested in a 739 CE copper-plate inscription found in Satara. Several inscriptions dated to the second half of the 11th century feature Marathi, appended to Sanskrit or Kannada in these inscriptions.
The earliest Marathi-only inscriptions are the ones issued during the Shilahara rule, including a c. 1012 CE stone inscription from Akshi taluka of Raigad district, a 1060 or 1086 CE copper-plate inscription from Dive that records a land grant to a Brahmin. A 2-line 1118 CE Marathi inscription at Shravanabelagola records a grant by the Hoysalas; these inscriptions suggest. However, there is no record of any actual literature produced in Marathi until the late 13th century. After 1187 CE, the use of Marathi grew in the inscriptions of the Seuna kings, who earlier used Kannada and Sanskrit in their inscriptions. Marathi became the dominant language of epigraphy during the last half century of the dynasty's rule, may have been a result of the Yadava attempts to connect with their Marathi-speaking subjects and to distinguish themselves from the Kannada-speaking Hoysalas. Further growth and usage of the language was because of two religious sects – the Mahanubhava and Varkari panthans – who adopted Marathi as the medium for preaching their doctrines of devotion