Empress Suiko was the 33rd monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Suiko reigned from 593 until her death in 628. In the history of Japan, Suiko was the first of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant; the seven women sovereigns reigning after Suiko were Kōgyoku/Saimei, Jitō, Genshō, Kōken/Shōtoku, Meishō and Go-Sakuramachi. Before her ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, her personal name was Mikekashiya-hime-no-mikoto called Toyomike Kashikiya hime no Mikoto. Empress Suiko had several names including Toyomike Kashikiya, she was the third daughter of Emperor Kinmei. Her mother was Soga no Kitashihime. Suiko was the younger sister of Emperor Yōmei, they had the same mother. Empress Suiko was a consort to her half-brother, Emperor Bidatsu, but after Bidatsu's first wife died she became his official consort and was given the title Ōkisaki, she bore seven children. After Bidatsu's death, Suiko's brother, Emperor Yōmei, came to power for about two years before dying of illness.
Upon Yōmei's death, another power struggle arose between the Soga clan and the Mononobe clan, with the Sogas supporting Prince Hatsusebe and the Mononobes supporting Prince Anahobe. The Sogas prevailed once again and Prince Hatsusebe acceded to the throne as Emperor Sushun in 587. However, Sushun began to resent the power of Soga no Umako, the head of the Soga clan, Umako out of fear that Sushun might strike first, had him assassinated by Yamatoaya no Ataikoma in 592; when asked to accede to the throne to fill the power vacuum that subsequently developed, Suiko became the first of what would be several examples in Japanese history where a woman was chosen to accede to the throne to avert a power struggle. 593: In the 2nd year of Sushun-tennō's reign, he died. Shortly thereafter, Empress Suiko is said to have ascended to the throne. Suiko's contemporary title would not have been tennō, as most historians believe this title was not introduced until the reigns of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō.
Rather, it was Sumeramikoto or Amenoshita Shiroshimesu Ōkimi, meaning "the great Queen who rules all under heaven". Alternatively, Suiko might have been referred to as or the "Great Queen of Yamato". Prince Shōtoku was appointed regent the following year. Although political power during Suiko's reign is viewed as having been wielded by Prince Shōtoku and Soga no Umako, Suiko was far from powerless; the mere fact that she survived and her reign endured suggests. In 599, an earthquake destroyed buildings throughout Yamato Province in. Suiko's refusal to grant Soga no Umako's request that he be granted the imperial territory known as Kazuraki no Agata in 624 is cited as evidence of her independence from his influence; some of the many achievements under Empress Suiko's reign include the official recognition of Buddhism by the issuance of the Flourishing Three Treasures Edict in 594. Suiko was one of the first Buddhist monarchs in Japan and had taken the vows of a nun shortly before becoming empress.
The reign of this empress was marked by the opening of relations with the Sui court in 600, the adoption of the Twelve Level Cap and Rank System in 603 and the adoption of the Seventeen-article constitution in 604. The adoption of the Sexagenary cycle calendar in Japan is attributed to Empress Suiko in 604. At a time when imperial succession was determined by clan leaders, rather than the emperor, Suiko left only vague indications of succession to two candidates while on her deathbed. One, Prince Tamura, was a grandson of Emperor Bidatsu and was supported by the main line of Sogas, including Soga no Emishi; the other, Prince Yamashiro, was a son of Prince Shōtoku and had the support of some lesser members of the Soga clan. After a brief struggle within the Soga clan in which one of Prince Yamashiro's main supporters was killed, Prince Tamura was chosen and he acceded to the throne as Emperor Jomei in 629. Empress Suiko ruled for 35 years. Although there were seven other reigning empresses, their successors were most selected from amongst the males of the paternal Imperial bloodline, why some conservative scholars argue that the women's reigns were temporary and that male-only succession tradition must be maintained in the 21st century.
Empress Genmei, followed on the throne by her daughter, Empress Genshō, remains the sole exception to this conventional argument. The actual site of Suiko's grave is known; this empress is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Osaka. The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Suiko's mausoleum. It's formally named Shinaga no Yamada no misasagi. Husband: Prince Nunakakura no Futo Tamashiki no Sumeramikoto Emperor Bidatsu, Emperor Kinmei’s son First Daughter: Princess Uji no Shitsukahi/Uji no Kahitako, married to Crown Prince Shotoku First Son: Prince Takeda Second Daughter: Princess Woharida, married to Prince Oshisako-no-Hikohito-no-Oe Third Daughter: Princess Umori/Karu no Mori Second Son: Prince Wohari Third Son: Prince Owari, Father of Tachibana-no-Oiratsume Fourth Daughter: Princess Tame, married to Emperor Jomei Fifth Daughter: Princess Sakurawi no Yumihari, married to Prince Oshisako-no-Hikohito-no-Oe married to Prince Kume Empress Jingū, semi-legendary, rule preceded Empress Suiko Japan
Emperor Ingyō was the 19th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. No firm dates can be assigned to this Emperor's life or reign, but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 410 to 453. Ingyō is regarded by historians as a "legendary Emperor" of the 5th century; the reign of Emperor Kinmei, the 29th Emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates. According to Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, he was the fourth son of Emperor Nintoku and his consort Princess Iwa, therefore a younger brother of his predecessor Emperor Hanzei, he sat on the throne after Hanzei ruled for 41 years. His name was Oasazuma Wakugo no Sukune. Ingyō's contemporary title would not have been tennō, as most historians believe this title was not introduced until the reigns of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō. Rather, it was Sumeramikoto or Amenoshita Shiroshimesu Ōkimi, meaning "the great king who rules all under heaven". Alternatively, Ingyō might have been referred to as ヤマト大王/大君 or the "Great King of Yamato".
His consort was Oshisaka no Ōnakatsu no Hime. They had four daughters, including Emperor Ankō and Emperor Yūryaku, he reformed the system of family and clan names, because many named themselves false names using higher ranked clan or family names. The earliest documented earthquake in Japan occurred during Ingyō's reign, in 416, when the Imperial Palace at Kyoto was leveled by the severity of the Earth's tremors; some scholars identify Ingyō with King Sai in the Book of Song. This would have been a king of Japan, said to have sent messengers to the Liu Song dynasty at least twice, in 443 and 451. According to Nihon Shoki, the king of the Korean Silla Kingdom grieved much when Ingyō died. To comfort the soul of Ingyo, he presented Japan 80 musicians; the actual site of Ingyō's grave is not known. The Emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine near Osaka; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Ingyō's mausoleum. It is formally known in Fujiidera city near Osaka.
Empress: Oshisaka no Ōnakatsuhime, Prince Wakanuke-Futamata's daughter First Son: Prince Kinashi no Karu First Daughter: Princess Nagata no Ōiratsume Second Son: Prince Sakai no Kurohiko Third Son: Prince Anaho Emperor Ankō Second Daughter: Princess Karu no Ōiratsume Fourth Son: Prince Yatsuri no Shirahiko Fifth Son: Prince Ōhatuse no Wakatakeru Emperor Yūryaku Third Daughter: Princess Tajima no Tachibana no Ōiratsume Fourth Daughter: Princess Sakami Consort: Sotoshi no Iratsume, Prince Wakanuke-Futamata's daughter Imperial cult Five kings of Wa Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0. Yokohama Burning: The Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-6465-5 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon..
The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and the largest component of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan and among the largest in the world with over 19 million inhabitants. Osaka will host Expo 2025; the current mayor of Osaka is Ichiro Matsui. Some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka area at the Morinomiya ruins comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC, it is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew. By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan; the large numbers of larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state. The Kojiki records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital.
In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka was at this time referred to as Naniwa, this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwa and Namba. Although the capital was moved to Asuka in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato and China. Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō. By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river and land transportation between Heian-kyō and other destinations. In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Oda Nobunaga began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583. Osaka was long considered Japan's primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Over the course of the Edo period, Osaka grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port, its popular culture was related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780, Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. One-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgo on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. Osaka residents were stereotyped in Edo literature from at least the 18th century.
Jippensha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy beyond belief. In 1809, the derogatory term "Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka region in terms of calculation, lack of civic spirit, the vulgarity of Osaka dialect. Edo writers aspired to samurai culture, saw themselves as poor but generous and public spirited. Edo writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, greedy and lewd. To some degree, Osaka residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo observers in the same way today in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka devour their food until they collapse"; the modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 square kilometres, overlapping today's Chūō and Nishi wards. The city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres. Osaka was the industrial center most defined in the development of capitalism in Japan, it became known as the "Manchester of the Orient."The rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves.
The political system was pluralistic, with a strong emphasis on promoting industrialization and modernization. Literacy was high and the educational system expanded producing a middle class with a taste for literature and a willingness to support the arts. In 1927, General Motors operated a factory called Osaka Assembly until 1941, manufacturing Chevrolet, Pontiac and Buick vehicles and staffed by Japanese workers and managers. In the nearby city of Ikeda in Osaka Prefecture is the headquarters office of Daihatsu, one of Japan's oldest automobile manufacturers. Like its European and American counterparts, Osaka displayed slums and poverty. In Japan it was here that municipal government first introduced a comprehensive system of poverty relief, copied in part from British models. Osaka policymakers stressed the importance of family formation and mutual assistance as the best way to combat poverty; this minimized
Katsura Imperial Villa
The Katsura Imperial Villa, or Katsura Detached Palace, is a villa with associated gardens and outbuildings in the western suburbs of Kyoto, Japan. It is one of Japan's most important large-scale cultural treasures, its gardens are considered a masterpiece of Japanese gardening, the buildings are regarded among the greatest achievements of Japanese architecture. The palace includes a shoin, tea houses, a strolling garden; the palace belonged to the princes of the Hachijō-no-miya family. The Imperial Household Agency administers it, accepts visitors by appointment; the Katsura district of Kyoto has long been favored for villas, in the Heian period, Fujiwara no Michinaga had a villa there. The members of the Heian court found it an elegant location for viewing the moon. Prince Hachijō Toshihito, the founder of the Katsura Imperial Villa, was born on 13 February 1579, he was the sixth son of Prince Sanehito, a descendent of Emperor Ogimachi. In 1586, Toshihito was adopted by Hideyoshi Toyotomi, but they separated in 1589 when Hideyoshi had his own son.
He presented Toshihito with land that yielded 3000 koku and allowed him to establish a new house in the imperial line, which became the Hachijo family line. From an early age, Prince Toshihito was familiar with the Tales of Genji, the Poems of Past and Present, the works of Po Chu-i, he was fond of these works, was said to copy passages from the works for leisure. One such passage, from the Tales of Genji, had written: Far away, in the country village of Katsura, the reflection of the moon upon the water is clear and tranquil; when Toshihito obtained land along the south bank of the Katsura River, the location of the novel the Tales of Genji, he set out to construct a villa modeled on passages from it. However, because he lacked wealth and resources, the first constructed villa was similar to “a teahouse in the melon patch”. However, after the marriage of Tokugawa Kazuko to Emperor Go-Mizunoo, which Toshihito had been active in creating, construction of the villa began; as Prince Toshihito became a greater figure in public life, more guests came to visit the Katsura Imperial Villa.
By 1624, he had devoted more of his resources to the expansion of the villa, it was recorded that hills had been formed and a pond had been dug in the middle of the garden. A priest that visited Katsura in 1624 wrote that it had the “finest view in Japan”. By 1631, the villa was called a “palace”. Prince Toshihito died in 1629; because he was only a child, Toshitada made little use of the garden, the villa was allowed to deteriorate badly. However, he shared the same interests as his father, visited the villa by 1641. After marrying the daughter of Lord Kaga, which increased his income, he set out to renovate the imperial villa. With the section of the villa his father built known as the “Old Shoin”, Toshitada constructed the main house, as well as several teahouses, these became part of the section called the “Middle Shoin”. After these renovations, the fame of the Katsura villa grew. In 1654, Toshitada adopted Prince Sachi, one of the ex-Emperor Go-Mizunoo’s many sons, a few years afterwards, Go-Mizunoo decided to visit.
It is said that the New Palace called the “Imperial-Visit Palace”, was built to accommodate the ex-Emperor while he was visiting. Prince Toshitada died in 1662, his heir died a few years later. After this, the fourth and fifth generation princes died in their teens, making additions to the Katsura Imperial Villa impossible. However, the seventh generation prince, Prince Yakahito, visited the villa numerous times and made repairs to it, leaving most of the layout in its original form; the Hachijō-no-miya house changed its name to Tokiwai-no-miya, Kyōgoku-no-miya, Katsura-no-miya, before the line died out in 1881. The Imperial Household Ministry took control of the Katsura Detached Palace in 1883, since World War II, the Imperial Household Agency has been in control; the Katsura Imperial Villa is a good example of the essence of Japanese traditional design. The Villa combines principles used in early Shinto shrines and merges it with the esthetics and philosophy of Zen Buddhism. Villa incorporates many traditional Japanese ideas.
One example of Katsura's use of traditional ideas is its use of raised floors with tatami mats covering them. Tatami are mats 3 feet by 6 feet in length that are not only used as the floors of the villa, but are used to define the dimensions of each individual room and the house as a whole. At Katsura, the mats are used to create the pinwheel-like plan that it has today; the terraces and porches created by the arrangement of the tatami mats provide opportunities to view the landscape and link interior spaces with the outside world. The floors of each building of the site are raised as well, derived from vernacular designs for granaries, as well as early imperial palaces, they serve the purpose of both keeping the floor dry while giving hierarchy to the space. Another classic characteristic that the Katsura Imperial Villa utilizes is the use of screen walls. In traditional Japanese Architecture, the shoji and the fusuma are used to separate the spaces created by the tatami mat into the various rooms of the house.
The shoji is the generic term for the white and translucent screen door or wall, reinforced with wooden lattice and can either be stationary, hanging, or sliding. The fusuma is a subcategory of the shoji and it is the white or painted moving screen partition used o
Wadōkaichin romanized as Wadō-kaichin or called Wadō-kaihō, is the oldest official Japanese coinage, having been minted starting on 29 August 708 on order of Empress Genmei. The coins, which were round with a square hole in the center, remained in circulation until 958 AD; these were the first of a series of coins collectively called jūnizeni or kōchō jūnisen."Wadōkaichin" is the transliteration of the four characters in the coin's inscription, thought to be composed of the era name Wadō, which could alternatively mean "happiness", "Kaichin", thought to be related to "Currency". This coinage was inspired by the Tang dynasty coinage named Kaigentsūhō, first minted in Chang'an in 621 CE; the Wadōkaichin had the same specifications as the Chinese coin, with a diameter of 2.4 cm and a weight of 3.75 g. Ryō Japanese mon Wadō Economy of Japan Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Imperial House of Japan.
Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.
Kenzō was the 23rd Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. No firm dates can be assigned to this Emperor's life or reign, but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 485 to 487. Prince Woke to become Emperor Kenzō, is said to have been the grandson of Emperor Richū, the son of Ichinobe-no Oshiwa, he would have been quite young when Emperor Yūryaku shot the arrow which killed his father during a hunting expedition. They found refuge at Akashi in Harima Province. Histories from that period explained that the two brothers sought to blend into this rural community by posing as common herdsmen, it is said. This intermediary re-introduced the lost cousins to Emperor Seinei, who had by this time ascended to the throne after the death of his father, the former Emperor Yūryaku. Seinei invited both brothers to return the court. At Seinei's death, he had no other heirs than Prince Oke and Prince Woke, whose father had been killed by Yūraku. At this point, Woke wanted his elder brother to become Emperor.
The two could not reach an agreement. The great men of the court insisted that the other of the brothers must accept the throne. Prince Woke agreed to accept the throne. Kenzō is considered to have ruled the country during the late-5th century, but there is a paucity of information about him. There is insufficient material available for further study. Kenzō's contemporary title would not have been tennō, as most historians believe this title was not introduced until the reigns of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō. Rather, it was Sumeramikoto or Amenoshita Shiroshimesu Ōkimi, meaning "the great king who rules all under heaven". Alternatively, Kenzō might have been referred to as ヤマト大王/大君 or the "Great King of Yamato", it is recorded. The location of the palace is thought to have been in present-day Osaka Prefecture or Nara Prefecture. Murray reports that the only event of major consequence during Kenzō's reign had to do with the filial respect he showed for his murdered father. Kenzō arranged to have his father's remains retrieved and re-interred in a mausoleum appropriate for the son of an Emperor and the father of another.
Kenzō died at age 38, reigning only three years. He too had no other heirs, his Empress was Prince Oka-no-Wakugo's daughter. The actual site of Kenzō's grave is not known; the Emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Osaka. The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Kenzō's mausoleum, it is formally named Kataoka no Iwatsuki no oka no kita no misasagi. Empress: Princess Naniwa-no-Ono, Prince Oka-no-Wakugo's daughter Iitoyo Imperial cult Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0. Japan. New York: G. P. Putnam & Sons. OCLC 52763776 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland.
OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.
The Kitora Tomb is an ancient tumulus located in the village of Asuka, Nara Prefecture, Japan. The tomb is believed to have been constructed some time between the 7th and early 8th centuries, but was only discovered in 1983. A small stone chamber, the Kitora Tomb is a little over 1 metre in height and width and about 2.4 metres long, just large enough to bury a single person. The four walls are aligned with the cardinal points of the compass, feature the Black Divine Tortoise of the North, the Azure Dragon of the East, the Red Phoenix of the South, the White Tiger of the West. On the ceiling of the chamber there is a astronomical chart, the focus of much research and debate by scholars in the field of archaeoastronomy. In addition, the 12 zodiac animals-headed figures with human body are painted on the wall, which may be one of the oldest remaining zodiac murals in East Asia. Fragments of a lacquered wooden coffin, torn apart when the tomb was robbed, lay 5 cm thick on the chamber floor, mixed with grave goods and human bone.
A gilded bronze fitting and sword decorations were discovered, both executed with superbly inlaid patterns. Based upon analysis of the bone fragments and items found in the tomb, it is believed the interred was a middle-aged or older male of aristocratic background; the paintings have suffered the ravages of time, and, as National Treasure of Japan and World Heritage, their preservation has been accorded the highest priority. The entire tomb has been roofed over, a series of adjoining antechambers were constructed to isolate the central chamber from temperature and humidity fluctuations, prevent contamination by airborne mold spores and microorganisms. Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties N. Hayakawa, From Tomb to Museum: Transferring and Reconstructing the Kitora Burial Mound Murals, nippon.com List of Special Places of Scenic Beauty, Special Historic Sites and Special Natural Monuments History of Japan Kofun period Takamatsuzuka Tomb Fujinoki Tomb