North Bay, Ontario
North Bay is a city in Northeastern Ontario, Canada. It is the seat of Nipissing District, and takes its name from its position on the shore of Lake Nipissing, the site of North Bay was on the main canoe route west from Montreal. Apart from First Nations tribes and surveyors, there was activity in the Lake Nipissing area until the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1882. The CPR started its expansion from Callander Station, Ontario. That was the point where the Canada Central Railway extension ended, the CCR was owned by Duncan McIntyre who amalgamated it with the CPR and became one of the handful of officers of the newly formed CPR. The CCR started in Brockville and extended to Pembroke and it followed a westward route along the Ottawa River passing through places like Cobden, Deux-Rivières, and eventually to Mattawa at the confluence of the Mattawa and Ottawa Rivers. It proceeded cross-country towards its destination, Bonfield. Duncan McIntyre and his contractor James Worthington piloted the CCR expansion, Worthington continued on as the construction superintendent for the CPR past Bonfield.
He remained with the CPR for about a year until he left the company, McIntyre was uncle to John Ferguson who staked out future North Bay after getting assurance from his uncle and Worthington that it would be the divisional and a location of some importance. In 1882, John Ferguson decided that the bay of Lake Nipissing was a promising spot for settlement. North Bay was incorporated as a town in 1891, the first mayor was John Bourke. More importantly, Bourke developed the western portion of North Bay after purchasing the interest of the Murray Brothers from Pembroke, the land west of Klock Avenue was known as the Murray block. Bourke Street is named after John Bourke, Murray Street is named after the Murrays. During construction of the T&NO, silver was discovered at Cobalt, the Canadian Northern Railway was subsequently built to North Bay in 1913. The Georgian Bay Canal was a transportation system that proposed to connect the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. The entire passageway from the Ottawa River to Lake Nipissing and down the French River to Georgian Bay was surveyed in the first decade of the 20th century.
Financing was an obstacle and, as time passed, transportation patterns changed and interfered with the earlier practicality of the giant venture. Despite this, there were groups who hoped it would happen as late as 1930
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
A barangay, formerly referred to as barrio, is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. In colloquial usage, the term refers to an inner city neighbourhood. The word barangay originated from balangay, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian peoples when they migrated to the Philippines, as of June 2015, there were 42,029 barangays throughout the Philippines. When the first Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in the 16th century, the name barangay originated from balangay, a Malay word meaning sailboat. The first barangays started as small communities of around 50 to 100 families. By the time of contact with Spaniards, many barangays have developed into large communities, some of these barangays had large populations. In Panay, some barangays had 20,000 inhabitants, in Leyte,15,000 inhabitants, in Cebu,3,500 residents, in Vitis,7,000 inhabitants, there were smaller barangays with less number of people. But these were generally inland communities, or if they were coastal and these smaller barangays had around thirty to one hundred houses only, and the population varies from one hundred to five hundred persons.
According to Legazpi, he found communities with twenty to thirty people only, the original “barangays” were coastal settlements of the migration of these Malayo-Polynesian people from other places in Southeast Asia. Most of the ancient barangays were coastal or riverine in nature and this is because most of the people were relying on fishing for supply of protein and for their livelihood. They travelled mostly by water up and down rivers, trails always followed river systems, which were a major source of water for bathing and drinking. The coastal barangays were more accessible to trade with foreigners and these were ideal places for economic activity to develop. Business with traders from other countries meant contact with cultures and civilizations, such as those of Japan, Han Chinese, Indian people. These coastal communities acquired more cosmopolitan cultures, with developed social structures, during the Spanish rule, through a resettlement policy called the Reducción, smaller scattered barangays were consolidated to form compact towns.
Each barangay was headed by the cabeza de barangay, who formed part of the Principalía - the elite ruling class of the municipalities of the Spanish Philippines and this position was inherited from the first datus, and came to be known as such during the Spanish regime. The Spanish Monarch ruled each barangay through the Cabeza, who collected taxes from the residents for the Spanish Crown. When the Americans arrived, slight changes in the structure of government was effected. Later, Rural Councils with four councilors were created to assist, now renamed Barrio Lieutenant, it was renamed Barrio Council, the Spanish term barrio was used for much of the 20th century until 1974, when President Ferdinand Marcos ordered their renaming to barangays
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, municipality or local government area. Because of the differences in legislation between the states, the definition of a City Council varies. However, it is only those local government areas which have been specifically granted city status that are entitled to refer to themselves as cities. The official title is Corporation of the City of ------ or similar, some of the larger urban areas of Australia are governed mostly by a single entity, while others may be controlled by a multitude of much smaller city councils. Also some significant urban areas can be under the jurisdiction of rural local governments. Periodic re-alignments of boundaries attempt to rationalize these situations and adjust the deployment of assets, the 2001 Local Government Act restyled the five county boroughs of Dublin, Galway and Limerick as city councils, with the same status in law as county councils. For many decades until the government reforms of 1989, a borough with more than 20,000 people could be proclaimed a city.
The boundaries of councils tended to follow the edge of the built-up area, as a result, the term city began to take on two meanings. The word city came to be used in a formal sense to describe major urban areas independent of local body boundaries. This informal usage is jealously guarded, for example, adamantly described itself as the first city in the world to see the new millennium. Gisborne is administered by a council, but its status as a city is not generally disputed. Under the current law the minimum population for a new city is 50,000, in the Republic of China, a city council represents a provincial city. Members of the councils are elected through local elections for provincial cities which are held every 4–5 years, Councils for the provincial cities in Taiwan are Chiayi City Council, Hsinchu City Council and Keelung City Council. In the UK, a city council is, In England, a parish council that has been granted city status. The council of a London borough that has been granted city status, in Wales, The council of a principal area that has been granted city status.
A community council that has been granted city status, in Scotland, The council of one of four council areas designated a City by the Local Government etc. City councils and town boards generally consist of elected aldermen or councillors. In the United States, members of city councils are typically called council member or council man/woman, while in Canada they are typically called councillor
Timmins is a city in northeastern Ontario, Canada on the Mattagami River. The city has a population of 41,788, the citys economy is based on natural resource extraction and is supported by industries related to lumbering and to the mining of gold, copper and silver. As the fourth-largest city in the Northeastern Ontario region, Timmins serves as a regional service, the city has a large Francophone community, with more than 50 percent bilingual in French. Up until contact with settlers, the land belonged to the Mattagami First Nation peoples, treaty Number Nine of 1906 pushed this tribe to the north side of the Mattagami Lake, the site of a Hudsons Bay trading post first established in 1794. In the 1950s, the reservation was relocated to the side of the lake. The development of Timmins is due to the ore deposits of the Canadian Shield. Originally a company town, it was founded by Noah Timmins in 1912 following gold discoveries in the Porcupine Camp a few years earlier. On June 9,1909, Harry Preston slipped on a knoll and the heels of his boots stripped the moss to reveal a large vein of gold.
Benny Hollinger discovered the nearby Hollinger Gold Mine in 1910, Noah and Henry Timmins bought into the Hollinger Mine shortly after. On the same day as the Hollinger discovery, Sandy McIntyre discovered the McIntyre Mine near Pearl Lake and these mines are known as the Big Three. The area became home to dozens of prospectors during the Porcupine Gold Rush, who explored the areas around Porcupine Lake, most settlers grouped around Porcupine Lake and the Dome, which is situated one mile from the lake. Four miles down the road, around the McIntyre Mine, the hamlet of Schumacher was established, Timmins apparently got its name from the wooden sign nailed to a tree, demarcating Noah Timminss purchase. The rail system began to operate around Timmins in 1911 accelerated the growth of the camp. That same year, two days after the first train arrived in the Porcupine, the camp was destroyed in the fire of 1911. In 1912, Noah Timmins founded the town to house the employees of the Hollinger Mine, in November 1912,1,200 members of the Western Federation of Miners Local 145 held a strike at all three mines in response to a proposal to lower their wages.
Mine operators hired gun thugs, who fired on the line and were ordered out by the provincial government. After months without work, many men chose to leave the settlement, the strike won the men a nine-hour workday and a pay increase. The Great Depression did not adversely affect the economy of the area, in 1917, a dam was built at Kenogamissi Falls, downriver from Mattagami Lake, to provide power for the Timmins-Porcupine mining camp, Mattagami Lake was consequently flooded
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines, is the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines. It is often informally called Congress, Members of the House are officially styled as Representative and sometimes informally called Congressmen/Congresswomen and are elected to a three-year term. They can be re-elected, but cannot serve more than three consecutive terms, around eighty percent of congressmen are district representatives, representing a particular geographical area. There are 234 legislative districts in the country, each composed of about 250,000 people, there are party-list representatives elected through the party-list system who constitute not more than twenty percent of the total number of representatives. The House of Representatives is headed by the Speaker, currently Pantaleon Alvarez of Davao del Norte, the official headquarters of the House of Representatives is at the Batasang Pambansa located in the Batasan Hills in Quezon City in Metro Manila. The building is simply called Batasan and the word has become a metonym to refer to the House of Representatives.
At the beginning of American colonial rule, from March 16,1900, william Howard Taft was chosen to be the first American civilian Governor-General and the first leader of this Philippine Commission, which subsequently became known as the Taft Commission. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in October 1907, under the leadership of Speaker Sergio Osmeña and Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States Congress was substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature. It is this body, founded as the Philippine Assembly, that would continue in one form or another, in 1916, the Jones Act, officially the Philippine Autonomy Act, changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished and a new fully elected, bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives, the legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution established a unicameral National Assembly, but in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was adopted.
The Liberal bloc of the Nacionalistas permanently split from their ranks and these two will contest all of the elections in what appeared to be a two-party system. This set up continued until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law, the 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. Corazon Aquino who nominally had no party, supported the Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino, with the victory of Fidel V. This meant the restoration of Lakas-NUCD as the top party in the chamber, the same would happen when Benigno Aquino won in 2010, which returned the Liberals into power. The presiding officer is the Speaker, the members of the House of Representatives who are its officers are ex officio members of all of the committees and has a vote. The Speaker is the head of the House of Representatives, the speaker is elected by majority of all the members of the house, including vacant seats. The speaker is elected at the convening of each Congress
The Northwest Territories is a territory of Canada. At a land area of approximately 1,144,000 km2 and its estimated population as of 2016 is 44,291. Yellowknife became the capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission. The Northwest Territories are bordered by Canadas two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, and by the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the south. The name is descriptive, adopted by the British government during the era to indicate where it lay in relation to Ruperts Land. It is shortened from North-Western Territory, in Inuktitut, the Northwest Territories are referred to as ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ, beautiful land. There was some discussion of changing the name of the Northwest Territories after the splitting off of Nunavut, one proposal was Denendeh, as advocated by the former premier Stephen Kakfwi, among others. One of the most popular proposals for a new name – one to name the territory Bob – began as a prank, in the end a poll conducted prior to division showed that strong support remained to keep the name Northwest Territories.
This name arguably became more appropriate following division than it had been when the territories extended far into Canadas north-central and it possibly meets Manitoba at a quadripoint to the extreme southeast, though surveys have not been completed. It has an area of 1,183,085 km2. Territorial islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago include Banks Island, Borden Island, Prince Patrick Island and its highest point is Mount Nirvana near the border with Yukon at an elevation of 2,773 m. The Northwest Territories extends for more than 1,300,000 km2 and has a large climate variant from south to north, the southern part of the territory has a subarctic climate, while the islands and northern coast have a polar climate. Summers in the north are short and cool, with highs in the mid teens Celsius. Winters are long and harsh, daytime highs in the mid −20 °C, extremes are common with summer highs in the south reaching 36 °C and lows reaching into the negatives. In winter in the south, it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −40 °C, in the north, temperatures can reach highs of 30 °C, and lows can reach into the low negatives.
In winter in the north it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −50 °C, thunderstorms are not rare in the south. In the north they are rare, but do occur. Tornadoes are extremely rare but have happened with the most notable one happening just outside Yellowknife that destroyed a communications tower, the Territory has a fairly dry climate due to the mountains in the west
Elections in Israel
Elections in Israel are based on nationwide proportional representation. The electoral threshold is set at 3. 25%, with the number of seats a party receives in the Knesset being proportional to the number of votes it receives. The Knesset is elected for a term, although most governments have not served a full term. The legal voting age for Israeli citizens is 18, Elections are overseen by the Central Elections Committee and are held according to the Knesset Elections Law. National elections for the Knesset must take place every four years, though early elections have occurred more often. Failure to get the budget bill approved by the Knesset by March 31 leads automatically to early elections. Israel uses the closed-list method of party-list proportional representation, thus citizens vote for their preferred party, the 120 seats in the Knesset are assigned proportionally to each party that received votes, provided that the party gained votes which met or exceeded the electoral threshold. Parties are permitted to form electoral alliances so as to gain enough votes to meet the threshold.
The low threshold makes the Israeli electoral system more favourable to minor parties than systems used in most other countries, while this typically is the leader of the party receiving the most seats, it is not required to be so. In the event a party wins 61 or more seats in an election, however, no party has ever won more than 56 seats in an election, thus, a coalition has always been required. That member has up to 42 days to negotiate with the different parties, if the Knesset approves the proposed government, he or she becomes Prime Minister. As the coalitions often prove highly unstable - given the number, however, so long as the coalition has at least 61 members it is entitled to remain in power. The electoral threshold for a party to be allocated a Knesset seat was only 1% until 1988, it was raised to 1. 5% and remained at that level until 2003. On 11 March 2014, the Knesset approved a new law to raise the threshold to 3. 25%, in 1992, in an attempt to produce more stable governments, Israel adopted a system of direct election of the Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister was directly elected separately from the Knesset in 1996,1999 and 2001, the direct election of the Prime Minister was abandoned after the 2001 election, having failed to produce more stable governments. Israels voting method is simplified by the fact that voters vote for a political party, on election day, and upon entry to a polling station, the voter is given an official envelope, and shown to a voting booth. Inside the booth is a tray of slips, one for each party, the slips are printed with the ballot letters of the party, the full official name of the party, and sometimes a slogan in small print. Each party publicizes their letter prior to election day, with most election posters featuring them, as many political parties in Israel are known by their acronyms, several parties can spell out their name in two or three letters, and thus use their name as their ballot letters
Richmond, British Columbia
Richmond is a coastal city incorporated in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Part of the Metro Vancouver area, it has an population of 218,307 people as of 2017. Richmond has an immigrant population of 60%, the highest in Canada, Richmond is the location of Vancouver International Airport and was the site of the long track speed skating events during the 2010 Winter Olympics. Richmond is located on Lulu Island at the mouth of the Fraser River, neighbouring communities are Vancouver and Burnaby to the north, New Westminster to the east, and Delta to the south. The Strait of Georgia forms its western border, Coast Salish bands had temporary camps on the island, to fish and collect berries, which were scattered and moved from year to year. Certain Coast Salish summer camps were located at Garry Point, and Woodwards Landing, along with the site of the Terra Nova cannery, the Township of Richmond was named by Founding Father John Wesley Sexsmith after his birthplace The Township of Richmond, Lennox County, Ontario.
The Township of Richmond, Lennox County, Ontario was named for Governor General for British North America, Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond, Yorkshire, the first published reference to “Richmond” was a pamphlet about the local farmstead established on Sea Island by Hugh McRoberts. His daughter chose this name because the view across the Fraser River reminded her of Richmond, north of Sydney, Australia. At the meeting in her home to choose the name Mrs. Hugh Boyd, wife of the first reeve of Richmond, was told that the name came from her birthplace, the Township of Richmond, British Columbia incorporated on November 10,1879. On December 3,1990, Richmond was designated as a City. The first Town Hall, the Agricultural Hall and the Methodist Church, were built at the corner of No.17 Rd and No.20 Rd near the main settlement on the northwestern tip of Lulu Island at North Arm. The old fishing village of Steveston on the tip of Lulu Island is now home to several museums and heritage sites. Currently, London Heritage Farm, the Gulf of Georgia Cannery, Richmond comprises most of the islands in the Fraser River delta, the largest and most populated island being Lulu Island.
The city of Richmond includes all but a portion of Lulu Island. The next largest island, Sea Island, is home to the Vancouver International Airport, in addition to Lulu and Sea Islands,15 smaller islands make up the citys 129.66 square kilometres land area. The city includes the village of Steveston, located in the far southwest corner of the city, and Burkeville. Both Steveston and Burkeville were independent villages until they were annexed by Richmond, the drawback of Richmonds geographical location was that since all the land averages just one metre above sea level, it was prone to flooding, especially during high tide. There is a possibility that, during an earthquake, the dykes could rupture, Richmond is at risk of a major flood if the Fraser River has an unusually high spring freshet
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than four million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is a component of the Pacific Northwest and the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U. S. states of Idaho, Oregon and Alaska. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Port Moody is named after him, in 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colonys capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu, the capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original European colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, in October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371.
British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871, First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties and the question of Aboriginal Title, the Tsilhqotin Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BCs economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the provinces GDP and it is the endpoint of transcontinental railways, and the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Though less than 5% of its vast 944,735 km2 land is arable and its climate encourages outdoor recreation and tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging and mining. Vancouver, the provinces largest city and metropolitan area, serves as the headquarters of many western-based natural resource companies and it benefits from a strong housing market and a per capita income well above the national average.
The Northern Interior region has a climate with very cold winters. The climate of Vancouver is by far the mildest winter climate of the major Canadian cities, the provinces name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i. e. the Mainland, became a British colony in 1858. The current southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, British Columbias land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbias rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres and it is the only province in Canada that borders the Pacific Ocean. British Columbias capital is Victoria, located at the tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of the Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is significantly populated, much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by thick and sometimes impenetrable temperate rainforest
Victoria, British Columbia
Victoria /vɪkˈtɔːriə/ is the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, and is located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canadas Pacific coast. The city has a population of about 85,792, while the area of Greater Victoria, has a population of 367,770. Victoria is the southernmost major city in Western Canada, and is located about 100 kilometres from BCs largest city of Vancouver on the mainland. Named after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and, at the time, British North America, Victoria is one of the oldest cities in the Pacific Northwest, with British settlement beginning in 1843. The city has retained a number of its historic buildings. The citys Chinatown is the second oldest in North America after San Franciscos, known as the The Garden City, Victoria is an attractive city and a popular tourism destination with a thriving technology sector that has risen to be its largest revenue-generating private industry. Victoria is in the top twenty of world cities for quality-of-life, Victoria is very popular with boaters with its beautiful and rugged shorelines and beaches.
Victoria is popular with retirees, who come to enjoy the temperate, prior to the arrival of European navigators in the late 1700s, the Victoria area was home to several communities of Coast Salish peoples, including the Songhees. The Spanish and British took up the exploration of the northwest coast, beginning with the visits of Juan Pérez in 1774 and of James Cook. In 1778, although the Victoria area of the Strait of Juan de Fuca was not penetrated until 1790, Spanish sailors visited Esquimalt Harbour in 1790,1791, the Songhees established a village across the harbour from the fort. The Songhees village was moved north of Esquimalt. When the crown colony was established in 1849, a town was out on the site. Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862, in 1865, Esquimalt was made the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy, and remains Canadas Pacific coast naval base. In the latter half of the 19th century, the Port of Victoria became one of North Americas largest importers of opium, serving the opium trade from Hong Kong and distribution into North America.
Opium trade was legal and unregulated until 1865, the legislature issued licences and levied duties on its import, the opium trade was banned in 1908. In 1886, with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway terminus on Burrard Inlet and his son James Dunsmuir became premier and subsequently lieutenant-governor of the province and built his own grand residence at Hatley Park in the present City of Colwood. With the economic crash and a surplus of men, Victoria became a target-rich environment for recruiting. Two militia infantry battalions, the 88th Victoria Fusiliers and the 50th Gordon Highlanders, Victoria was the home of Sir Arthur Currie
Ontario, one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada, is located in east-central Canada. It is Canadas most populous province by a margin, accounting for nearly 40 percent of all Canadians. Ontario is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and it is home to the nations capital city and the nations most populous city, Toronto. There is only about 1 km of land made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes divided into two regions, Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario. The great majority of Ontarios population and arable land is located in the south, in contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and is heavily forested. The province is named after Lake Ontario, a thought to be derived from Ontarí, io, a Huron word meaning great lake, or possibly skanadario. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes, the province consists of three main geographical regions, The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario.
Although this area mostly does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes, Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions, Northwestern Ontario and Northeastern Ontario. The virtually unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the north and northeast, mainly swampy. Southern Ontario which is further sub-divided into four regions, Central Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Golden Horseshoe, the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level located in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands, the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. A well-known geographic feature is Niagara Falls, part of the Niagara Escarpment, the Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario.
Northern Ontario occupies roughly 87 percent of the area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario that is the southernmost extent of Canadas mainland, Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend slightly farther. All are south of 42°N – slightly farther south than the border of California. The climate of Ontario varies by season and location, the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend mainly on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontarios climate is classified as humid continental, Ontario has three main climatic regions