A co-production is a joint venture between two or more different production companies for the purpose of film production, television production, video game development, so on. In the case of an international co-production, production companies from different countries are working together. Co-production refers to the way services are produced by their users, in some parts or entirely. Following the Second World War, US film companies were forbidden by the Marshall Plan to take their film profits in the form of foreign exchange out of European countries; as a result, several film companies started studios and production companies in nations such as the United Kingdom and Italy to use their "frozen funds". To use these profits in England, film companies would set up production companies using the required amount of British film technicians and actors to qualify as British Productions in order to take advantage of the Eady Levy. At the same time, US citizens working outside the country for 510 days during a period of 18 months would not be taxed on their earnings by the Internal Revenue Service.
Though this scheme was developed for the aid of American humanitarian workers redeveloping nations destroyed in World War II, agents discovered that Hollywood actors and screenwriters would qualify for the tax break by working outside the US for the same period. International film co-production was common in the 50s, 60s and 70s between Italian and French production companies, as exemplified by most of the Spaghetti-western and sword and sandal movies being Spanish-Italian coproductions directed by an Italian, played fifty-fifty by Spanish and Italian actors and shot in southern Spain landscapes. Due to the worldwide popularity of Hollywood stars they would be used to guarantee a respectable audience around the world as well as the United States; the low production costs and high box office return of these films led to direct Hollywood investment to the non-US studios and producers such as Dino DeLaurentis. An example of such pan-European coproductions was Treasure Island, a British-French-German-Italian-Spanish film, starring US Orson Welles.
To qualify as an Italian film a film needed either an Italian director or cameraman plus at least two Italian featured players and an Italian film laboratory to process the film. Actor and director Mel Welles recalled that in the 1960s and 1970s the government of Spain would give producers funds based on the budget of the film whilst Italy would give producers funds based on the box office results of the film, however the government could interfere with production if they chose toThe first European nations to sign a film co-production agreement were France and Italy in 1949. Between 1949 and 1964 711 films were co-produced between the two nations. Due to the expense of filmmaking, many films made outside the United States are international co-productions. For example, Amélie is set in France and stars French actors, but many scenes were shot in a German film studio and the post-production work was undertaken by a German film company. International co-productions open new markets for films and television programs and can increase the output of high quality productions through the sharing of equity investment.
Official co-productions are made possible by agreements between countries. Co-production agreements seek to achieve economic and diplomatic goals. For filmmakers, the key attraction of a treaty co-production is that it qualifies as a national production in each of the partner nations and can access benefits that are available to the local film and television industry in each country. Benefits may include government financial assistance, tax concessions and inclusion in domestic television broadcast quotas. International co-productions occur outside the framework of official co-productions, for example with countries that do not have an agreement in place, or projects that do not satisfy official co-production criteria. Dialogue director Mickey Knox recalled that in order to bring in American dollars and British pounds many countries behind the former Iron Curtain offered producers lucrative deals. In exchange for a share of the profits or an outright payment the host country would pick up most of the local charges.
In many cases, co-productions are a response to the challenges of internationalisation by countries with small production sectors, as they seek to maintain a viable production industry and produce culturally-specific content for national audiences. However, these dual goals produce tensions within national film and television sectors. Although a co-production agreement may make available more resources, an international production risks being less relevant to its target audiences than purely local productions; as a response to internationalisation, co-production offers both drawbacks. A 1996 survey of Canadian international and domestic joint ventures identified the benefits as: the ability to pool financial resources. Hoskins, McFadyen and Finn identify drawbacks of international co-production: increased co-ordination and shooting costs. Debate concerning international co-productions centres on the potential for productions to have little cultural specificity in any of its home countries. Internationalisation brings tensions in terms of cost
The Falcons (film)
The Falcons is a 1970 Hungarian film directed by István Gaál about the training of falcons for use on farms to protect crops from birds. It is based on the novel by Miklós Mészöly, it won the Jury Prize at the 1970 Cannes Film Festival. Ivan Andonov - Fiú György Bánffy - Lilik Gyula Bay Gyula Gulyás Gábor Harsányi Pál Hriazik Péter Kertész Judit Meszléry - Teréz Gábor Nadai Sándor Nagy Mihály Nyúl Ferenc Paláncz József Zémann Magasiskola on IMDb
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Woman in the Dunes
Woman in the Dunes or Woman of the Dunes is a 1964 Japanese New Wave film directed by Hiroshi Teshigahara and starring Eiji Okada and Kyōko Kishida. It was nominated for two Academy Awards; the screenplay for the film was adapted by Kōbō Abe from his 1962 novel. A schoolteacher, Niki Junpei, goes on an expedition to collect insects; when he misses the last bus home, the villagers suggest. They guide him down a rope ladder to a house in a sand quarry, to stay with a young widow, a meek and simple woman whose husband and daughter were killed in a sandstorm and who now lives alone, she is employed by the villagers to dig sand for sale to be used in concrete and to save the house from burial in the advancing sand. When Junpei tries to leave the next morning, he finds the ladder removed and cannot climb the sand since it keeps collapsing; the villagers expect him to assist her in digging sand. Junpei becomes the widow's lover. One morning, using an improvised grappling hook, he escapes from the sand dune and runs away, with the villagers soon giving chase.
Junpei becomes trapped in quicksand. The villagers return him to the house. Junpei resigns himself to his situation, he requests time to watch the nearby sea, the villagers offer to grant it if he has sex with the woman while they watch, but she fends him off. Through his persistent effort to trap a crow as a messenger, he discovers a way to draw water from the damp sand at night and becomes absorbed in the task of perfecting the technique; when it is discovered that the woman is pregnant, the villagers take her to a doctor and forget to remove the rope ladder before they leave. Junpei has a chance to escape, but he chooses to stay so that he may teach the technique to the other villagers, to encourage a escape; the film's final shot is of a police report, which states that Junpei has been missing for seven years. Eiji Okada – Entomologist Niki Junpei Kyōko Kishida – Woman Hiroko Itō – Entomologist's wife Kōji Mitsui – Village elder Sen Yano Ginzō Sekiguchi The roadshow version of Woman in the Dunes was released in Japan on February 15, 1964 where it was distributed by Toho.
The general release for Woman in the Dunes in Japan was April 18, 1964. The film was released in the United States by Pathe Contemporary Films with English subtitles on September 17, 1964; the film ran at 127 minutes. The Criterion Collection released a DVD box set collecting Woman in the Dunes in its original length along with Teshigahara's Pitfall and The Face of Another in 2007; this release is now out of print. In August 2016, Criterion released the film as a stand-alone Blu-ray with a brand new high definition transfer; the film has a rating of 100% review aggregator site Rotten Tomatoes, based on 27 critical reviews with an average rating of 8.7 out of 10. It was one of the ten best films chosen by Russian filmmaker Andrei Tarkovsky. Roger Ebert inducted Woman in the Dunes into his Great Movies list in 1998. Viewing the work as a retelling of the Sisyphus myth, he wrote, "There has never been sand photography like this, by anchoring the story so in this tangible physical reality, the cinematographer, Hiroshi Segawa, helps the director pull off the difficult feat of telling a parable as if it is happening."
Film School describes it as "a spare and haunting allegory for human existence". According to Max Tessier, the main theme of the film is the desire to escape from society; the film's composer, Toru Takemitsu, was praised. Nathaniel Thompson wrote, " jarring, experimental music here is a character unto itself, insinuating itself into the fabric of the celluloid as imperceptibly as the sand." Ebert stated that the score "doesn't underline the action but mocks it, with high, plaintive notes, like a metallic wind." The film won the Special Jury Prize at the 1964 Cannes Film Festival and, somewhat unusually for an avant-garde film, was nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film Oscar in the same year. In 1965, Teshigahara was nominated for the Best Director Oscar. In 1967, the film won the Grand Prix of the Belgian Film Critics Association. List of Japanese submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film List of submissions to the 37th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film Woman in the Dunes on IMDb Woman in the Dunes at AllMovie Woman in the Dunes at the Japanese Movie Database Woman in the Dunes: Shifting Sands an essay by Audie Bock at the Criterion Collection
Z (1969 film)
Z is a 1969 Algerian-French epic political thriller film directed by Costa-Gavras, with a screenplay by Gavras and Jorge Semprún, based on the 1966 novel of the same name by Vassilis Vassilikos. The film presents a thinly fictionalized account of the events surrounding the assassination of democratic Greek politician Grigoris Lambrakis in 1963. With its satirical view of Greek politics, its dark sense of humor, its downbeat ending, the film captures the outrage about the military dictatorship that ruled Greece at the time of its making; the film stars Jean-Louis Trintignant as the investigating magistrate. International stars Yves Montand and Irene Papas appear, but despite their star billing have little screen time. Jacques Perrin, who co-produced, plays a key role as a photojournalist; the film's title refers to a popular Greek protest slogan meaning "he lives," in reference to Lambrakis. The film had a total of 3,952,913 admissions in France and was the 4th highest grossing film of the year.
It was the 12th highest grossing film of 1969 in the U. S. Z is the first film—and one of only a handful—to be nominated for both the Academy Awards for Best Picture and Best Foreign Language Film, it won the latter, as well as the Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival, the BAFTA Award for Best Film Music, the Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign-Language Foreign Film. The story begins with the closing moments of a rather dull government lecture and slide show on agricultural policy, after which the leader of the security police of a right-wing military-dominated government takes over the podium for an impassioned speech describing the government's program to combat leftism, using the metaphors of "a mildew of the mind", an infiltration of "isms", or "sunspots"; the scene shifts to preparations for a rally of the opposition faction where the pacifist Deputy is to give a speech advocating nuclear disarmament. There have been attempts by the government to prevent the speech's delivery; the venue has been changed to a much smaller hall, logistical problems have appeared out of nowhere, the people handing out leaflets about the change of venue are attacked by thugs under the command of the police.
On his way to the venue, the Deputy is hit on the head by a right-wing anticommunist protestor, some of whom are sponsored by the government, but carries on with his sharp speech. As the Deputy crosses the street from the hall after giving his speech, a delivery truck speeds past him and a man on the open truck bed strikes him down with a club; the injury proves fatal, the police manipulate witnesses to force the conclusion that the Deputy was run over by a drunk driver. However, the police do not control the hospital; the examining magistrate, with the assistance of a photojournalist, now uncovers sufficient evidence to indict not only the two right-wing militants who committed the murder, but four high-ranking military police officers. The action of the film concludes with one of the Deputy's associates rushing to see the his widow to give her the surprising news of the officers' indictments; the widow looks distressed. An epilogue provides a synopsis of the subsequent turns of events. Instead of the expected positive outcome, the prosecutor is mysteriously removed from the case, several key witnesses die under suspicious circumstances, the assassins receive short sentences, the officers receive only administrative reprimands, the Deputy's close associates die or are deported, the photojournalist is sent to prison for disclosing official documents.
The heads of the government resign after public disapproval, but before elections are carried out, a Coup d'etat occurs and the military seize power. They ban modern art, popular music and avant-garde novelists, as well as modern mathematics and modern philosophers, the use of the term "Ζ", which referred to The Deputy and means: "He lives"; the 1963 murder of Greek politician and physician Grigoris Lambrakis and subsequent military junta served as the basis for the story. Among Costa-Gavras' references to the actual events was the frequency with which the military compared ideologies to diseases, seen when the General compares -isms to mildew; the Magistrate was based on real-life Greek jurist Christos Sartzetakis. Costa-Gavras opted to show the Deputy had adulteries and conflicts with his wife to demonstrate he was a man. Principal photography took place in Algiers at actor Jacques Perrin's suggestion, which the filmmakers approved for its Mediterranean environment and because the Ministry of Culture was accommodating.
In Algiers, Hotel St. Georges and the central square were filming locations, while Paris' Théâtre des Champs-Élysées was used for the ballet scenes. Marcel Bozzuffi performed his own stunts wrestling on the "Kamikaze" vehicle due to the production's lack of budget for professional stunt performers. Costa-Gavras chose Z as the title of the film based on its common occurrence in Greek graffiti, for "He lives"; the soundtrack, by Mikis Theodorakis, was a hit record. The Gree
Hana Makhmalbaf is an Iranian filmmaker. She is the younger sister of filmmaker Samira Makhmalbaf and daughter of filmmakers Mohsen Makhmalbaf and Marzieh Makhmalbaf, she is known for Buddha Collapsed Out of Shame and Green Days. Makhmalbaf won the Lina Mangiacapre Award at the Venice Film Festival in 2003 for Joy of Madness. Joy of Madness won the Special Jury Prize at Tokyo Filmex. Makhmalbaf's film Buddha Collapsed Out of Shame won various awards as well, such as the Paolo Ungari UNICEF Prize from the Rome Film Festival and the Peace Film Award at the Berlin International Film Festival. Makhmalbaf's film involvement began early in her life. By age three, she had attended the Cannes Film Festival, her own work gained attention by age eight when the Locarno Film Festival screened her first short film titled The Day My Aunt Was Ill. Makhmalbaf expressed interest in being a painter, but did not like the "loneliness" that she described in the art form, she was drawn to filmmaking, she found the on-set experience compelling.
In an interview, Makhmalbaf explained that hearing the words "lights, action" was exciting and had a "strange power". At the age of eight, Makhmalbaf decided, she switched to her father's film academy and studio, Makhmalbaf Film House, in her hometown of Tehran. In the Makhmalbaf Film House, the students learned about many art forms such as painting and cinema. Makhmalbaf had to keep up with what her peers were learning in addition to studying at the film academy. Makhmalbaf went back for a few weeks. However, she realized she would rather be the Makhmabaf Film House after experiencing the formal education system again. Makhmalbaf's debut documentary was entitled Joy of Madness; the film was about the making of her sister Samira's film At Five in the Afternoon. Makhmalbaf was able to take advantage of being only 13 to amass much candid digital footage when Samira was trying to persuade Afghan people to take part in her film, she was described as being able to blend in and remain overlooked as she shot her film among the production.
She was able to capture so much on film because her age caused people to not to hide from her since they did not take her seriously. When Joy of Madness premiered at the Venice Film Festival, Makhmalbaf was too young to attend her own screening under Italian law. Joy of Madness was screened at the Cannes Film Festival, where Makhmalbaf beat the record of the youngest person to have a film screened in the festival; the record was held by her sister, Samira Makhmalbaf, who had broke the record at the age of seventeen. Joy of Madness was screened at the London International Film Festival in November 2004. Makhmalbaf and her sister, were both in attendance at the festival as Samira's film At Five in the Afternoon was screened at the festival, her first feature film, Buddha Collapsed out of Shame, won an award at Festival du nouveau cinéma in Montreal, Canada in 2007, as well as two awards from San Sebastian International Film Festival, in Spain, the Crystal Bear for the Best Feature Film by the Generation Kplus Children's Jury at the Berlinale Film Festival in 2008.
Her second feature, Green Days premiered at the 2009 Toronto International Film Festival. The film was a documentary about the run-up to the 2009 Presidential Election in Iran. Makhmalbaf made use of footage from protesters by inter-cutting scenes of the post-election violence garnered from cell-phone and other amateur videos circulating anonymously. Green Days screened at the Venice Film Festival. Makhmalbaf and her family left Iran shortly after the film's premiere. After Green Days, Makhmalbaf went on to work on The President. In 2015, Makhmalbaf announced her next film, entitled Single Mother. Many of Malkhmalbaf's family members worked on the film, with her father, Mohsen Malkhmalbaf, writing the script, her brother, Maysam Malkhmalbaf, producing it. Malhmalbaf and her family spent time in Italy. Hana Makhmalbaf's Buddha won two awards at San Sebastian Hana Makhmalbaf's Buddha won an award at Festival du Nouveau Cinéma in Montreal Hana Makhmalbaf on IMDb Hana Makhmalbaf at Makhmalbaf Film House Interview with Hana Makhmalbaf at Wide Screen