Hizb ut-Tahrir is an international, pan-Islamist political organisation, which describes its ideology as Islam, its aim as the re-establishment of the Islamic Khilafah to resume the Islamic way of life in the Muslim world. The caliphate would unite the Muslim community upon their Islamic creed and implement the Shariah, so as to carry the proselytising of Islam to the rest of the world; the party was founded in 1953 as a political organisation in Jerusalem by Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, an Islamic scholar and appeals court judge from Haifa. Since Hizb ut-Tahrir has spread to more than 50 countries, grown to a membership estimated to be between "tens of thousands" to "about one million". Hizb ut-Tahrir is very active in Western countries in the United Kingdom, in several Arab and Central Asian countries, despite being banned by a number of governments. Members meet in small private study circles, but in countries where the group is not illegal it engages with the media and organises rallies and conferences.
The basis of the party's ideological structure has been "meticulously thought out and published in many detailed books" that are available. Al-Nabhani developed a program and "draft constitution" for the caliphate, which would be run by a Caliph. Articles of the constitution detail canons fundamentally related to the economy, judiciary and more. Hizb ut-Tahrir has been banned in countries such as Germany, China, Egypt and all Arab countries except Lebanon and the UAE. In July 2017, the Indonesian government formally revoked Hizbut ut-Tahrir's charter, citing incompatibility with government regulations on extremism and national ideology. Hizb ut-Tahrir states its aim as unification of all Muslim countries over time in a unitary Islamic state or caliphate, headed by a caliph elected by Muslims. This, it holds, is an obligation decreed by God, warning that he will punish those Muslims "who neglect this duty." Once established, the caliphate will expand into non-Muslim areas, through "invitation" and through military jihad, so as to expand the land of Islam" and diminish land of unbelief.
To "achieve its objective" HT seeks "to gain the leadership of the Islamic community" so that the community will "accept it as her leader, to implement Islam upon her and proceed with it in her struggle against the Kuffar and in the work towards the return of the Islamic State..."The nature of the "Islamic state"/caliphate/khilafah is spelled out in a detailed program and "draft constitution" which notes the caliphate being a unitary state, run by a caliph head of state elected by Muslims. Other specified features include: "The currency of the State is to be restricted to gold and silver"—article 163. Forbidden by the constitution are such things as copyrights on educational materials, military treaties, memberships by the state in secular international organizations. In addition to the constitution, "many detailed books" expand on the HT ideology and "method of work", according to its 2010 Information pack. Although hizb means party in Arabic, in the countries where Hizb ut-Tahrir is active it has not registered as a political party or attempted to elect candidates to political office, although it did early in its history.
Hizb ut-Tahrir put forward candidates for office in Jordan in the 1950s when it was first formed and before it was banned, according to Suha Taji-Farouki. Kyrgyz Hizb ut-Tahrir members campaigned unsuccessfully for an affiliated candidate in Kyrgyzstan's national presidential election in July 2005, have participated in municipal elections where their followers have won in a number of regions. One observer describes the strategy as "global, grassroots revolution, culminating in a sudden, millenarian victory", as opposed to a slog through a political process "that risks debasing the Koran and perpetuating the ummah’s subjugation to the West"; the party plans its political progress in three stages, taking after the process "by which the Prophet Muhammad established the Caliphate in thirteen years." According to an analyst of Hizb ut-Tahrir in Kazakhstan, where the group is outlawed: "First they convert new members. Secondly, they establish a network of secret cells, they try to infiltrate the government to work to legalize their party and its aims."
A more sympathetic description of this strategy is that Hizb ut-Tahrir works to: Establish group of elites as a community of Hizb ut-Tahrir members who carry the invitation to Muslim societies to support an Islamic state. Members should accept the goals and methods of the organization as their own and be ready to work to fulfill these goals. Build public opinion among the Muslim masses for the caliphate and the other Islamic concepts that will lead to a revival of Islamic thought. (This process of what the party calls "intellectual transformation through political and cultural interaction", attempts to imitate Muhmmad's using his core of supporters to win over the population of Mecca and Medina
A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that represent independent political dimensions. Most long-standing spectra include a left wing, which referred to seating arrangements in the French parliament after the Revolution. On a left–right spectrum and socialism are regarded internationally as being on the left, Liberalism can mean different things in different contexts: sometimes on the left; those with an intermediate outlook are sometimes classified as centrists. That said and neoliberals are called centrists too. Politics that rejects the conventional left–right spectrum is known as syncretic politics, though the label tends to mischaracterize positions that have a logical location on a two-axis spectrum because they seem randomly brought together on a one-axis left-right spectrum. Political scientists have noted that a single left–right axis is insufficient for describing the existing variation in political beliefs and include other axes.
Though the descriptive words at polar opposites may vary in popular biaxial spectra the axes are split between socio-cultural issues and economic issues, each scaling from some form of individualism to some form of communitarianism. The terms right and left refer to political affiliations originating early in the French Revolutionary era of 1789–1799 and referred to the seating arrangements in the various legislative bodies of France; as seen from the Speaker's seat at the front of the Assembly, the aristocracy sat on the right and the commoners sat on the left, hence the terms right-wing politics and left-wing politics. The defining point on the ideological spectrum was the Ancien Régime. "The Right" thus implied support for aristocratic or royal interests and the church, while "The Left" implied support for republicanism and civil liberties. Because the political franchise at the start of the revolution was narrow, the original "Left" represented the interests of the bourgeoisie, the rising capitalist class.
Support for laissez-faire commerce and free markets were expressed by politicians sitting on the left because these represented policies favorable to capitalists rather than to the aristocracy, but outside parliamentary politics these views are characterized as being on the Right. The reason for this apparent contradiction lies in the fact that those "to the left" of the parliamentary left, outside official parliamentary structures represent much of the working class, poor peasantry and the unemployed, their political interests in the French Revolution lay with opposition to the aristocracy and so they found themselves allied with the early capitalists. However, this did not mean that their economic interests lay with the laissez-faire policies of those representing them politically; as capitalist economies developed, the aristocracy became less relevant and were replaced by capitalist representatives. The size of the working class increased as capitalism expanded and began to find expression through trade unionist, socialist and communist politics rather than being confined to the capitalist policies expressed by the original "left".
This evolution has pulled parliamentary politicians away from laissez-faire economic policies, although this has happened to different degrees in different countries those with a history of issues with more authoritarian-left countries, such as the Soviet Union or China under Mao Zedong. Thus the word "Left" in American political parlance may refer to "liberalism" and be identified with the Democratic Party, whereas in a country such as France these positions would be regarded as more right-wing, or centrist overall, "left" is more to refer to "socialist" or "social-democratic" positions rather than "liberal" ones. For a century, social scientists have considered the problem of how best to describe political variation. In 1950, Leonard W. Ferguson analyzed political values using ten scales measuring attitudes toward: birth control, capital punishment, communism, law, theism, treatment of criminals and war. Submitting the results to factor analysis, he was able to identify three factors, which he named religionism and nationalism.
He defined religionism as belief in God and negative attitudes toward birth control. This system was derived empirically, as rather than devising a political model on purely theoretical grounds and testing it, Ferguson's research was exploratory; as a result of this method, care must be taken in the interpretation of Ferguson's three factors, as factor analysis will output an abstract factor whether an objectively real factor exists or not. Although replication of the nationalism factor was inconsistent, the finding of religionism and humanitarianism had a number of replications by Ferguson and others. Shortly afterward, Hans Eysenck began researching political attitudes in Great Britain, he believed that there was something similar about the National Socialists on the one hand and the communists on the other, despite their opposite positions on the left–right axis. As Hans Eysenck described in his 1956 book Sense and
Social democracy is a political and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a capitalist economy. The protocols and norms used to accomplish this involve a commitment to representative and participatory democracy, measures for income redistribution and regulation of the economy in the general interest and welfare state provisions. Social democracy thus aims to create the conditions for capitalism to lead to greater democratic and solidaristic outcomes. Due to longstanding governance by social democratic parties and their influence on socioeconomic policy development in the Nordic countries, in policy circles social democracy has become associated with the Nordic model in the latter part of the 20th century. Social democracy originated as a political ideology that advocated an evolutionary and peaceful transition from capitalism to socialism using established political processes in contrast to the revolutionary approach to transition associated with orthodox Marxism.
In the early post-war era in Western Europe, social democratic parties rejected the Stalinist political and economic model current in the Soviet Union, committing themselves either to an alternative path to socialism or to a compromise between capitalism and socialism. In this period, social democrats embraced a mixed economy based on the predominance of private property, with only a minority of essential utilities and public services under public ownership; as a result, social democracy became associated with Keynesian economics, state interventionism and the welfare state while abandoning the prior goal of replacing the capitalist system with a qualitatively different socialist economic system. With the rise of popularity for neoliberalism and the New Right by the 1980s, most social democratic parties have incorporated Third Way ideology, which aims to fuse liberal economics with social democratic welfare policies. Modern social democracy is characterized by a commitment to policies aimed at curbing inequality, oppression of underprivileged groups and poverty, including support for universally accessible public services like care for the elderly, child care, health care and workers' compensation.
The social democratic movement has strong connections with the labour movement and trade unions which are supportive of collective bargaining rights for workers as well as measures to extend decision-making beyond politics into the economic sphere in the form of co-determination for employees and other economic stakeholders. During late 19th and early 20th centuries, social democracy was a movement that aimed to replace private ownership with social ownership of the means of production, taking influences from both Marxism and the supporters of Ferdinand Lassalle. By 1868–1869, Marxism had become the official theoretical basis of the first social democratic party established in Europe, the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany. In the early 20th century, the German social democratic politician Eduard Bernstein rejected the ideas in classical and orthodox Marxism that proposed a specific historical progression and revolution as a means to achieve social equality, advanced the position that socialism should be grounded in ethical and moral arguments for social justice and egalitarianism, was to be achieved through gradual legislative reform.
Influenced by Bernstein, following the split between reformists and revolutionary socialists in the Second International social democratic parties rejected revolutionary politics in favor of parliamentary reform while remaining committed to socialization. In this period, social democracy became associated with reformist socialism. Under the influence of politicians like Carlo Rosselli in Italy, social democrats began disassociating themselves from Marxism altogether and embraced liberal socialism, appealing to morality instead of any consistent systematic, scientific or materialist worldview. Social democracy made appeals to communitarian and sometimes nationalist sentiments while rejecting the economic and technological determinism characteristic of both Marxism and economic liberalism. By the post-World War II period, most social democrats in Europe had abandoned their ideological connection to Marxism and shifted their emphasis toward social policy reform in place of transition from capitalism to socialism.
The origins of social democracy have been traced to the 1860s, with the rise of the first major working-class party in Europe, the General German Workers' Association founded by Ferdinand Lassalle. 1864 saw the founding of the International Workingmen's Association known as the First International. It brought together socialists of various stances and occasioned a conflict between Karl Marx and the anarchists led by Mikhail Bakunin over the role of the state in socialism, with Bakunin rejecting any role for the state. Another issue in the First International was the role of reformism. Although Lassalle was not a Marxist, he was influenced by the theories of Marx and Friedrich Engels and he accepted the existence and importance of class struggle. However, unlike Marx's and Engels's The Communist Manifesto, Lassalle promoted class struggle in a more moderate form. While Marx viewed the state negatively as an instrument of class rule that should only exist temporarily upon the rise to power of the proletariat and dismantled, Lassalle accepted the state.
Lassalle viewed the state as a means through which workers could enhance their interests and transform the society to create an economy based on worker-run cooperatives. Lassalle's strategy was electoral and reformist, with Lassalleans contending that the working c
Bishkek Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan. Bishkek is the administrative centre of the Chuy Region; the province surrounds the city, although the city itself is not part of the province, but rather a province-level unit of Kyrgyzstan. In 1825 Khokand authorities established the fortress of "Pishpek" in order to control local caravan-routes and to collect tribute from Kyrgyz tribes. On 4 September 1860, with the approval of the Kyrgyz, Russian forces led by Colonel Apollon Zimmermann destroyed the fortress. In 1868 a Russian settlement was established on the site of the fortress under its original name, "Pishpek", it lay within the General Governorship of its Semirechye Oblast. In 1925 the Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast was established in Russian Turkestan, promoting Pishpek to its capital. In 1926 the Communist Party of the Soviet Union renamed the city as Frunze, after the Bolshevik military leader Mikhail Frunze, born there. In 1936, the city of Frunze became the capital of the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, during the final stages of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union.
In 1991 the Kyrgyz parliament changed the capital's name to "Bishkek". Bishkek is situated at an altitude of about 800 meters, just off the northern fringe of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too range, an extension of the Tian Shan mountain range; these mountains provide a backdrop to the city. North of the city, a fertile and undulating steppe extends far north into neighboring Kazakhstan; the Chui River drains most of the area. Bishkek is connected to the Turkestan-Siberia Railway by a spur line. Bishkek is a city of wide boulevards and marble-faced public buildings combined with numerous Soviet-style apartment blocks surrounding interior courtyards. There are thousands of smaller built houses outside the city centre. Streets follow a grid pattern, with most flanked on both sides by narrow irrigation channels, watering innumerable trees to provide shade in the hot summers. A caravan rest stop on one of the branches of the Silk Road through the Tian Shan range, the location was fortified in 1825 by the Uzbek khan of Kokhand with a mud fort.
In the last years of Kokhand rule, the Pishpek fortress was led by the Datka. In 1860, the fort was conquered and razed by the military forces of Colonel Zimmermann when Tsarist Russia annexed the area. Colonel Zimmermann rebuilt the town over the destroyed fort and put field Poruchik Titov as head of a new Russian garrison; the site was redeveloped from 1877 onward by the Russian government, which encouraged the settlement of Russian peasants by giving them fertile land to develop. In 1926, the city became the capital of the newly established Kirghiz ASSR and was renamed "Frunze" after Mikhail Frunze, Lenin's close associate, born in Bishkek and played key roles during the revolutions of 1905 and 1917 and during the Russian civil war of the early 1920s; the early 1990s were tumultuous. In June 1990, a state of emergency was declared following severe ethnic riots in southern Kyrgyzstan that threatened to spread to the capital; the city was renamed Bishkek on 5 February 1991 and Kyrgyzstan achieved independence that year during the breakup of the Soviet Union.
Before independence, the majority of Bishkek's population were ethnic Russians. In 2004, Russians made up 20% of the city's population, about 7–8% in 2011. Today, Bishkek is a modern city with many restaurants and cafes, with many second-hand European and Japanese cars and minibuses crowding its streets; however and sidewalks have fallen into disrepair since the 1990s. At the same time, Bishkek still preserves its former Soviet feel with Soviet-period buildings and gardens prevailing over newer structures. Bishkek is the country's financial center, with all of the country's 21 commercial banks headquartered there. During the Soviet era, the city was home to a large number of industrial plants, but most have been shut down since 1991 or now operate on a much reduced scale. One of Bishkek's largest employment centers today is the Dordoy Bazaar open market, where many of the Chinese goods imported to CIS countries are sold. Though the city is young, the surrounding area has some sites of interest dating to prehistorical times.
There are sites from the Greco-Buddhist period, the period of Nestorian influence, the era of the Central Asian khanates, the Soviet period. The central part of the city is laid out on a rectangular grid plan; the city's main street is the east–west Chui Avenue, named after the region's main river. In the Soviet era, it was called Lenin Avenue. Along or near it are many of the most important government universities; these include the Academy of Sciences compound. The westernmost section of the avenue is known as Deng Xiaoping Avenue; the main north–south street is Yusup Abdrakhmanov Street, still referred to by its old name, Sovietskaya Street. Its northern and southern sections are called Yelebesov and Baityk Batyr Streets. Several major shopping centers are located along it, in the north it provides access to Dordoy Bazaar. Erkindik Boulevard runs from north to south, from the main railroad station south of Chui Avenue to the museum quarter and sculpture park just north of Chui Avenue, further north toward the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
In the past it was called Dzerzhinsky Boulevard, named after a Communist revolutionary, Felix Dzerzhinsky, its northern continuation is still called Dzerzhinsky Street. An imp
Kyrgyzstan the Kyrgyz Republic, known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country with mountainous terrain, it is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west and southwest, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek. Kyrgyzstan's recorded history spans over 2,000 years, encompassing a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by its mountainous terrain, which has helped preserve its ancient culture, Kyrgyzstan has been at the crossroads of several great civilizations as part of the Silk Road and other commercial and cultural routes. Though long inhabited by a succession of independent tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically fallen under foreign domination and attained sovereignty as a nation-state only after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. Since independence, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic, although it continues to endure ethnic conflicts, economic troubles, transitional governments and political conflict.
Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Turkic Council, the Türksoy community and the United Nations. Ethnic Kyrgyz make up the majority of the country's 6 million people, followed by significant minorities of Uzbeks and Russians. Kyrgyz is related to other Turkic languages, although Russian remains spoken and is an official language, a legacy of a century of Russification; the majority of the population are non-denominational Muslims. In addition to its Turkic origins, Kyrgyz culture bears elements of Persian and Russian influence. "Kyrgyz" is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word for "forty", in reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero who united forty regional clans against the Uyghurs. Kyrgyz means We are forty. At the time, in the early 9th century AD, the Uyghurs dominated much of Central Asia and parts of Russia and China.
The 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan is a reference to those same forty tribes and the graphical element in the sun's center depicts the wooden crown, called tunduk, of a yurt—a portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. In terms of naming conventions, the country's official name is "Kyrgyz Republic" whenever it is used in some international arenas and foreign relations. However, in the English-speaking world, the spelling Kyrgyzstan is used while its former name Kirghizia is used as such. According to David C. King, Scythians were early settlers in present-day Kyrgyzstan; the Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khaganate in 840 A. D. From the 10th century the Kyrgyz migrated as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years. In the twelfth century the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated south.
The Kyrgyz peacefully became a part of the Mongol Empire in 1207. The descent of the Kyrgyz from the indigenous Siberian population, on the other hand, is confirmed by recent genetic studies; because of the processes of migration, conquest and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples who now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins stemming from fragments of many different tribes, though they now speak related languages. Issyk Kul Lake was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for traders and other travelers from the Far East to Europe. Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the 17th century by the Mongols, in the mid-18th century by the Manchurian Qing Dynasty, in the early 19th century by the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand. In the late nineteenth century, the eastern part of what is today Kyrgyzstan the Issyk-Kul Region, was ceded to the Russian Empire by Qing China through the Treaty of Tarbagatai; the territory known in Russian as "Kirghizia", was formally incorporated into the Empire in 1876.
The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts, many of the Kyrgyz opted to relocate to the Pamir Mountains and Afghanistan. In addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion against Russian rule in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz to migrate to China. Since many ethnic groups in the region were split between neighboring states at a time when borders were more porous and less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better. Soviet power was established in the region in 1919, the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR. On 5 December 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a constituent Union Republic of the Soviet Union. During the 1920s, Kyrgyzstan developed in cultural and social life. Literacy was improved, a standard literary language was introduced by imposing Russian on the populace. Economic and social development was notable. Many aspects of the Ky
2010 Kyrgyz parliamentary election
Early parliamentary elections were held in Kyrgyzstan on 10 October 2010. All 120 seats of the Supreme Council were elected by the party list system. Seats were allocated to all parties who obtained more than 5% of the vote and more than 0.5% in each of the nine provinces, capped at 65 seats per party. Ata-Zhurt won a plurality of seats, while the ruling Social Democratic Party finished second and Ar-Namys came third. In April 2010, President Kurmanbek Bakiyev was ousted, which brought to power an interim government led by Roza Otunbayeva. An election and reform plan was unveiled on 19 April 2010. A referendum in June overwhelmingly approved a reform to turn the country from a presidential system to a parliamentary system; the new constitution would allow the parliament to choose a prime minister and to play a key role in forming the new government. Kyrgyzstan's geostrategic location is vital because it supplies the War in Afghanistan through the Manas Air Base, it is the only country to host both an American and Russian base.
Political developments in 2010 pleased the US but were an annoyance to Russia, who warned that the first parliamentary democracy in Central Asia could be catastrophic for Kyrgyzstan. Russia considers the area as its sphere of influence; the presidential elections were to be held on the same day. However, these were delayed until October 2011, with Otunbayeva remaining president until 31 December 2011. In the previous election, there were 90 seats, though this was increased to 120 after the constitutional referendum. According to Article 77 of the Kyrgyz Republic Code on Elections, the threshold for the allotment of seats is receiving five percent of the votes of all eligible voters entered on the voter rolls. For this reason, only the top five parties were allotted seats; the sixth party, Butun Kyrgyzstan, received more than five percent of the votes cast, but because it did not receive more than five percent of the votes of all eligible voters entered on the voter rolls, it was not allotted any seats.
Article 77 requires parties to win 0.5% of the votes of all eligible voters in each oblast of Kyrgyzstan, as well as the cities of Bishkek and Osh. Though Ata-Zhurt won the plurality of the vote with their southern stronghold, an electoral official said they overcame the 0.5% barrier in Bishkek and in Chuy province. Over 3,000 candidates from 29 political parties competed for the 120 seats, with the BBC saying that no party could win a majority and the result was hard to predict. Leaflets distributed in the south of the country urged people "not to tolerate" parties led by northerners, in a sign of remaining tensions following the 2010 South Kyrgyzstan riots. Ar-Namys opposed the newly founded parliamentary system and said it would restore the older system of presidential rule. Ata-Zhurt campaigned for the return of Bakiyev from his exile in Belarus, advocated a return to presidential rule. Roza Otunbayeva vowed to uphold a "spirit of fairness and transparency." She talked of the importance of the election: "These elections are of fateful importance for our people and state.
We are not just electing a parliament but starting a new system and opening a new page in our history." A month before election she threatened to introduce a state of emergency, as a result postpone voting if parties escalated tensions in the country. It said six parties were expected to win seats. A poll of 1,500 people in late September by Perspectiva showed seven parties crossing the 5% threshold to win seats: The Kyrgyz nationalist party, Ata-Zhurt, were expected to do well among ethnic Kyrgyz in the south. Ata-Meken and the SPDK were supporters of the interim administration; the organisations conducting monitoring were in the first positions among NGO according to Mass Media for the period from August till October. Traditionally these are: "For Democracy and a Civil Society" Coalition of NGO, "Taza Shailoo" Association; the "Free generation" Liberal Youth Alliance for the first time joined the supervision organization, young men became target audience. On the day of voting in 127 stations of the country, young short-term observers carried out monitoring of electoral rights within the limits of the campaign "Youth for fair elections.
Let's prove it!" The election was observed by 850 international monitors from 32 organisations, including 300 monitors from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The international team of observers hailed the vote, with the OSCE team saying the election were a step in the "further consolidation of the democratic process." While the observers said that this was unlike other elections in the past and did not have the same irregularities, they did point out some peculiarities whereas the Central Election Commission were underprepared for the polls, such ""under-the-counter dealings" may have taken place. Only one observer had a negative reaction to the vote, though most were satisfied that this was a "step in the right direction."Otunbayeva, who had refused to push back the election despite warnings of potential new unrest, hailed the election: "We have not known such elections for the last 20 years." Despite her comments, the government was reported to have been "plunged into a state of shock" over the results.
Russia's Kommersant reported. Kamchibek Tashiyev, the head of Ata-Zhurt, said. "They broke in like bandits... I think. I believe they tried to eliminate me - the forces that want to cancel election results and impose a state of emergency. I know for sure, GSNB was behind these actions." Protestors attacked the offices of the Ata-Zh
Communist Party of Kirghizia
The Communist Party of Kirghizia was the ruling political party and the arm of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic. Nikolay Uzukov Vladimir Shubrikov Mikhail Kulkov Alexander Shakhray Moris Belotsky Maksim Ammosov Aleksey Vagov Nikolay Bogolyubov Iskhak Razzakov Turdakun Usubaliyev Absamat Masaliyev Jumgalbek Amanbayev Leadership of Communist Kyrgyzstan Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan