Miaoli County is a county in western Taiwan. Miaoli is adjacent with Hsinchu County and Hsinchu City to the north, Taichung to the south, borders the Taiwan Strait to the west; the Council for Economic Planning and Development of Taiwan classifies Miaoli as a county of Central Taiwan, while the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau classifies Miaoli as a county of the North. Miaoli City is the capital of the county, is known as "Mountain Town", owing to the number of mountains nearby, making it a destination for hiking; the name Miaoli was coined using two Hakka Chinese words, meu and li to phonetically approximate Pali from the Taokas language. The resulting word is a non-orthodox variant referring to Viverridae. In 1889, during late Qing rule, the name was modified from various forms to its current form. Evidence of settlement in Miaoli dates back a thousand years. Many archaeological artifacts have been found showing that during the prehistoric era, people lived in the river terrace, they led an agriculture life and engaged in hunting and fishing for their extra food source.
About a thousand years ago, an indigenous group Taokas settled here. In the mid-17th century, Han Chinese began to migrate into the area, beginning a gradual process of deforestation and establishment of permanent settlement sites; the prior inhabitants of Miaoli were either assimilated into the dominant Han population, or migrated deeper into the mountainous range. After several hundred years, Miaoli had become the home of people from different origins, such as Hakka, Hoklo and Saisiyat. After Koxinga took over Taiwan from the Netherlands, he placed Miaoli into Tian-Sing County and started an immigration plan to develop this area. After the last Tungning Ruler Zheng Keshuang surrendered to the Qing Dynasty, Tian-sing County was renamed Zhuluo County. In 1889, Miaoli Hsien was established as an independent county under Taiwan Prefecture. At the end of the 19th century, thousands of acres of high-quality fertile fields had been reclaimed in the area of Nanzhuang, Shitan and Zhuolan. Public and private schools were established all over Miaoli which made the area a place of gathering intellectuals and elites in northern Taiwan.
The county was at first eliminated under Japanese Imperial rule. Byōritsu Chō existed from ca. 1901 to 1908, but was split over Shinchiku Chō and Taichū Chō in 1909. From 1920 to 1945, Byōritsu Town, Enri Town and six villages were under the jurisdiction of Byōritsu District, under Shinchiku Prefecture. After the handover of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China on 25 October 1945, the present day area of Miaoli County was incorporated to Hsinchu County. On 16 August 1950, the government re-established Miaoli county on 16 August 1950 with Miaoli township as the county seat. On 25 December 1981, Miaoli Township was upgraded from township to a county-controlled city. Miaoli County is considered to be located in the central northern part of the island of Taiwan, contiguous with Hsinchu county, Hsinchu City, Taichung City; the Xueshan Range is located on the border between Taichung City. Miaoli county north to south averages about 50 kilometers and east to west averages about 64 kilometers, it is diamond-shaped in appearance.
The overall coastline of Miaoli is about 50 kilometers long. Miaoli has little flat lands and mountainous due to the Xueshan Range. Miaoli has rich rainfall along with abundant rivers. Miaoli County is divided into 2 cities, 5 urban townships, 10 rural townships and 1 mountain indigenous townships. Miaoli County has the second highest number of urban townships after Changhua County. Miaoli City is the county seat which houses Miaoli County Council; the incumbent Magistrate of Miaoli County is Hsu Yao-chang of the Kuomintang. Colors indicate the common language status of Hakka within each division. Note that Nanzhuang and Tai'an are indigenous areas of Atayal people; the main population of Miaoli County is comprised by the Taiwanese aborigines. The Taiwanese aborigines constitute about 1.9% of the total population where the rural areas is where the Hokkiens are the main group in western urban areas of Miaoli, while the Hakkas comprise the main group of Han Chinese in the rural southern and central parts of Miaoli county Taiwanese aboriginesThe Saisiat reside in the Wufeng Township of Hsinchu County and the Nanzhuang Township of Miaoli County.
Due the oppression by initial Han immigrants, the Atayal aboriginal group and the Nanzhuang Incident, the population of the Saisiat people have decreased to 5,000 people. It is the least populous Taiwanese aboriginal group after the Thao people; the traditions and culture of the Saisiat is impacted by the Atayal aborigines and Hakka people in the region. Han ChineseDuring the Qing Dynasty, Miaoli was inhabited by Hokkiens in the coast and Hakka in the rural peasant mountainous areas; the inhabitants of the four coastal townships of Miaoli consists of Taiwanese Hokkien speakers. With the exception of the four coastal townships and Tai'an Township, the main population consists of Hakka; the main sports and recreational structures in Miaoli include Miaoli Sports Hall, Miaoli County Tennis Court, the Park of Zhunan Township. In Taiwan National Athletic Games of 2011, Miaoli is ranked 21 out of 22 teams with 1 gold, 1 silver, 8 bronze. Popular regional agriculture, food production and culture promoted by the government include strawberries from Dahu Township, Hak
Xueshan known as Mount Sylvia and by other names, is a mountain in the Heping District of Taichung, Taiwan. It is the 2nd-highest mountain in East Asia, at 3,886 m above sea level, it is located in the Shei-Pa National Park and is visible in good weather from hills near Taiwan's capital Taipei. Xuěshān is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese name 雪山, meaning "Snow" or "Snowy Mountain"; the same name was romanized Hsuehshan using the Wade-Giles system. During the Qing Dynasty, the mountain was known to Westerners as Mount Sylvia, it was known as Shan-chas-shan from a Chinese name meaning "3-Forked" or "3-Prong Mountain". During Japan's occupation of Taiwan, improved surveys showed that Xueshan was shorter than Yushan on Taiwan but taller than Mount Fuji in the Japanese Islands, its name was accordingly changed to Tsugitakayama, meaning "Next-" or "Second-Highest Mountain", in 1923. The Japanese governor-general designated Xueshan part of the Tsugitaka-Taroko National Park by the Governor-General of Taiwan on 12 December 1937.
Xueshan is a part of the Shei-Pa National Park and so climbers are required to apply for a park entry permit. This can be done 7–30 days in advance. After that a police mountain entry permit must be applied for; this can be done at the police station in Wuling Farm on the spot. There are two cabins on the trail; the first, Qika Cabin, is at the 2.0 kilometres mark. The second, 369 Cabin, is at the 6.9 kilometres mark. Both cabins are basic containing bunker style beds. Hikers must bring their own cooking gear; the peak is at the 10.9 kilometres mark. 100 Peaks of Taiwan List of mountains in Taiwan List of Ultras of Tibet, East Asia and neighbouring areas Shei-Pa National Park Taroko National Park Xueshan Range Xueshan Tunnel
Tai'an Township is a mountain indigenous township in southeastern Miaoli County, Taiwan. It is the only mountain indigenous township in Miaoli County. Tai'an Township is a mountainous region without convenient transportation both between villages and between Tai'an itself and outside townships; the sources of the Houlong and Da-an rivers are found in the township. More than two thirds of the population consists of the indigenous Atayal people. Area: 614.51 square kilometres Population: 5,923 people The township comprises eight villages: Bagua, Jinshui, Qingan, Shilin and Zhongxing. Tai'an Hot Spring Shei-Pa National Park Xishuikeng Tofu Street Tai'an Township Office
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese; because Mandarin originated in North China and most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects. Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible. Mandarin is placed first in lists of languages by number of native speakers. Mandarin is by far the largest of the seven or ten Chinese dialect groups, spoken by 70 percent of all Chinese speakers over a large geographical area, stretching from Yunnan in the southwest to Xinjiang in the northwest and Heilongjiang in the northeast; this is attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China Plain compared to the more mountainous south, combined with the recent spread of Mandarin to frontier areas. Most Mandarin varieties have four tones; the final stops of Middle Chinese have disappeared in most of these varieties, but some have merged them as a final glottal stop.
Many Mandarin varieties, including the Beijing dialect, retain retroflex initial consonants, which have been lost in southern dialect groups. The capital has been within the Mandarin area for most of the last millennium, making these dialects influential; some form of Mandarin has served as a national lingua franca since the 14th century. In the early 20th century, a standard form based on the Beijing dialect, with elements from other Mandarin dialects, was adopted as the national language. Standard Chinese is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore, it is used as one of the working languages of the United Nations. It is one of the most used varieties of Chinese among Chinese diaspora communities internationally; the English word "mandarin" meant an official of the Ming and Qing empires. Since their native varieties were mutually unintelligible, these officials communicated using a Koiné language based on various northern varieties.
When Jesuit missionaries learned this standard language in the 16th century, they called it "Mandarin", from its Chinese name Guānhuà, or "language of the officials". In everyday English, "Mandarin" refers to Standard Chinese, called "Chinese". Standard Chinese is based on the particular Mandarin dialect spoken in Beijing, with some lexical and syntactic influence from other Mandarin dialects, it is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China, the de facto official language of the Republic of China, one of the four official languages of the Republic of Singapore. It functions as the language of instruction in Mainland China and in Taiwan, it is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, under the name "Chinese". Chinese speakers refer to the modern standard language as Pǔtōnghuà in Mainland China, Guóyǔ in Taiwan, or Huáyǔ in Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines,but not as Guānhuà. Linguists use the term "Mandarin" to refer to the diverse group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China, which Chinese linguists call Guānhuà.
The alternative term Běifānghuà, or "Northern dialects", is used less and less among Chinese linguists. By extension, the term "Old Mandarin" or "Early Mandarin" is used by linguists to refer to the northern dialects recorded in materials from the Yuan dynasty. Native speakers who are not academic linguists may not recognize that the variants they speak are classified in linguistics as members of "Mandarin" in a broader sense. Within Chinese social or cultural discourse, there is not a common "Mandarin" identity based on language. Speakers of forms of Mandarin other than the standard refer to the variety they speak by a geographic name—for example Sichuan dialect, Hebei dialect or Northeastern dialect, all being regarded as distinct from the standard language; the hundreds of modern local varieties of Chinese developed from regional variants of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. Traditionally, seven major groups of dialects have been recognized. Aside from Mandarin, the other six are Wu, Xiang in central China, Min and Yue on the southeast coast.
The Language Atlas of China distinguishes three further groups: Jin, Huizhou in the Huizhou region of Anhui and Zhejiang, Pinghua in Guangxi and Yunnan. After the fall of the Northern Song and during the reign of the Jin and Yuan dynasties in northern China, a common speech developed based on the dialects of the North China Plain around the capital, a language referred to as Old Mandarin. New genres of vernacular literature were based on this language, including verse and story forms, such as the qu and sanqu poetry; the rhyming conventions of the new verse were codified in a rime dictionary called the Zhongyuan Yinyun. A radical departure from the rime table tradition that had evolved over the previous centuries, this dictionary contains a wealth of information on the phonology of Old Mandarin. Further sources are the'Phags-pa script based on the Ti
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
Taiwanese Hokkien known as Taiwanese, is a variety of Hokkien Chinese spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan. It is spoken by the Taiwanese Hoklo people, who descended from immigrants from southern Fujian during the Qing dynasty; the Pe̍h-ōe-jī romanization is a popular orthography for this variant of Hokkien. Taiwanese Hokkien is similar to the speeches of Amoy and Zhangzhou, as well as their dialectal forms used in Southeast Asia and are mutually intelligible; the mass popularity of Hokkien entertainment media from Taiwan has given prominence to the Taiwanese variety of Hokkien since the 1980s. Taiwanese Hokkien is a branched-off variety of a group of Southern Min dialects. Like many Min varieties, it has distinct literary and colloquial layers of vocabulary associated with formal and informal registers respectively; the literary layer can be traced to the late Tang dynasty, can thus be related to Middle Chinese. In contrast, the colloquial layers of Min varieties are believed to have branched from the mainstream of Chinese around the time of the Han dynasty.
Regional variations within Taiwanese may be traced back to Hokkien variants spoken in Southern Fujian those from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou later Amoy. Taiwanese Hokkien contains loanwords from Japanese and the native Formosan languages. Recent work by scholars such as Ekki Lu, Sakai Toru, Lí Khîn-hoāⁿ, based on former research by scholars such as Ông Io̍k-tek, has gone so far as to associate part of the basic vocabulary of the colloquial Taiwanese with the Austronesian and Tai language families; the literary form of Hokkien was brought to Taiwan by early emigrants. Tale of the Lychee Mirror, a manuscript for a series of plays published during the Ming dynasty in 1566, is one of the earliest known works; this form of the language is now extinct. However, literary readings of the numbers are used in certain contexts such as reciting telephone numbers. During Yuan dynasty, Fujian province became a major international port for trade with the outside world. From that period onwards, due to political and economic reasons, many people from Hokkien-speaking regions started to emigrate overseas.
This included the undeveloped island of Formosa, starting around 1600. They brought with them Hokkien. During the late Ming dynasty, due to political chaos, there was increased migration from southern Fujian and eastern Guangdong to Taiwan; the earliest immigrants who were involved in the development of Taiwan included pirate-merchants Chinese Peter and Zheng Zhilong. In 1621, Chinese Peter and his forces, hailing from Zhangzhou, occupied Ponkan and started to develop Tirosen. After the death of Peter and another pirate, Li Dan of Quanzhou, Zheng sought to dominate the Strait of Taiwan. By 1628, he had grown so powerful that the Ming court bestowed him the official title, "Patrolling Admiral". In 1624, the number of Chinese in the island was about 25,000. During the reign of Chongzhen Emperor, there were frequent droughts in the Fujian region. Zheng and a Chinese official suggested to send victims to Taiwan and provide "for each person three taels of silver and for each three people one ox". Although this plan was never carried out, the Zheng family maintained an interest in Taiwan that would have dire consequences for the Dutch, who ruled Taiwan as Dutch Formosa at the time.
In 1624 and 1626, the Dutch and Spanish forces occupied the Keelung areas, respectively. During the 40 years of Dutch colonial rule of Taiwan, many Han Chinese from the Quanzhou and Hakka regions of mainland China were recruited to help develop Taiwan; because of intermingling with Siraya people as well as Dutch colonial rule, the Hokkien dialects started to deviate from the original Hokkien spoken in mainland China. In the 1661 Siege of Fort Zeelandia, Chinese general Koxinga expelled the Dutch and established the Kingdom of Tungning. Koxinga originated from the Quanzhou region. Chen Yonghua, in charge of establishing the education system of Tungning originated from Quanzhou; because most of the soldiers he brought to Taiwan came from Quanzhou, the prestige variant of Hokkien on the island at the time was the Quanzhou dialect. In 1683, Chinese admiral Shi Lang attacked Taiwan in the Battle of Penghu, ending the Tungning era and beginning Qing dynasty rule. In the following years, in order to prevent people from rebelling, the Qing court instituted a ban on migration to Taiwan the migration of Hakka people from Guangdong province, which led Hokkien to become a prestige language in Taiwan.
In the first decades of the 18th century, the linguistic differences between the Qing imperial bureaucrats and the commoners was recorded by the Mandarin-speaking first Imperial High Commissioner to Taiwan, Huang Shujing: The tone of Huang's message foretold the uneasy relationships between different language communities and colonial establishments over the next few centuries. The ban on migration to Taiwan was relaxed sometime after 1722. During the 200 years of Qing dynasty rule, thousands of immigrants from Fujian arrived yearly. Civil unrest and armed conflicts were frequent. In addition to resistance against governments (both Chinese and J
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant. Front vowels are sometimes called bright vowels because they are perceived as sounding brighter than the back vowels. Near-front vowels are a type of front vowel. Rounded front vowels are centralized, that is, near-front in their articulation; this is one reason. The front vowels that have dedicated symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet are: close front unrounded vowel close front compressed vowel near-close front unrounded vowel near-close front compressed vowel close-mid front unrounded vowel close-mid front compressed vowel open-mid front unrounded vowel open-mid front compressed vowel near-open front unrounded vowel open front unrounded vowel open front rounded vowel There are front vowels without dedicated symbols in the IPA: close front protruded vowel near-close front protruded vowel close-mid front protruded vowel mid front unrounded vowel or mid front compressed vowel or mid front protruded vowel or open-mid front protruded vowel As above, other front vowels can be indicated with diacritics of relative articulation applied to letters for neighboring vowels, such as ⟨i̞⟩, ⟨e̝⟩ or ⟨ɪ̟⟩ for a near-close front unrounded vowel.
In articulation, front retracted vowels. In this conception, front vowels are a broader category than those listed in the IPA chart, and, mid-central vowels. Raised or retracted vowels may be fronted by certain consonants, such as palatals and in some languages pharyngeals. For example, /a/ may be fronted to next to /j/ or /ħ/. In the history of many languages, for example French and Japanese, front vowels have altered preceding velar or alveolar consonants, bringing their place of articulation towards palatal or postalveolar; this change can be allophonic variation. This historical palatalization is reflected in the orthographies of several European languages, including the ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ of all Romance languages, the ⟨k⟩ and ⟨g⟩ in Norwegian, Swedish and Icelandic, the ⟨κ⟩, ⟨γ⟩ and ⟨χ⟩ in Greek. English without as much regularity. However, for native or early borrowed words affected by palatalization, English has altered the spelling after the pronunciation Back vowel List of phonetics topics