The hyperbass flute is an rare and the largest and lowest pitched instrument in the flute family, with tubing reaching over 15 metres in length. It is pitched in C, four octaves below the concert flute, with its lowest note being C0, one octave below the lowest C on a standard piano. At 16 hertz, this is below what is considered the range of human hearing; the hyperbass flute is made of wood. There appear to be wide tone holes, without keys; the first known example of the instrument was built by Francesco Romei, a Florentine craftsman, for Italian flautist Roberto Fabbriciani. Fabbriciani is the inventor and primary performer of this instrument, he calls it hyperbass flauto iperbasso in Italian. Low flute specialist Peter Sheridan commissioned the first chromatic hyperbass flute from the Dutch maker Jelle Hogenhuis in August 2010; the first composition for the hyperbass flute with live electronics and magnetic tape is Persistenza della memoria by Alessandro Grego, published in 2001 by the ARTS label on the CD Flute XX vol.2.
In 2002, the Italian composer Nicola Sani composed Con Fuoco, which Fabbriciani recorded at the electronic studio of the Westdeutscher Rundfunk in Cologne, Germany. The track was released on a CD entitled Elements on the Stradivarius label. In 2002, Adriano Guarnieri Medea opera di video per soli, voce morbida, orchestra, assoli strumentali e live electronics l'opera-video Medea, per soli, coro e orchestra a Venezia, Teatro la Fenice. In 2007, Adriano Guarnieri did Pietra di Diaspro per 7 solisti, assoli strumentali, orchestra e live electronics Teatro dell'Opera di Roma e Ravenna Festival. In March 2005 Fabbriciani released an entire CD of music for hyperbass flute and tape, entitled Glaciers in Extinction, on the Col Legno label. In 2009, Roberto Fabbriciani released another hyperbass flute CD entitled Nella basilica, this time with tuba microtonale player Robin Hayward, on the Another Timbre label. In 2010, Roberto Fabbriciani released another hyperbass flute CD entitled Winds of the Heart, this time with tárogató player Esther Lamneck, on the Innova label.
In 2011, Roberto Fabbriciani Motion Capture per flauto iperbasso elaborato tramite motion capture e live electronics, 10.4.2011 – fl. R. Fabbriciani, live electronics A. Vidolin Peter Sheridan has recorded an album for MOVE RECORDS 2011 titled "Monologues and Dialogues," that will feature the hyperbass flute on two tracks. "Differing Dialogues" by Monash University composer Vincent Giles, is set for solo bass flute with pre-recorded low flutes. In 2013, Roberto Fabbriciani released another hyperbass flute CD entitled Alchemies, on the Brilliant label; the Hyperbass flute was Item 64 of the 2014 University of Chicago Scavenger Hunt list. It was worth 50 points. Discussion of hyperbass flute Roberto Fabriciani's youtube page, featuring some works of the flauto iperbasso
The dizi, is a Chinese transverse flute. It is sometimes known as the di or héngdi, has varieties including the qǔdi and bāngdi; these names are to have multiple spellings, depending on the transliteration used to convert from Chinese names. Nonetheless, dizi seems to be the most common name used in the West; the dizi is a major Chinese musical instrument, is used in many genres of Chinese folk music, as well as Chinese opera, the modern Chinese orchestra. Traditionally, the dizi has been popular among the Chinese common people, it is simple to make and easy to carry. Most dizi are made of bamboo, which explains why dizi are sometimes known by simple names such as Chinese bamboo flute. However, "bamboo" is more of a Chinese instrument classification like "woodwind" in the West. Northern Chinese dizi are made from purple or violet bamboo, while dizi made in Suzhou and Hangzhou are made from white bamboo. Dizi produced in southern Chinese regions such as Chaozhou are made of slender, light-colored bamboo and are much quieter in tone.
Although bamboo is the common material for the dizi, it is possible to find dizi made from other kinds of wood, or from stone. Jade dizi are popular among both collectors interested in their beauty, among professional players who seek an instrument with looks to match the quality of their renditions; the dizi is not the only bamboo flute of China. Other Chinese bamboo wind instruments include the koudi. There are many suggestions for the source of dizi. While legends suggest it was the invention of the Yellow Emperor who wanted to make the bamboo a musical instrument, others suggest that dizi was imported into China during the Han Dynasty. Archaeologists have discovered evidence suggesting that the simple transverse flutes have been present in China for over 9,000 years. Fragments of bone flutes from this period are still playable today, are remarkably similar to modern versions in terms of hole placement, etc; the Jiahu neolithic site in central Henan province of China has yielded flutes dating back to 7,000 BC - 5,000 BC that could represent the earliest playable instruments found.
These flutes were carved with five to eight holes, is capable of producing varied sounds in a nearly accurate octave. The dizi as we know it today dates to the 5th century BC, although form of transverse flute have existed as early as the 9th century BC. There are examples of bamboo dizi that date back to 2nd century BC, found; these flutes share common features of other simple flutes from cultures all around the world, including the ney, an end-blown cane flute, depicted in Egyptian paintings and stone carvings. In fact, recent archeological discoveries in Africa suggest that the history of such flutes may date back a long way in human history. Traditionally dizi is made by using a single piece of bamboo. While simple and straightforward, it is impossible to change the fundamental tuning once the bamboo is cut, which made it a problem when it was played with other instruments in a modern Chinese orchestra. In the 1920s musician Zheng Jinwen resolved this issue by inserting a copper joint to connect two pieces of shorter bamboo.
This method allows the length of the bamboo to be modified for minute adjustment to its fundamental pitch. On traditional dizi the finger-holes are spaced equidistant, which produces a temperament of mixed whole-tone and three-quarter-tone intervals. Zheng repositioned the figure-holes to change the notes produced. During the middle of the 20th century dizi makers further changed the finger hole placements to allow for playing in equal temperament, as demanded by new musical developments and compositions, although the traditional dizi continue to be used for purposes such as kunqu accompaniment. In the 1930s, an 11-hole chromatic version of the dizi was created, pitched in the same range as the western flute. However, the modified dizi's extra tone holes prevent the effective use of the membrane, so this instrument lacks the inherent timbre of the traditional dizi family. While both the bangdi and qudi are the most predominant, other dizi include the xiaodi/gaoyindi, the dadi/diyindi, the deidi/diyindadi Whereas most simple flutes have only a blowing hole and finger-holes, the dizi has a different additional hole, called a mo kong, between the embouchure and finger-holes.
A special membrane called dimo, made from an tissue-like shaving of reed, is made taut and glued over this hole, traditionally with a substance called ejiao, an animal glue. Garlic juice may be used to adhere the dimo, but it is not recommended as a permanent replacement; this application process, in which fine wrinkles are created in the centre of the dimo to create a penetrating buzzy timbre, is an art form in itself. The dimo-covered mo kong has a distinctive resonating effect on the sound produced by the dizi, making it brighter and louder, adding harmonics to give the final tone a buzzing, nasal quality. Dizi have a large range, covering about two-and-a-quarter octave
The shinobue in the context of Japanese traditional arts) is a Japanese transverse flute or fue that has a high-pitched sound. It is found in hayashi and nagauta ensembles, plays important roles in noh and kabuki theatre music, it is heard in traditional Japanese folk songs. There are two styles: hayashi; the uta is properly tuned to the Western scale, can be played in ensembles or as a solo instrument. The hayashi is not in the correct pitch, because it is a piece of hollow bamboo with holes cut into it, it emits a high-pitched sound, is appropriate for the festival/folk music of Japan. Both shinobue flutes play a important role in the Japanese theater. Ryuteki Bamboo musical instruments Kotos and More Ron Korb's Asian Flute Gallery Syoji Yamaguchi's web site on Japanese transverse flutes Japanese Traditional Music
Double contrabass flute
The double contrabass flute with over 5.5 metres of tubing is the largest and lowest pitched metal flute in the world. It is pitched in the key of three octaves below the concert flute, its lowest note is C1, one octave below the cello's lowest C. This flute is easy to play in comparison to most other large flutes. Despite the tendency of the larger sizes of flute to be softer than their higher pitched relatives, the double contrabass flute has a powerful tone, although it benefits from amplification in ensembles; the Japanese firm of Kotato & Fukushima sell their double contrabass flutes for US$38,000. Their main use has been in large flute choirs and in film scores. A double contrabass flute constructed of PVC, called a subcontrabass flute by its maker, the Dutch instrument maker Jelle Hogenhuis, has the tubing in a notably different arrangement from its metal counterpart. Although the PVC instrument was designed to be an ensemble instrument it was soon discovered by various solo artists who saw the merits of the instrument for their musical purposes.
The bore is wider than what one finds in a metal double contrabass flute. The instrument is comparatively light, weighing only 7 kg, can be produced quickly and inexpensively. In addition, the PVC appears to produce a broad tone. Photo of double contrabass flute MP3 of Jelle Hogenhuis subcontrabass flute
A yokobue is a Japanese transverse flute or fue. The various types include the Nōkan, Ryūteki and Shinobue; these flutes have an extra closed chamber that extends past the chin to the left shoulder and can be used as a rest the way violins are rested on the left shoulder. Bamboo musical instruments David Carradine carried a yokobue in Quentin Tarantino's Kill Bill movies and Bruce Lee's The Silent Flute
The venu is one of the ancient transverse flutes of Indian classical music. It is an aerophone made from bamboo, a side blown wind instrument, it continues to be in use in the South Indian Carnatic music tradition. In Northern Indian music, a similar flute is called bansuri. In the South, it is called by various other names such as pullankuzhal in Tamil, പുല്ലാങ്കുഴല് in Malayalam, ಕೊಳಲು in Kannada, it is known as Vēṇuvu in Telugu. The venu is discussed as an important musical instrument in the Natya Shastra, the classic Hindu text on music and performance arts; the ancient Sanskrit texts of India describe other side blown flutes such as the murali and vamsika, but sometimes these terms are used interchangeably. A venu has six holes, is about the thickness of a thumb, twelve fingers long. A longer murali has two hands longs; the vamsika has eight holes, between twelve and seventeen fingers long. A venu is a part of the iconography of Hindu god Krishna. One of the oldest musical instruments of India, the instrument is a key-less transverse flute made of bamboo.
The fingers of both hands are used to open the holes. It has a blowing hole near one end, eight placed finger holes; the instrument comes in various sizes. The venu is a respected instrument and those who play it are expected to appreciate it, for it is considered a gift to be able to play it; the venu is capable of producing two and half octaves with the help of over-blowing and cross fingering. The flute is like the human voice in that it is monophonous and has a typical two and half octave sound reproduction. Sliding the fingers on and off the holes allows for production of variety of Gamakas, important in the performance of raga-based music; the flute finds great mention in Indian mythology and folklore having been listed as among the 3 original instruments meant for music along with the human sound and Veena. However it is strange; the venu is associated with the Hindu god Krishna, depicted playing it. This kind of flute is used in South India; the Lord Vishnu is portrayed as Sri Venugopala - playing the flute of Creation.
In the Hindustani style, it is known as Bansuri. In the Carnatic style, it is known as flute. Palladam Sanjiva Rao, a disciple of Sharaba Shastri. H. Ramachandra Shastry, a disciple of Palladam Sanjiva Rao. T. R. Mahalingam, a child venuist prodigy who started playing the flute at the age of five years, he is most popularly known as "Mali" or sometimes "Flute Mali." T. Viswanathan, grandson of Veena Dhanammal and brother of Balasaraswati N Ramani G. S. Rajan K. Bhaskaran Kudamaloor Janardanan Raman Kalyan Shashank Subramanyam Bansuri Carnatic Music Hindustani Music Beck, Guy. Sonic Theology: Hinduism and Sacred Sound. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-87249-855-6. Caudhurī, Vimalakānta Rôya; the Dictionary of Hindustani Classical Music. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1708-1. Dalal, Roshen. Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-81-8475-277-9. Daniélou, Alain. Northern Indian Music, Volume 1. Theory & technique; the main rāgǎs. London: C. Johnson. OCLC 851080. Gautam, M.
R.. Evolution of Raga and Tala in Indian Music. Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 81-215-0442-2. Kaufmann, Walter; the Ragas of North India. Oxford & Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34780-0. OCLC 11369. Lochtefeld, James G.. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, 2 Volume Set; the Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-2287-1. Martinez, José Luiz. Semiosis in Hindustani Music. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1801-9. Nettl, Bruno; the Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01163-2. Rowell, Lewis. Music and Musical Thought in Early India. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-73034-9. P, Sambamoorthy; the Flute. Indian music Publishing House. Sorrell, Neil. Indian Music in Performance: A Practical Introduction. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-0756-9. Te Nijenhuis, Emmie. Indian Music: History and Structure. BRILL Academic. ISBN 90-04-03978-3. Wilke, Annette. Sound and Communication: An Aesthetic Cultural History of Sanskrit Hinduism. Walter de Gruyter.
ISBN 978-3-11-024003-0. Carnatic Flute Fingering Chart
The bass flute is the tenor member of the flute family. It is in the key of C, pitched one octave below the concert flute; because of the length of its tube, it is made with a J-shaped head joint, which brings the embouchure hole within reach of the player. It is only used in flute choirs, as it is drowned out by other instruments of comparable register, such as the clarinet. Prior to the mid-20th century, the term "bass flute" was sometimes used in Great Britain, to refer to the alto flute instead. In 1910 Abelardo Albisi invented a bass flute known as the albisiphone, used in scores by Mascagni and Zandonai among other composers during the first half of the 20th century; the instrument's sounding range is from C3, one octave below middle C, to C6, two octaves above middle C. Bass flute music sounds an octave lower than it is written, the typical concert flute range. Notes written above A6 are not used as they are difficult to produce and have inferior tone; because manufacturers do not taper the flute body through the curve, intonation of all notes beginning with written D6 and higher tend to be sharp.
The player can use alternative fingerings. Bass flutes have a C foot rather than the B foot common to other flutes; the shorter tube reduces acoustic resistance, which quickens the response and makes the tone brighter and more resonant. The shorter tube makes the instrument somewhat lighter and less fatiguing for the player to hold. Bass flutes are most made with silver-plated bodies and head joints. Most basses come with trill keys which allow the player to stabilize some otherwise unstable middle register notes as well as trill between otherwise impossible notes. Kotato basses have addressed the weight problem of bass flutes by designing a graphite rod that screws onto the underside of the instrument and rests on the chair seat between the player's legs. Adjustable rods have been developed by Jeff Amos. Other manufacturers have added a left hand thumb support called a crutch, which helps some players with physical control of the instrument. Dutch flute maker Eva Kingma has created a vertical design for the bass flute which allows the weight of the instrument to be supported by the floor.
Many composers are beginning to write more pieces for the bass flute. These include Katherine Hoover's Two for Two, Bill Douglas's Karuna, Sophie Lacaze's Archelogos II, Mike Mower's Obstinato and Scareso, Gary Schocker's A Small Sonata for a Large Flute, Lorenzo Ferrero's Ellipse and Shadow Lines, Sonny Burnett's Stone Suite, Catherine McMichael's Baikal Journey and Ennio Morricone's Secrets of the Sahara. Other important works include Tristan Murail's Ethers for solo bass flute and small ensemble, Brian Ferneyhough's Mnemosyne for bass flute and tape, Mario Lavista's Lamento a la muerte de Raúl Lavista for solo bass flute, Michael Oliva's Moss Garden for bass flute and tape, John Palmer's Inwards for bass flute and live-electronics, She Cried by Shiva Feshareki, Marc Tweedie's Zoli, written for renowned flautist Carla Rees. Studies and concert etudes are beginning to appear that address the instrument's many challenges. Peter Sheridan has commissioned and arranged new compositions in this area, including a set of'Etudes for Low Flutes' by Hilary Taggart.
The sixth movement of Claude Bolling's suite for Flute and Jazz Trio,'Versatile' has the soloist playing the opening melody on a bass flute. Morton Feldman's composition "Crippled Symmetry" has a part for the bass flute, as does John Cage's late work "Seven2". Hans Pfitzner's 1917 opera Palestrina features an early C bass flute part. Another piece featuring the bass flute is John Mackey's "The Frozen Cathedral" in two separate sections of the piece. For an extensive list of repertoire for bass flute and contrabass flute see Repertoire Catalogue for Piccolo, Alto Flute and Bass Flute by Peter van Munster. Selected repertoire graded into ability levels with short descriptions and information about basses can be found in The Alto and Bass Flute Resource Guide published by Falls House Press, specialist low flutes publishing company Tetractys has a growing catalogue of works for bass flute. A handful of jazz musicians have used the bass flute, including saxophonists Henry Threadgill, Brian Landrus, James Carter, drummer Ronald Shannon Jackson who played bass flute as a second instrument.
Hubert Laws features the bass flute on his recording of "Amazing Grace," in which he plays the first verse on bass flute, the second on alto, the third on soprano. In electronic music, Jack Dangers has sometimes used bass flute as the leader of the Meat Beat Manifesto. A bass flute is heard throughout George Bruns' score for The Jungle Book and the original Pirates of the Caribbean attraction; the best-known work to feature the bass flute is the album Wave by Antônio Carlos Jobim. Http://Lowflutes.com https://web.archive.org/web/20101104012435/http://www.hogenhuis-flutes.com/pages/bassflute.html Bassflute Jelle Hogenhuis