NHK is Japan's national public broadcasting organization. NHK, which has always been known by this romanized acronym in Japanese, is a publicly owned corporation funded by viewers' payments of a television license fee. NHK operates two terrestrial television channels, four satellite television channels, three radio networks. NHK provides an international broadcasting service, known as NHK World-Japan. NHK World-Japan is composed of NHK World TV, NHK World Premium, the shortwave radio service Radio Japan. World Radio Japan makes some of its programs available on the Internet. NHK is an independent corporation chartered by the Japanese Broadcasting Act and funded by license fees. NHK World broadcasting is funded by the Japanese government; the annual budget of NHK is subject to approval by the Diet of Japan. The Diet appoints the 12-member Board of Governors that oversees NHK. NHK is managed on a full-time basis by an Executive Board consisting of a President, Vice President and seven to ten Managing Directors who oversee the areas of NHK operations.
The Executive Board reports to the Board of Governors. NHK is funded by reception fees, a system analogous to the license fee used in some English-speaking countries; the Broadcast Law which governs NHK's funding stipulates any television equipped to receive NHK is required to pay. The fee is standardized, with discounts for office workers and students who commute, as well a general discount for residents of Okinawa prefecture. For viewers making annual payments by credit card with no other special discounts, the reception fee is 13,600 yen per year for terrestrial reception only, 24,090 yen per year for both terrestrial and broadcast satellite reception. However, the Broadcast Law lists no punitive actions for nonpayment; this incident sparked debate over the fairness of the fee system. In 2006, the NHK opted to take legal action against those most flagrantly in violation of the law. NHK General TV broadcasts a variety of programming; the following are noteworthy: NHK offers local and world news reports.
NHK News 7 airs daily and is broadcast bilingually with both Japanese and English audio tracks on NHK General TV and NHK's international channels TV Japan and NHK World Premium. The flagship news program News Watch 9 is bilingual and airs on NHK General TV and the international channels and NHK World Premium. World news is aired on NHK BS 1 with Catch! Sekai no Jiten in the morning and International News Report at night, with the latter airing on NHK World Premium. News on NHK BS 1 is aired at 50 minutes past the hour except during live sport events. NHK offers news for the deaf, regional news and children's news. Newsline is an English-language newscast designed for foreign airs on NHK World. In his book Broadcasting politics in Japan:NHK and television news, ES Krauss states:'In the 1960s and 1970s, external critics of NHK news were complaining about the strict neutrality, the lack of criticism of government, the'self-regulation in covering events'. Krauss claims that little had changed by the 1990s.
After the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 NHK was criticised for underplaying the dangers from radioactive contamination. Under the Broadcast Act, NHK is under the obligation to broadcast early warning emergency reporting in times of natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis, their national network of seismometers in cooperation with the Japan Meteorological Agency makes NHK capable of delivering the news in just 2–3 minutes after the quake. They broadcast air attack warnings in the event of war, using the J-Alert system. All warnings are broadcast in five languages: English, Mandarin and Portuguese, as well as Japanese; the warnings were broadcast in these languages during tsunami. NHK broadcasts sumo wrestling, baseball games, Olympic Games, soccer games, a range of other sports; the NHK Symphony Orchestra, financially sponsored by NHK, was the Japanese Symphony Orchestra. Its website details the orchestra's history and ongoing concert programme. Since 1953, NHK has broadcast the Kōhaku Uta Gassen song contest on New Year's Eve, ending shortly before Midnight.
A sentimental morning show, a weekly jidaigeki and a year-long show, the ‘‘Taiga drama’’, spearhead the network’s fiction offerings. NHK is making efforts at broadcasting dramas made in foreign countries as "Overseas Drama"; the longest running children's show in Japan, Okaasan to Issho, still airs to this day on NHK-ETV. NHK's earliest forerunner was the Tokyo Broadcasting Station founded in 1924 under the leadership of Count Gotō Shinpei. Tokyo Broadcasting Station, along with separate organizations in Osaka and Nagoya, began radio broadcasts in 1925; the three stations merged under the first incarnation of NHK in August 1926. NHK was modelled on the BBC of the United Kingdom, the merger and reorganisation was carried out under the auspices of the pre-war Ministry of Communications. NHK's second radio network began in 1931, the third radio network began in 1937. NHK began shortwave br
Emperor Kammu was the 50th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kammu reigned from 781 to 806. Kammu's personal name was Yamabe, he was the eldest son of Prince Shirakabe, was born prior to Shirakabe's ascension to the throne. According to the Shoku Nihongi, Yamabe's mother, Yamato no Niigasa, was a 10th generation descendant of Muryeong of Baekje. After his father became emperor, Kammu's half-brother, Prince Osabe was appointed to the rank of crown prince, his mother was a daughter of Emperor Shōmu. After Inoe and Prince Osabe were confined and died in 775, Osabe's sister – Kammu's half-sister Princess Sakahito – became Kammu's wife; when he ascended to the throne in 781, Kammu appointed his young brother, Prince Sawara, whose mother was Takano no Niigasa, as crown prince. Hikami no Kawatsugu, a son of Emperor Tenmu's grandson Prince Shioyaki and Shōmu's daughter Fuwa, attempted to carry out a coup d'état in 782, but it failed and Kawatsugu and his mother were sent into exile.
In 785 Sawara was died in exile. Kammu had 16 empresses and consorts, 32 imperial sons and daughters. Among them, three sons would ascend to the imperial throne: Emperor Heizei, Emperor Saga and Emperor Junna; some of his descendants took the Taira hereditary clan title, in generations became prominent warriors. Examples include Taira no Masakado, Taira no Kiyomori, the Hōjō clan; the waka poet Ariwara. Kammu is traditionally venerated at his tomb. Kammu was an active emperor who attempted to consolidate government functions. Kammu appointed Sakanoue no Tamuramaro to lead a military expedition against the Emishi. 737: Kammu was born. 773: Received the title of crown prince. April 30, 781: In the 11th year of Kōnin's reign, he abdicated. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Kammu is said to have ascended to the throne. During his reign, the capital of Japan was moved from Nara to Nagaoka-kyō in 784. Shortly thereafter, the capital would be moved again in 794. July 28, 782: The sadaijin Fujiwara no Uona was involved in an incident that resulted in his removal from office and exile to Kyushi.
Claiming illness, Uona was permitted to return to the capital. In the same general time frame, Fujiwara no Tamaro was named Udaijin. During these days in which the offices of sadaijin and udaijin were vacant, the major counselors and the emperor assumed responsibilities and powers which would have been otherwise delegated. 783: The udaijin Tamaro died at the age of 62 years. 783: Fujiwara no Korekimi became the new udaijin to replace the late Fujiwara no Tamaro. 793: Under the leadership of Dengyō, construction began on the Enryaku Temple. 794: The capital was relocated again, this time to Heian-kyō, where the palace was named Heian no Miya. November 17, 794: The emperor traveled by carriage from Nara to the new capital of Heian-kyō in a grand procession; this marks the beginning of the Heian period. 806: Kammu died at the age of 70. Kammu's reign lasted for 25 years; the years of Kammu's reign are more identified by more than one era name. Ten'ō Enryaku Earlier Imperial sponsorship of Buddhism, beginning with Prince Shōtoku, had led to a general politicization of the clergy, along with an increase in intrigue and corruption.
In 784 Kammu shifted his capital from Nara to Nagaoka-kyō in a move, said to be designed to edge the powerful Nara Buddhist establishments out of state politics—while the capital moved, the major Buddhist temples, their officials, stayed put. Indeed, there was a steady stream of edicts issued from 771 right through the period of Kūkai's studies which, for instance, sought to limit the number of Buddhist priests, the building of temples; however the move was to prove disastrous and was followed by a series of natural disasters including the flooding of half the city. In 785 the principal architect of the new capital, royal favourite, Fujiwara no Tanetsugu, was assassinated. Meanwhile, Kammu's armies were pushing back the boundaries of his empire; this led to an uprising, in 789 a substantial defeat for Kammu's troops. In 789 there was a severe drought and famine—the streets of the capital were clogged with the sick, people avoiding being drafted into the military, or into forced labour. Many disguised themselves as Buddhist priests for the same reason.
In 794 Kammu shifted the capital again, this time to Heian-kyō, modern day Kyoto. The new capital was started early the previous year, but the change was abrupt and led to more confusion amongst the populace. Politically Kammu shored up his rule by changing the syllabus of the university. Confucian ideology still provided the raison d'être for the Imperial government. In 784 Kammu authorised the teaching of a new course based on the Spring and Autumn Annals based on two newly imported commentaries: Kung-yang and Ku-liang; these commentaries used political rhetoric to promote a state in which
Anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from or associated with Japan. The word anime is the Japanese term for animation. Outside Japan, anime refers to animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated animation style characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes; the culturally abstract approach to the word's meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners view anime as a Japanese animation product; some scholars suggest defining anime as or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of Orientalism. The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, Japanese anime production has since continued to increase steadily; the characteristic anime art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of Osamu Tezuka and spread internationally in the late twentieth century, developing a large domestic and international audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media, over the Internet.
It is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences. Anime is a diverse art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies, it consists of an ideal story-telling mechanism, combining graphic art, characterization and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques. The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of camera effects, including panning and angle shots. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a crucial gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, including characteristically large emotive or realistically sized eyes; the anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli and Toei Animation.
Despite comprising only a fraction of Japan's domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales. It has seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming; this rise in international popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Whether these works are anime-influenced animation or proper anime is a subject for debate amongst fans. Japanese anime accounts for 60% of the world's animated cartoon television shows, as of 2016. Anime is an art form animation, that includes all genres found in cinema, but it can be mistakenly classified as a genre. In Japanese, the term anime is used as a blanket term to refer to all forms of animation from around the world. In English, anime is more restrictively used to denote a "Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment" or as "a style of animation created in Japan"; the etymology of the word anime is disputed. The English term "animation" is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション and is アニメ in its shortened form.
The pronunciation of anime in Japanese differs from pronunciations in other languages such as Standard English, which has different vowels and stress with regards to Japanese, where each mora carries equal stress. As with a few other Japanese words such as saké, Pokémon, Kobo Abé, English-language texts sometimes spell anime as animé, with an acute accent over the final e, to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as Standard English orthography may suggest; some sources claim that anime derives from the French term for animation dessin animé, but others believe this to be a myth derived from the French popularity of the medium in the late 1970s and 1980s. In English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun. Prior to the widespread use of anime, the term Japanimation was prevalent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In the mid-1980s, the term anime began to supplant Japanimation. In general, the latter term now only appears in period works where it is used to distinguish and identify Japanese animation.
The word anime has been criticised, e.g. in 1987, when Hayao Miyazaki stated that he despised the truncated word anime because to him it represented the desolation of the Japanese animation industry. He equated the desolation with animators lacking motivation and with mass-produced, overly expressionistic products relying upon a fixed iconography of facial expressions and protracted and exaggerated action scenes but lacking depth and sophistication in that they do not attempt to convey emotion or thought; the first format of anime was theatrical viewing which began with commercial productions in 1917. The animated flips were crude and required played musical components before adding sound and vocal components to the production. On July 14, 1958, Nippon Television aired Mogura no Abanchūru, both the first televised and first color anime to debut, it wasn't until the 1960s when the first televised series were broadcast and it has remained a popular medium since. Works released in a direct to video format are called "original video animation" or "original animation video".
The emergence of the Internet has led some animators to distribute works online in a format called "original net anime". The home distribution of anime releases were
Takao Osawa is a Japanese actor. Osawa starred in the 2007 film Midnight Eagle, he has appeared in films such as Masayuki Suo's A Terminal Trust and Takashi Miike's Shield of Straw. The Newport Beach Film Festival in Newport Beach, CA, screened Osawa's film Wolf Children on April 27, 2013. In mid-2018, he is playing the Kralahome in the West End revival of The King and I. Professor Layton and the Diabolical Box as Anton Herzen Official website Takao Osawa on IMDb Takao Osawa at the Japanese Movie Database
The Shōgun was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868. The shogunate was their government. In most of this period, the shōguns were the de facto rulers of the country, although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a ceremonial formality; the shōguns held absolute power over territories through military means. An unusual situation occurred in the Kamakura period upon the death of the first shōgun, whereby the Hōjō clan's hereditary titles of shikken and tokusō dominated the shogunate as dictatorial positions, collectively known as the Regent Rule; the shōguns during this 134-year period met the same fate as the Emperor and were reduced to figurehead status until a coup d'état in 1333, when the shōgun was restored to power in the name of the Emperor. Shōgun is the short form of Sei-i Taishōgun, the individual governing the country at various times in the history of Japan, ending when Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquished the office to Emperor Meiji in 1867; the tent symbolized the field commander but denoted that such an office was meant to be temporary.
The shōgun's officials were collectively the bakufu, were those who carried out the actual duties of administration, while the imperial court retained only nominal authority. In this context, the office of the shōgun had a status equivalent to that of a viceroy or governor-general, but in reality, shōguns dictated orders to everyone including the reigning Emperor. In contemporary terms, the role of the shōgun was equivalent to that of a generalissimo; the title of Sei-i Taishōgun was given to military commanders during the early Heian period for the duration of military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Ōtomo no Otomaro was the first Sei-i Taishōgun. The most famous of these shōguns was Sakanoue no Tamuramaro. In the Heian period, one more shōgun was appointed. Minamoto no Yoshinaka was named sei-i taishōgun during the Genpei War, only to be killed shortly thereafter by Minamoto no Yoshitsune. In the early 11th century, daimyō protected by samurai came to dominate internal Japanese politics.
Two of the most powerful families – the Taira and Minamoto – fought for control over the declining imperial court. The Taira family seized control from 1160 to 1185, but was defeated by the Minamoto in the Battle of Dan-no-ura. Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the central government and aristocracy and established a feudal system based in Kamakura in which the private military, the samurai, gained some political powers while the Emperor and the aristocracy remained the de jure rulers. In 1192, Yoritomo was awarded the title of Sei-i Taishōgun by the Emperor and the political system he developed with a succession of shōguns as the head became known as a shogunate. Yoritomo's wife's family, the Hōjō, seized power from the Kamakura shōguns; when Yoritomo's sons and heirs were assassinated, the shōgun himself became a hereditary figurehead. Real power rested with the Hōjō regents; the Kamakura shogunate lasted for 150 years, from 1192 to 1333. In 1274 and 1281, the Mongol Empire launched invasions against Japan.
An attempt by Emperor Go-Daigo to restore imperial rule in the Kenmu Restoration in 1331 was unsuccessful, but weakened the shogunate and led to its eventual downfall. The end of the Kamakura shogunate came when Kamakura fell in 1333, the Hōjō Regency was destroyed. Two imperial families – the senior Northern Court and the junior Southern Court – had a claim to the throne; the problem was solved with the intercession of the Kamakura shogunate, who had the two lines alternate. This lasted until 1331, when Emperor Go-Daigo tried to overthrow the shogunate to stop the alternation; as a result, Daigo was exiled. Around 1334 -- 1336, Ashikaga Takauji helped; the fight against the shogunate left the Emperor with too many people claiming a limited supply of land. Takauji turned against the Emperor when the discontent about the distribution of land grew great enough. In 1336 Daigo was banished again, in favor of a new Emperor. During the Kenmu Restoration, after the fall of the Kamakura shogunate in 1333, another short-lived shōgun arose.
Prince Moriyoshi, son of Go-Daigo, was awarded the title of Sei-i Taishōgun. However, Prince Moriyoshi was put under house arrest and, in 1335, killed by Ashikaga Tadayoshi. In 1338, Ashikaga Takauji, like Minamoto no Yoritomo, a descendant of the Minamoto princes, was awarded the title of sei-i taishōgun and established the Ashikaga shogunate, which lasted until 1573; the Ashikaga had their headquarters in the Muromachi district of Kyoto, the time during which they ruled is known as the Muromachi period. While the title of Shōgun went into abeyance due to technical reasons, Oda Nobunaga and his successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who obtained the position of Imperial Regent, gained far greater power than any of their predecessors had. Hideyoshi is considered by many historians to be among Japan's greatest rulers. Tokugawa Ieyasu seized power and established a government at Edo in 1600, he received the title sei-i taishōgun in 1603, after he forged a family tree to show he was of Minamoto descent.
The Tokugawa shogunate lasted until 1867, when Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned as shōgun and abdicated his authority to Emperor Meiji. Ieyasu set a precedent in 1605 when he retired as shōgun in favour of his son Tokugawa Hidetada, though he maintained power from b
Historical fantasy is a sub-genre of fantasy that encompasses the Middle Ages as well as sometimes and represents fictitious versions of historic events. This sub-genre is common among high fantasy literature, it can include various elements of medieval European culture and society, including a monarchical government, feudal social structure, medieval warfare, mythical entities common in European folklore. Works of this genre may have plots set in classical antiquity, they have plots based loosely on mythology or legends of Greek-Roman history, or the surrounding cultures of the same era. Historical fantasy takes one of four common approaches: Magic, mythical creatures or other supernatural elements co-exist invisibly with the mundane world, with the majority of people being unaware of it. In this, it has a close similarity to contemporary fantasy; this overlaps with the secret history trope. Alternatively, the author's narrative shows or implies that by the present day, magic will have retreated from the world so as to allow history to revert to the familiar version we know.
An example of this can be found in Lord Dunsany's The Charwoman's Shadow, which takes place in Spain, but which ends with the magician in it removing himself, all creatures of romance, from the world, thereby ending the Golden Age. It can include an alternative history where the past or present has been changed when an actual historical event turned out differently; the story takes place in a secondary world with specific and recognizable parallels to a known place and a definite historical period, rather than taking the geographic and historical "mix and match" favoured by other works of secondary world fantasy. However, many, if not most, works by fantasy authors derive ideas and inspiration from real events, making the borders of this approach unclear. Historical Fantasy may be set in a fictional world which resembles a period from history but is not that actual history. All four approaches have overlapped in the sub-genre of steampunk associated with science fiction literature. However, not all steampunk fantasy belongs to the historical fantasy sub-genre.
After Antoine Galland's translation of One Thousand and One Nights became enormously popular in Europe, many writers wrote fantasy based on Galland's romantic image of the Middle East and North Africa. Early examples included the satirical tales of Anthony Hamilton, Zadig by Voltaire. English-language work in the Arabian fantasy genre includes Rasselas by Samuel Johnson, The Tales of the Genii by James Ridley, Vathek by William Thomas Beckford, George Meredith's The Shaving of Shagpat, Khaled by F. Marion Crawford, James Elroy Flecker's Hassan. In the late 1970s, interest in the sub-genre revived with Hasan by Piers Anthony; this was followed by several other novels reworking Arabian legend: the metafictional The Arabian Nightmare by Robert Irwin, Diana Wynne Jones' children's novel Castle in the Air, Tom Holt's humorous Djinn Rummy and Hilari Bell's Fall of a Kingdom. Celtic fantasy has links to Celtic historical fiction. Celtic historical fantasy includes such works as Katharine Kerr's Deverry series, or Teresa Edgerton's Green Lion trilogy.
These works are based on ancient Celtic cultures. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been used indiscriminately, sometimes with great effect,as in Paul Hazel's Finnbranch trilogy, Yearwood and Winterking. Notable works inspired by Irish mythology included James Stephens' The Crock of Gold, Lord Dunsany's The Curse of the Wise Woman, Flann O'Brien's humorous At Swim-Two-Birds, Pat O'Shea's The Hounds of the Morrigan and novels by Peter Tremayne, Morgan Llywelyn and Gregory Frost; the Welsh tradition has been influential, which has its connection to King Arthur and its collection in a single work, the epic Mabinogion. One influential retelling of this was the fantasy work of Evangeline Walton: The Island of the Mighty, The Children of Llyr, The Song of Rhiannon, Prince of Annwn. A notable amount of fiction has been written in the Welsh area of Celtic fantasy. Scottish Celtic fantasy is less common, but James Hogg, John Francis Campbell, Fiona MacLeod, William Sharp, George Mackay Brown and Deborah Turner Harris all wrote material based on Scottish myths and legends.
Fantasy based on the Breton folklore branch of Celtic mythology does not appear in the English language. However, several noted writers have utilized such material. Merritt in Creep, Shadow! both drew on the Breton legend of the lost city of Ys, while "The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun" by J. R. R. Tolkien is a narrative poem based on the Breton legend of the Corrigan. Classical fantasy is a sub-genre fantasy based on the Greek and Roman myths. Symbolism from classical mythology is enormously influential on Western culture, but it was not until the 19th century that it was used in the context of literary fantasy. Richard Garnett and John Kendrick Bangs used the Greek myths for satirical purposes.20th century writers who made extensive use of the sub-genre included John Erksine, who continued the satirical tradition of classical fantasy in such works as The Private Life of Helen of Troy and Venus, the Lon