The Gauls were a group of Celtic peoples of West-Central Europe in the Iron Age and the Roman period. The area they inhabited was known as Gaul, their Gaulish language forms the main branch of the Continental Celtic languages. The Gauls emerged around the 5th century BC as the bearers of the La Tène culture north of the Alps. By the 4th century BC, they spread over much of what is now France, Spain, Switzerland, Southern Germany, the Czech Republic and Slovakia by virtue of controlling the trade routes along the river systems of the Rhône, Seine and Danube, they expanded into Northern Italy, the Balkans and Galatia. Gaul was never united under a single ruler or government, but the Gallic tribes were capable of uniting their forces in large-scale military operations, they reached the peak of their power in the early 3rd century BC. The rising Roman Republic after the end of the First Punic War put pressure on the Gallic sphere of influence. After this, Gaul became a province of the Roman Empire, the Gauls culturally adapted to the Roman world, bringing about the formation of the hybrid Gallo-Roman culture.
The Gauls of Gallia Celtica according to the testimony of Caesar called themselves Celtae in their own language, Galli in Latin. As is not unusual with ancient ethnonyms, these names came to be applied more than their original sense, Celtae being the origin of the term Celts itself while Galli is the origin of the adjective Gallic, now referring to all of Gaul; the name Gaul itself is not from the Germanic word * Walhaz. Gaulish culture developed out of the Celtic cultures over the first millennia BC; the Urnfield culture represents the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European-speaking people. The spread of iron working led to the Hallstatt culture in the 8th century BC; the Hallstatt culture evolved into the La Tène culture in around the 5th century BC. The Greek and Etruscan civilizations and colonies began to influence the Gauls in the Mediterranean area. Gauls under Brennus invaded Rome circa 390 BC. By the 5th century BC, the tribes called Gauls had migrated from Central France to the Mediterranean coast.
Gallic invaders settled the Po Valley in the 4th century BC, defeated Roman forces in a battle under Brennus in 390 BC and raided Italy as far as Sicily. In the 3rd century BC, the Gauls attempted an eastward expansion in 281-279 BC, towards the Balkan peninsula, which at that time was a Greek province, with the ultimate goal to reach and loot the rich Greek city-states of the Greek mainland, but the majority of the Gaul army was exterminated by the Greeks and the few Gauls that survived were forced to flee. A large number of Gauls served in the armies of Carthage during the Punic Wars, one of the leading rebel leaders of the Mercenary War, was of Gallic origin. During the Balkan expedition, led by Cerethrios and Bolgios, the Gauls raided twice the Greek mainland. At the end of the second expedition the Gallic raiders had been repelled by the coalition armies of the various Greek city-states and were forced to retreat to Illyria and Thrace, but the Greeks were forced to grant safe-passage to the Gauls who made their way to Asia Minor and settled in Central Anatolia.
The Gallic area of settlement in Asia Minor was called Galatia. But they were checked through the use of war elephants and skirmishers by the Greek Seleucid king Antiochus I in 275 BC, after which they served as mercenaries across the whole Hellenistic Eastern Mediterranean, including Ptolemaic Egypt, where they, under Ptolemy II Philadelphus, attempted to seize control of the kingdom. In the first Gallic invasion of Greece, they achieved victory over the Macedonians and killed the Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos, they focused on looting the rich Macedonian countryside, but avoided the fortified cities. The Macedonian general Sosthenes assembled an army, defeated Bolgius and repelled the invading Gauls. In the second Gaulish invasion of Greece, the Gauls, led by Brennos, suffered heavy losses while facing the Greek coalition army at Thermopylae, but helped by the Heracleans they followed the mountain path around Thermopylae to encircle the Greek army in the same way that the Persian army had done at the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC, but this time deafeating the whole of the Greek army.
After passing Thermopylae the Gauls headed for the rich treasury at Delphi, where they were defeated by the re-assembled Greek army. This led to a series of retreats of the Gauls, with devastating losses, all the way up to Macedonia and out of the Greek mainland; the major part of the Gaul army was defeated in the process, those Gauls survived were forced to flee from Greece. The Gallic leader Brennos was injured at Delphi and committed suicide there. (He is not to be confused with another Gaulish leader bearing the same name who had sacked Rome a century earlier. In 278 BC Gaulish settlers in the Balkans were invited by Nicomedes I of Bithynia to help him in a dynastic struggle against his brother, they numbered about 10,000 fighting men and about the same number of
Battle of Actium
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece. Octavian's fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, while Antony's fleet was supported by the power of Queen Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt. Octavian's victory enabled him to consolidate his power over its dominions, he adopted the title of Princeps and some years was awarded the title of Augustus by the Roman Senate. This became the name by which he was known in times; as Augustus, he retained the trappings of a restored Republican leader, but historians view this consolidation of power and the adoption of these honorifics as the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire. The alliance among Octavian, Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus known as the Second Triumvirate, was renewed for a five-year term in 38 BC.
However, the triumvirate broke down when Octavian saw Caesarion, the professed son of Julius Caesar and Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, as a major threat to his power. This occurred when Mark Antony, the other most influential member of the triumvirate, abandoned his wife, Octavian's sister Octavia Minor. Afterwards he moved to Egypt to start a long-term romance with Cleopatra, becoming the de facto stepfather to Caesarion; such an affair was doomed to become a political scandal. Antony was perceived by Octavian and the majority of the Roman Senate as the leader of a separatist movement that threatened to break the unity of the Roman Republic. Octavian's prestige and, more the loyalty of his legions had been boosted by Julius Caesar's legacy of 44 BC, by which 19-year-old Octavian was adopted as Caesar's only son and the sole legitimate heir of his enormous wealth. Antony had been the most important and most successful senior officer in Caesar's army and, thanks to his military record, claimed a substantial share of the political support of Caesar's soldiers and veterans.
Both Octavian and Antony had fought against their common enemies in the civil war that followed the assassination of Caesar. After years of loyal cooperation with Octavian, Antony started to act independently arousing his rival's suspicion that he was vying to become sole master of Rome; when he left Octavia Minor and moved to Alexandria to become Cleopatra's official partner, he led many Roman politicians to believe that he was trying to become the unchecked ruler of Egypt and other eastern kingdoms while still maintaining his command over the many Roman legions in the East. As a personal challenge to Octavian's prestige, Antony tried to get Caesarion accepted as a true heir of Caesar though the legacy did not mention him. Antony and Cleopatra formally elevated Caesarion 13, to power in 34 BC, giving him the vague but alarming title of "King of the Kings". Being a son of Caesar, such an entitlement was felt as a threat to Roman republican traditions, it was believed that Antony had once offered a diadem to Caesar.
Thereafter, Octavian started a propaganda war, denouncing Antony as an enemy of Rome, asserting that he was seeking to establish a personal monarchy over the entire Roman Empire on behalf of Caesarion, circumventing the Roman Senate. It was said that Antony intended to move the capital of the empire to Alexandria; as the Second Triumvirate formally expired on the last day of 33 BC, Antony wrote to the Senate that he did not wish to be reappointed. He hoped that he might be regarded by them as their champion against the ambition of Octavian, whom he presumed would not be willing to abandon his position in a similar manner; the causes of mutual dissatisfaction between the two had been accumulating. Antony complained that Octavian had exceeded his powers in deposing Lepidus, in taking over the countries held by Sextus Pompeius and in enlisting soldiers for himself without sending half to him. Octavian complained. During 32 BC one-third of the Senate and both consuls allied with Antony; the consuls had determined to conceal the extent of Antony's demands.
Gnaeus Ahenobarbus seems to have wished to keep quiet, but Gaius Sosius on 1 January made an elaborate speech in favor of Antony, would have proposed the confirmation of his act had it not been vetoed by a tribune. Octavian was not present, but at the next meeting made a reply of such a nature that both consuls left Rome to join Antony. After staying with his allies at Samos, Antony moved to Athens, his land forces, in Armenia, came down to the coast of Asia and embarked under L. Canidius Crassus. Octavian was not behind in his strategic preparations. Military operations began in 31 BC, when his general Agrippa captured Methone, a Greek town allied to Antony. However, by the publication of Antony's will, put into his hands by the traitor Plancus and by letting it be known in Rome what preparations were going on at Samos and how Antony was acting as the agent of Cleopatra, Octavian p
Augustus was a Roman statesman and military leader, the first emperor of the Roman Empire, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history; the reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. The Roman world was free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia, his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. Along with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators.
The Triumvirate was torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, the legislative assemblies. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor, it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, instead called himself Princeps Civitatis; the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. Augustus enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, completing the conquest of Hispania, but suffered a major setback in Germania.
Beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, rebuilt much of the city during his reign. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75 from natural causes. However, there were unconfirmed rumors, he was succeeded as emperor by his adopted son Tiberius. As a consequence of Roman customs and personal preference, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life: Gaius Octavius Thurinus: He received his birth name, after his biological father, in 63 BC. "Gaius" was his praenomen, "Octavius" was his nomen, "Thurinus" was his cognomen. His rival Mark Antony used the name "Thurinus" as an insult, to which Augustus replied, surprised that "using his old name was thought to be an insult".
Gaius Julius Caesar: After he was adopted by Julius Caesar, he adopted Caesar's name in accordance with Roman naming conventions. While he dropped all references to the gens Octavia, people colloquially added the epithet Octavianus to his legal name, either to differentiate him from his adoptive father or to highlight his more modest origins. Modern historians refer to him using the anglicized form "Octavian" between 44 BC and 27 BC. Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius: Two years after his adoption, he founded the Temple of Caesar additionally adding the title Divi Filius to his name in attempt to strengthen his political ties to Caesar's former soldiers, following the deification of Caesar. Imperator Caesar Divi Filius: From 38 BC, Octavian opted to use Imperator, the title by which troops hailed their leader after military success, his name is translated as "Commander Caesar, Son of the Divine". Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus: Following his 31 BC defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on his own insistence, the Roman Senate granted him the additional name, "Augustus", which he added to his previous names thereafter.
Historians use this name to refer to him from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri 40 kilometres from Rome, Augustus was born in the city of Rome on 23 September 63 BC, he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen commemorating his father's victory at Thurii over a rebellious band of slaves. Suetonius wrote: "There are many indications that the Octavian family was in days of old a distinguished one at Velitrae; this man was leader in a war with a neighbouring town..." Due to the crowded nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his father's home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius mentions his father's equestrian family only in his memoirs, his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War. His grandfather had served in several lo
Veneto is one of the 20 regions of Italy. Its population is ranking fifth in Italy; the region's capital is Venice. Veneto was part of the Roman Empire until the 5th century AD. After a feudal period, it was part of the Republic of Venice until 1797. Venice ruled for centuries over one of the largest and richest maritime republics and trade empires in the world. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it was merged with the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Besides Italian, most inhabitants speak Venetian, divided into five varieties. Since 1971 the Statute of Veneto has referred to the region's citizens as "the Venetian people". Article 1 defines Veneto as an "autonomous Region", "constituted by the Venetian people and the lands of the provinces of Belluno, Rovigo, Venice and Vicenza", while maintaining "bonds with Venetians in the world". Article 2 sets forth the principle of the "self-government of the Venetian people" and mandates the Region to "promote the historical identity of the Venetian people and civilisation".
Despite these affirmations, approved by the Italian Parliament, Veneto is not among the autonomous regions with special statute, differently from its north-eastern and north-western neighbours, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol respectively. Veneto is home to a notable nationalist movement, known as Venetian Venetism; the region's largest party is a founding component of the Lega Nord. The current President of Veneto is Luca Zaia, re-elected in 2015 with 50.1% of the vote. Zaia II Government includes Forza Italia and is externally supported by Independence We Veneto and the Brothers of Italy. An autonomy referendum took place in 2017: 57.2% of Venetians turned out, 98.1% voting "yes" to "further forms and special conditions of autonomy". Having been for a long period in history a land of mass emigration, Veneto is today one of the greatest immigrant-receiving regions in the country, with 487,493 foreigners, notably including Romanians, Chinese and Albanians. Veneto is the 8th largest region in Italy, with a total area of 18,398.9 km2.
It is located in the north-eastern part of Italy and is bordered to the east by Friuli-Venezia Giulia, to the south by Emilia-Romagna, to the west by Lombardy and to the north by Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. At its northernmost corner it borders on Austria; the north-south extension of Veneto is 210 km from the Austrian border to the mouth of the River Po. By area, 29% of its surface is mountainous; the highest massif in the Dolomites is the Marmolada-massif at 3,342 m. Other dolomitic peaks are the Pale di San Martino; the Venetian Prealps range between 700 m and 2,200 m. A distinctive characteristic of the Pre-alps are the cave formations, including chasms and sink holes. Fossil deposits are abundant there; the Po Valley, covering 57% of Veneto, extends from the mountains to the Adriatic sea, broken only by some low hills: Euganean Hills, Berici Hills Colli Asolani and Montello, which constitute the remaining 14% of the territory. The plain itself is subdivided into the lower plain; the lower plain is both a mainstay of agricultural production and the most populated part of the region.
Several rivers flow through the region: the Po, Brenta, Livenza and Tagliamento. The eastern shore of the largest lake in Italy, Lake Garda, belongs to Veneto; the coastline covers 200 km, of which 100 km are beaches. The coasts of the Adriatic Sea are characterised by the Venetian Lagoon, a flat terrain with ponds and islands; the Po Delta to the south features dunes along the coastline. The inland portion contains cultivable land reclaimed by a system of canals and dykes. Fish ponds have been created there as well; the delta and the lagoon are a stopping-point for migratory birds. Veneto's morphology is characterised by its: mountains: 5,359.1 km2,. The climate changes from one area to another: while it is continental on the plains, it is milder along the Adriatic coast; the lowlands are covered by thick fog. Between the 2nd and 1st millennium BC, the region was inhabited by the Euganei. According to ancient historians, who wanted to link Venetic origins to legend of Roman origins in Troy, the Veneti came from Paphlagonia in Anatolia at the time of the Fall of Troy, led by prince Antenor, a comrade of Aeneas.
Other historians links Venetic origins with Celts. In the 7th–6th centuries BC th
La Tène culture
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture. It developed and flourished during the late Iron Age, succeeding the early Iron Age Hallstatt culture without any definite cultural break, under the impetus of considerable Mediterranean influence from the Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul, the Etruscans, Golasecca culture, its territorial extent corresponded to what is now France, Switzerland, Southern Germany, the Czech Republic, parts of Northern Italy and Hungary, as well as adjacent parts of the Netherlands, Croatia and Transcarpathia. The Celtiberians of western Iberia shared many aspects of the culture, though not the artistic style. To the north extended the contemporary Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe, including the Jastorf culture of Northern Germany. Centered on ancient Gaul, the culture became widespread, encompasses a wide variety of local differences, it is distinguished from earlier and neighbouring cultures by the La Tène style of Celtic art, characterized by curving "swirly" decoration of metalwork.
It is named after the type site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857. La Tène is the type site and the term archaeologists use for the period of the culture and art of the ancient Celts, a term, entrenched in the popular understanding, but presents numerous problems for historians and archaeologists. Extensive contacts through trade are recognized in foreign objects deposited in elite burials. Dateable Greek pottery and analysis employing scientific techniques such as dendrochronology and thermoluminescence help provide date ranges for an absolute chronology at some La Tène sites. La Tène history was divided into "early", "middle" and "late" stages based on the typology of the metal finds, with the Roman occupation disrupting the culture, although many elements remain in Gallo-Roman and Romano-British culture. A broad cultural unity was not paralleled by overarching social-political unifying structures, the extent to which the material culture can be linguistically linked is debated.
The art history of La Tène culture has various schemes of periodization. The archaeological period is now divided into four sub-periods, following Paul Reinecke; the preceding final phase of the Hallstatt culture, HaD, c. 650–450 BC, was widespread across Central Europe, the transition over this area was gradual, being detected through La Tène style elite artefacts, which first appear on the western edge of the old Hallstatt region. Though there is no agreement on the precise region in which La Tène culture first developed, there is a broad consensus that the centre of the culture lay on the northwest edges of Hallstatt culture, north of the Alps, within the region between in the West the valleys of the Marne and Moselle, the part of the Rhineland nearby. In the east the western end of the old Hallstatt core area in modern Bavaria and Switzerland formed a somewhat separate "eastern style Province" in the early La Tène, joining with the western area in Alsace. In 1994 a prototypical ensemble of elite grave sites of the early 5th century BCE was excavated at Glauberg in Hesse, northeast of Frankfurt-am-Main, in a region, considered peripheral to the La Tène sphere.
The site at La Tène itself was therefore near the southern edge of the original "core" area. The establishment of a Greek colony, soon successful, at Massalia on the Mediterranean coast of France led to great trade with the Hallstatt areas up the Rhone and Saone river systems, early La Tène elite burials like the Vix Grave in Burgundy contain imported luxury goods along with artifacts produced locally. Most areas were controlled by tribal chiefs living in hilltop forts, while the bulk of the population lived in small villages or farmsteads in the countryside. By 500 the Etruscans expanded to border Celts in north Italy, trade across the Alps began to overhaul trade with the Greeks, the Rhone route declined. Booming areas included the middle Rhine, with large iron ore deposits, the Marne and Champagne regions, Bohemia, although here trade with the Mediterranean area was much less important. Trading connections and wealth no doubt played a part in the origin of the La Tène style, though how large a part remains much discussed.
Barry Cunliffe notes localization of La Tène culture during the 5th century when there arose "two zones of power and innovation: a Marne – Moselle zone in the west with trading links to the Po Valley via the central Alpine passes and the Golasecca culture, a Bohemian zone in the east with separate links to the Adriatic via the eastern Alpine routes and the Venetic culture". From their homeland, La Tène culture expanded in the 4th century to more of modern France and Central Europe, beyond to Hispania and central Italy, the Balkans, as far as Asia Minor, in the course of several major migrations. La Tène style artefacts start to appear in Britain around the same time, Ireland rather later; the style of "Insular La Tène" art is somewhat different and the artefacts are found in some parts of the islands but not others. Migratory movements seem
Padua is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy. It is the capital of the economic and communications hub of the area. Padua's population is 214,000; the city is sometimes included, with Venice and Treviso, in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area which has a population of c. 2,600,000. Padua stands on 29 km southeast of Vicenza; the Brenta River, which once ran through the city, still touches the northern districts. Its agricultural setting is the Venetian Plain. To the city's south west lies the Euganaean Hills, praised by Lucan and Martial, Ugo Foscolo, Shelley, it hosts the University of Padua, founded in 1222, where Galileo Galilei was a lecturer between 1592 and 1610. The city is picturesque, with a dense network of arcaded streets opening into large communal piazze, many bridges crossing the various branches of the Bacchiglione, which once surrounded the ancient walls like a moat. Padua is the setting for most of the action in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. There is a play by the Irish writer Oscar Wilde entitled The Duchess of Padua.
The city is known for being the city where Saint Anthony, a Portuguese Franciscan, spent part of his life and died in 1231. The original significance of the Roman name Patavium is uncertain, it may be connected with the ancient name of the River Po. Additionally, the root pat-, in the Indo-European language may refer to a wide open plain as opposed to nearby hills; the suffix -av (also found in the name of the rivers such as the Timavus and Tiliaventum is of Venetic origin indicating the presence of a river, which in the case of Padua is the Brenta. The ending - ium, signifies the presence of villages. Padua claims to be the oldest city in northern Italy. According to a tradition dated at least to the time of Virgil's Aeneid and to Livy's Ab Urbe Condita, Padua was founded in around 1183 BC by the Trojan prince Antenor. After the Fall of Troy, Antenor led a group of Trojans and their Paphlagonian allies, the Eneti or Veneti, who lost their king Pylaemenes to settle the Euganean plain in Italy.
Thus, when a large ancient stone sarcophagus was exhumed in the year 1274, officials of the medieval commune declared the remains within to be those of Antenor. An inscription by the native Humanist scholar Lovato dei Lovati placed near the tomb reads: This sepulchre excavated from marble contains the body of the noble Antenor who left his country, guided the Eneti and Trojans, banished the Euganeans and founded Padua However, more recent tests suggest the sepulchre dates to the between the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Archeological remains confirm an early date for the foundation of the center of the town to between the 11th and 10th centuries BC. By the 5th century BC, rose on the banks of the river Brenta, which in the Roman era was called Medoacus Maior and until AD 589 followed the path of the present day Bacchiglione. Padua was one of the principal centers of the Veneti; the Roman historian Livy records an attempted invasion by the Spartan king Cleonimos around 302 BC. The Spartans came up the river but were defeated by the Veneti in a naval battle and gave up the idea of conquest.
Still the Veneti of Padua repulsed invasions by the Etruscans and Gauls. According to Livy and Silius Italicus, the Veneti, including those of Padua, formed an alliance with the Romans by 226 BC against their common enemies, first the Gauls and the Carthaginians. Men from Padua died beside the Romans at Cannae. With Rome's northwards expansion, Padua was assimilated into the Roman Republic. In 175 BC, Padua requested the aid of Rome in putting down a local civil war. In 91 BC, along with other cities of the Veneti, fought with Rome against the rebels in the Social War. Around 49 BC, Padua was made a Roman municipium under the Lex Julia Municipalis and its citizens ascribed to the Roman tribe, Fabia. At that time the population of the city was 40,000; the city was reputed for the wool of its sheep. In fact, the poet Martial remarks on the thickness of the tunics made there. By the end of the first century BC, Padua seems to have been the wealthiest city in Italy outside of Rome; the city became so powerful that it was able to raise two hundred thousand fighting men.
However, despite its wealth, the city was renowned for its simple manners and strict morality. This concern with morality is reflected in Livy's Roman History wherein he portrays Rome's rise to dominance as being founded upon her moral rectitude and discipline. Still Pliny, referring to one of his Paduan protégés' Paduan grandmother, Sarrana Procula, lauds her as more upright and disciplined than any of her strict fellow citizens. Padua provided the Empire with notable intellectuals. Nearby Abano was the birthplace, after many years spent in Rome, the deathplace of Livy, whose Latin was said by the critic Asinius Pollio to betray his Patavinitas. Padua was the birthplace of Thrasea Paetus, Asconius Pedianus, Valerius Flaccus. Christianity was introduced to much of the Veneto by Saint Prosdocimus, he is venerated as the first bishop of the city. His deacon, the Jewish convert Daniel, is a
Vicenza is a city in northeastern Italy. It is in the Veneto region at the northern base of the Monte Berico, where it straddles the Bacchiglione River. Vicenza is 60 kilometres west of Venice and 200 kilometres east of Milan. Vicenza is a thriving and cosmopolitan city, with a rich history and culture, many museums, art galleries, villas and elegant Renaissance palazzi. With the Palladian Villas of the Veneto in the surrounding area, his renowned Teatro Olimpico, the "city of Palladio" has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1994. In December 2008, Vicenza had an estimated population of 115,927 and a metropolitan area of 270,000. Vicenza is the third-largest Italian industrial centre as measured by the value of its exports, is one of the country's wealthiest cities, in large part due to its textile and steel industries, which employ tens of thousands. Additionally, about one fifth of the country's gold and jewelry is made in Vicenza contributing to the city's economy. Another important sector is the engineering/computer components industry.
Vicentia was settled by the Italic Euganei tribe and by the Paleo-Veneti tribe in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. The Romans allied themselves with the Paleo-Veneti in their fight against the Celtic tribes that populated north-western Italy; the Roman presence in the area grew exponentially over time and the Paleo-Veneti were assimilated. In 157 BC, the city was a de facto Roman centre and was given the name of Vicetia or Vincentia, meaning "victorious"; the citizens of Vicetia received Roman citizenship and were inscribed into the Roman tribe Romilia in 49 BC. The city was known for its agriculture, marble quarry, wool industry and had some importance as a way-station on the important road from Mediolanum to Aquileia, near Tergeste, but it was overshadowed by its neighbor Patavium. Little survives of the Roman city, but three of the bridges across the Bacchiglione and Retrone rivers are of Roman origin, isolated arches of a Roman aqueduct exist outside the Porta Santa Croce. During the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Vandals and his Visigoths, as well as the Huns laid waste to the area, but the city recovered after the Ostrogoth conquest in 489 AD, before being conquered by the Byzantine Empire soon after.
It was an important Lombard city and a Frankish center. Numerous Benedictine monasteries were built beginning in the 6th century. In 899, Vicenza was destroyed by Magyar raiders. In 1001, Otto III handed over the government of the city to the bishop, its communal organization had an opportunity to develop, separating soon from the episcopal authority, it took an active part in the League with Verona and, most of all, in the Lombard League against Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa compelling Padua and Treviso to join: its podestà, Ezzelino II il Balbo, was captain of the league. When peace was restored, the old rivalry with Padua and other cities was renewed, besides which there were the internal factions of the Vivaresi and the Maltraversi; the tyrannical Ezzelino III from Bassano drove the Guelphs out of Vicenza, caused his brother, Alberico, to be elected podestà. The independent commune joined the Second Lombard League against Emperor Frederick II, was sacked by that monarch, after which it was annexed to Ezzelino's dominions.
On his death the old oligarchic republic political structure was restored – a consiglio maggiore of four hundred members and a consiglio minore of forty members – and it formed a league with Padua and Verona. Three years the Vicentines entrusted the protection of the city to Padua, so as to safeguard republican liberty. Vicenza came under rule of Venice in 1404, its subsequent history is that of Venice, it was besieged by the Emperor Sigismund, Maximilian I held possession of it in 1509 and 1516. Vicenza was a candidate to host the Council of Trent; the 16th century was the time of Andrea Palladio, who left many outstanding examples of his art with palaces and villas in the city's territory, which before Palladio's passage, was arguably the most downtrodden and esthetically lacking city of the Veneto. After 1797, under Napoleonic rule, it was made a duché grand-fief within Napoleon's personal Kingdom of Italy for general Caulaincourt imperial Grand-Écuyer. After 1814, Vicenza passed to the Austrian Empire.
In 1848, the populace rose against Austria, more violently than in any other Italian centre apart from Milan and Brescia. As a part of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, it was annexed to Italy after the Third War of Italian independence. Vicenza's area was a location of major combat in both World War I and World War II, it was the most damaged city in Veneto by Allied bombings, including many of its monuments; the end of World War II was followed by a period of depression, caused by the devastation during the two world wars. In t