Brahmarshi Vishvamitra is one of the most venerated rishis or sages of ancient India. He is credited as the author of most of Mandala 3 of the Rigveda, including Gayatri Mantra; the Puranas mention that only 24 rishis since antiquity have understood the whole meaning of—and thus wielded the whole power of—Gayatri Mantra. Vishvamitra is supposed to be the first, Yajnavalkya the last; the story of Vishvamitra is narrated in the Balakanda of Valmiki Ramayana. Mahabharata adds that Vishvamitra's relationship with Menaka resulted in a daughter, whose story is narrated in Adi Parva of Mahabharata. Vishvamitra was a king in ancient India called Kaushika and belonged to Amavasu Dynasty. Vishwamitra was the Chandravanshi King of Kanyakubja, he was the great-grandson of a great king named Kusha. Valmiki Ramayana, prose 51 of Bala Kanda, starts with the story of Vishvamitra: There was a king named Kusha, a brainchild of Brahma and Kusha's son was the powerful and verily righteous Kushanabha. One, renowned by the name Gaadhi was the son of Kushanabha and Gaadhi's son is this great-saint of great resplendence, Vishvamitra.
Vishvamitra ruled the earth and this great-resplendent king ruled the kingdom for many thousands of years. His story appears in various Puranas. Vishnu Purana and Harivamsha chapter 27 of Mahabharata narrates the birth of Vishvamitra. According to Vishnu Purana, Kushanabha married a damsel of Purukutsa dynasty and had a son by name Gaadhi, who had a daughter named Satyavati. Satyavati was married to an old man known as Ruchika, foremost among the race of Bhrigu. Ruchika desired a son having the qualities of a good peson and so he gave Satyavati a sacrificial offering which he had prepared to achieve this objective, he gave Satyavati's mother another charu to make her conceive a son with the character of a Kshatriya at her request. But Satyavati's mother asked Satyavati to exchange her charu with her; this resulted in Satyavati's mother giving birth to Vishvamitra, Satyavati gave birth to Jamadagni, father of Parashurama, a person with qualities of a warrior In one encounter, Vishwamitra cursed the king Harishchandra to become a crane.
Vashista accompanied him by becoming a bird himself. There were several such instances of violent encounter between the sages and at times, god of creation, had to interfere. Vaśiștha destroys Vishvamitra's entire army by the simple use of his great mystic and spiritual powers, breathing the Om syllable. Vishvamitra undertakes a tapasya for several years to please Shiva, who bestows upon him the knowledge of celestial weaponry, he proudly goes to Vaśiștha's ashram again and uses all kinds of powerful weapons to destroy Vaśiștha and his hermitage. He succeeded in the killings of Vaśiștha's thousand sons but not in the former. An enraged Vaśiștha brings out his brahmadanda, a wooden stick imbued with the power of Brahma, it consumes Vishvamitra's most powerful weapons, including the brahmastra. Vaśiștha attempts to attack Vishvamitra, but his anger is allayed by Devas. Vishvamitra is left humiliated. Menaka was born during the churning of the ocean by the devas and asuras and was one of the most beautiful apsaras in the world with quick intelligence and innate talent but desired a family.
Vishwamitra frightened the gods and tried to create another heaven- Indra, frightened by his powers, sent Menaka from heaven to earth to lure him and break his meditation. Menaka incited Vishwamitra's lust and passion when he saw her beauty, she succeeded in breaking the meditation of Vishwamitra. However, she fell in genuine love with him and a baby was born to them who grew in Sage Kanva's ashram and came to be called Shakuntala. Shakuntala falls in love with King Dushyanta and gives birth to a child called Bharata, but he cursed Menaka to be separated from him forever, for he loved her as well and knew that she had lost all devious intentions towards him long ago. After cursing Menaka, Kaushika goes to the highest mountain of Himalayas to perform an more severe tapasya for over 1000 years, he ceases to eat, reduces his breathing to a bare minimum. He is tested again by Indra, who comes as a poor Brahmin begging for food just as Kaushika is ready to break a fast of many years by eating some rice.
Kaushika gives his food away to Indra and resumes his meditation. Kaushika finally masters his passions, refusing to be provoked by any of Indra's testing and seductive interferences. At the penultimate culmination of a multi-thousand year journey, Kaushika's yogic power is at a peak. At this point, Brahma, as the head of Devas led by Indra, names Kaushika a Brahmarishi and names him Vishvamitra or Friend of All for his unlimited compassion, he goes to meet Vashishta. It was customary that, if a sage was greeted by an equal or superior person, the sage would greet the person. If the sage was greeted by an inferior person, the sage would bless them; when Vishwamitra greeted Vashishta with the pride of being a new Brahmarishi in heart, Vashishta blessed him. All pride and desire left Vishwamitra's heart and he became a clean and clear brahmarishi; when Vishwamitra turned back to leave, Vashishta realised the change of heart and proceeded to greet Vishwamitra. Vishwamitra is embraced by Vashista and their enmity is ended.
Vishvamitra is said to have found Gayatri Mantra. It is a verse f
The Vedas are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman" and "impersonal, authorless". Vedas are called śruti literature, distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti; the Veda, for orthodox Indian theologians, are considered revelations seen by ancient sages after intense meditation, texts that have been more preserved since ancient times. In the Hindu Epic the Mahabharata, the creation of Vedas is credited to Brahma; the Vedic hymns themselves assert that they were skillfully created by Rishis, after inspired creativity, just as a carpenter builds a chariot. According to tradition, Vyasa is the compiler of the Vedas, who arranged the four kinds of mantras into four Samhitas. There are four Vedas: the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda.
Each Veda has been subclassified into four major text types – the Samhitas, the Aranyakas, the Brahmanas, the Upanishads. Some scholars add a fifth category – the Upasanas; the various Indian philosophies and denominations have taken differing positions on the Vedas. Schools of Indian philosophy which cite the Vedas as their scriptural authority are classified as "orthodox". Other śramaṇa traditions, such as Lokayata, Ajivika and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities, are referred to as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" schools. Despite their differences, just like the texts of the śramaṇa traditions, the layers of texts in the Vedas discuss similar ideas and concepts; the Sanskrit word véda "knowledge, wisdom" is derived from the root vid- "to know". This is reconstructed as being derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *u̯eid-, meaning "see" or "know", cognate to Greek εἶδος "aspect", "form"; this is not to be confused is the homonymous 1st and 3rd person singular perfect tense véda, cognate to Greek οἶδα oida "I know".
Root cognates are English wit, etc.. Latin videō "I see", etc; the Sanskrit term veda as a common noun means "knowledge". The term in some contexts, such as hymn 10.93.11 of the Rigveda, means "obtaining or finding wealth, property", while in some others it means "a bunch of grass together" as in a broom or for ritual fire. A related word Vedena appears in hymn 8.19.5 of the Rigveda. It was translated by Ralph T. H. Griffith as "ritual lore", as "studying the Veda" by the 14th-century Indian scholar Sayana, as "bundle of grass" by Max Müller, as "with the Veda" by H. H. Wilson. Vedas are called Vaymoli in parts of South India. Marai means "hidden, a secret, mystery", but Tamil Naanmarai mentioned in Tholkappiam isn't Sanskrit Vedas. In some south Indian communities such as Iyengars, the word Veda includes the Tamil writings of the Alvar saints, such as Divya Prabandham, for example Tiruvaymoli; the Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. The Samhitas date to 1700–1100 BCE, the "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c.
1000–500 BCE, resulting in a Vedic period, spanning the mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, or the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age. The Vedic period reaches its peak only after the composition of the mantra texts, with the establishment of the various shakhas all over Northern India which annotated the mantra samhitas with Brahmana discussions of their meaning, reaches its end in the age of Buddha and Panini and the rise of the Mahajanapadas. Michael Witzel gives a time span of c. 1500 to c. 500–400 BCE. Witzel makes special reference to the Near Eastern Mitanni material of the 14th century BCE, the only epigraphic record of Indo-Aryan contemporary to the Rigvedic period, he gives 150 BCE as a terminus ante quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature, 1200 BCE as terminus post quem for the Atharvaveda. Transmission of texts in the Vedic period was by oral tradition, preserved with precision with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques. A literary tradition is traceable in post-Vedic times, after the rise of Buddhism in the Maurya period earliest in the Kanva recension of the Yajurveda about the 1st century BCE.
Witzel suggests the possibility of written Vedic texts towards the end of 1st millennium BCE. Some scholars such as Jack Goody state that "the Vedas are not the product of an oral society", basing this view by comparing inconsistencies in the transmitted versions of literature from various oral societies such as the Greek and other cultures noting that the Vedic literature is too consistent and vast to have been composed and transmitted orally across generations, without being written down. However, adds Goody, the Vedic texts involved both a written and oral tradition, calling it a "parallel products of a literate society". Due to the ephemeral nature of the manuscript material, surviving manuscripts surpass an age of a few hundred years; the Sampurnanand Sanskrit University has a Rigveda manuscript from the 14th century. The Vedas, Vedic rituals and its ancillary sciences called the Vedangas, were part of the curriculum at ancient universities such as at Ta
Ashtavakra is a revered Vedic sage in Hinduism. His name means "eight bends", reflecting the eight physical handicaps he was born with, his maternal grandfather was the Vedic sage Aruni, his parents were both Vedic students at Aruni's school. Ashtavakra became a sage and a celebrated character of the Hindu History Epics and Puranas. Ashtavakra is the author of the text Aṣṭāvakra Gītā known as Aṣṭāvakra Saṃhitā, in Hindu traditions; the text is a treatise on Brahman and monism. Little is known about the life or century in which Ashtavakra lived, except for the History found in the major Indian Epics and the Puranas; the legends state that sage Aruni, mentioned in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, ran a school teaching the Vedas. Kahoḍa was one of his students, along with Aruni's daughter Sujata. Aruni's daughter married Kahoḍa, she got pregnant, during her pregnancy, the developing baby heard the chanting of the Vedas and learnt the correct recitation. According to one version of the legends surrounding Ashtavakra, his father was once reciting the Vedas, but erred in correct intonation.
The fetus corrected his father, the father cursed him. The curse caused him to be born crooked, with eight bends, what his name "Ashtavakra" means; the different versions of the legends chronologically place him with Janaka, the ancient king of Videha. Aṣṭāvakra is credited as the author of the Ashtavakra Gita, which means "song of Ashtavakra"; the text is known as Aṣṭāvakra Saṃhitā. The Ashtavakra Gita examines the metaphysical nature of existence and the meaning of individual freedom, presenting its thesis that there is only one Supreme Reality, the entirety of universe is oneness and manifestation of this reality, everything is interconnected, all Self are part of that one, that individual freedom is not the end point but a given, a starting point, innate. According to Jessica Wilson, the Sanskrit poetics in Ashtavakra Gita is not driven by critical syllogism, but it is rich in philosophical premises, spiritual effectiveness and its resonant narrative because of "textual indeterminacy between the audience's disposition and the foregrounded theme of non-individuation in the text.
This tension... results in consistency building by the audience, which enables the transcendence of these two viewpoints". According to Radhakamal Mukerjee, the Ashtavakra Gita was composed after the Bhagavad Gita but before the start of the common era, attributed to sage Ashtavakra out of reverence for his ideas. Aṣṭāvakra is referenced in verse 6.119.17 of Yuddha Kāṇḍa in Vālmikī's Rāmāyaṇa. When Daśaratha comes to see Rāma from heaven after the war of the Rāmāyaṇa, he tells Rāma – In the Aranya Kanda of Adhyatma Ramayana, the demon Kabandha narrates his story to Rama and Lakshmana, in which he says that he was a Gandharva earlier, cursed by Ashtavakra to become a demon when he laughed on seeing him; when the Gandharva bowed down to Ashtavakra, Ashtavakra said that he would be released from the curse by Rama in Treta Yuga. In the Vana Parva of the Mahābhārata, the legend of Aṣṭāvakra is described in greater detail. On losing the game of dice with the Kauravas, the five Pāṇḍava princes and Draupadi are exiled for twelve years.
On their pilgrimage, they meet the sage Lomaśa, he narrates to the Pāṇḍava princes the legend of Aṣṭāvakra, over three chapters of Vana Parva of the Mahābhārata. Aṣṭāvakra's wisdom on various aspects of human existence is recited in the Mahābhārata. For example: Aṣṭāvakra and Śvetaketu made his way to Janaka's palace. Aṣṭāvakra first faced the gatekeeper. On convincing the gatekeeper that he was well versed in the scriptures and hence old, he was let in. Janaka tested Aṣṭāvakra with cryptic questions which Aṣṭāvakra answered with ease. Janaka decided to let Aṣṭāvakra face Vandin. Vandin and Aṣṭāvakra began the debate, with Vandin starting, they alternately composed six extempore verses on the numbers one to twelve. Vandin could only compose the first half of a verse on the number thirteen. Aṣṭāvakra thus won the argument against Vandin; this unique debate is full of enigmas and latent meanings which lie under the simple counts of the numbers one to thirteen. Aṣṭāvakra is one of the characters in the First Act of the Sanskrit play Uttara-Rāmacaritam composed by Bhavabhuti in the 8th century.
The 571st volume of the Amar Chitra Katha, published in 2005, is titled Ashtavakra. The second half of the volume presents the narrative of Ashtavakra. A puppet play on Ashtavakra was staged by the Dhaatu Artist group in Ranga Shankara in Bangalore in 2010. Agastya Ashtavakra Gita Ashtavakra Gita English Audio Book Ashtavakra Gita Hindi Audio Book Ashtavakra Gita Marathi Audio Book Aṣṭāvakra Story in the Mahābhārata
Dattatreya, Dattā or Dattaguru or Duttatreya, is a paradigmatic Sannyasi and one of the lords of Yoga in Hinduism. In many regions of India and Nepal, he is considered a deity. In Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Gujarat, he is a syncretic deity, considered to be an avatar of the three Hindu gods Brahma and Shiva, collectively known as Trimurti. In other regions, some versions of texts such as Garuda Purana, Brahma Purana and Sattvata Samhita, he is an avatar of Maha Vishnu, his iconography varies regionally. In western Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh, for example, he is shown with three heads and six hands, one head each for Brahma and Shiva, one pair of hands holding the symbolic items associated with each member of the Trimurti: The jaapmaala and water pot of Brahma, the conch and sudarshana chakra of Vishnu, the trishula and two headed drum of Shiva, he is dressed as a simple monk, situated in a forest or wilderness suggestive of his renunciation of worldly goods and pursuit of a meditative yogi lifestyle.
In paintings and some large carvings, he is surrounded by four dogs and a cow, where the dogs are not the symbolism for the four Vedas but it shows similar vision of lord to all the animals from pure cow to the low level dog. In the temples of southern Maharashtra, Varanasi and in the Himalayas, his iconography shows him with one head and two hands with four dogs and a cow. According to Rigopoulos, in the Nath tradition of Shaivism, Dattatreya is revered as the Adi-Guru of the Adinath Sampradaya of the Nathas, the first "Lord of Yoga" with mastery of Tantra, although most traditions and scholars consider Adi Nath an epithet of Shiva, his pursuit of simple life, kindness to all, sharing of his knowledge and the meaning of life during his travels is reverentially mentioned in the poems by Tukaram, a saint-poet of the Bhakti movement. Over time, Dattatreya has inspired many monastic movements in Shaivism and Shaktism in the Deccan region of India, south India, Gujarat and Himalayan regions where Shiva tradition has been strong.
According to Mallinson, Dattatreya is not the traditional guru of the Nath Sampradaya, he was coopted by the Nath tradition in about the 18th century as a guru, as a part of Vishnu-Shiva syncretism. This is evidenced by the Marathi text Navanathabhaktisara, states Mallinson, wherein there is syncretic fusion of the Nath Sampradaya with the Mahanubhava sect by identifying nine Naths with nine Narayanas. Several Upanishads are dedicated to him, as are texts of the Advaita Vedanta-Yoga tradition in Hinduism. One of the most important texts of Advaita Vedanta, namely Avadhuta Gita is attributed to Dattatreya. Annual festival in the Hindu calendar month of Mārgaśīrṣa reveres Dattatreya and this is called Datta Jayanti; the puranic stories of Dattatreya vary by region. In the Puranas, he was born in north Indian hermitage to Anusuya and her husband the Vedic sage Atri traditionally credited with making the largest contribution to the Rigveda. Another states. A third claims he was born in Kashmir jungles near the sacred Amarnath Temple.
A fourth legend states he was born along with his brothers Durvasa and Chandra, to an unwed mother named Anusuya, after sage Atri saw her bathing, fantasized about her which caused her to become pregnant. In a fifth myth, sage Atri was old when young Anusuya married him and they sought the help of the trimurti gods for a child; as the trinity were pleased with them for having brought light and knowledge to the world granted the boon, which led Dattatreya to be born with characteristics of all three. While his origins are unclear, stories about his life are more clearer, he is described in the Mahabharata as an exceptional Rishi with extraordinary insights and knowledge, adored and raised to a Guru and an Avatar of Vishnu in the Puranas. Dattatreya is stated in these texts to having renounced the world and leaving his home at an early age to lead a monastic life. One myth claims he meditated immersed in water for a long time, another has him wandering from childhood and the young Dattatreya footprints have been preserved on a lonely peak at Girnar.
The Tripura-rahasya refers to the disciple Parasurama finding Dattatreya meditating on Gandhamadana mountain. Dattatreya is said to have his lunch daily by taking alms at a holy place Pithapuram, Andhra Pradesh, where he was born as Sripada Sri Vallabha; the young Dattatreya is famous in the Hindu texts as the one who started with nothing and without teachers, yet reached self-awareness by observing nature during his Sannyasi wanderings, treating these natural observations as his twenty four teachers. This legend has been emblematic in the Hindu belief among artists and Yogis, that ideas and practices come from all sources, that self effort is a means to learning; the 24 teachers of Dattatreya are: The appearance of Shri Dattatreya in pictures varies according to traditional beliefs. A typical icon for Dattatreya popular with Marathi-speaking people in India, has three heads corresponding to Brahma-Vishnu-Shiva, six hands.
Rishi Marichi or Mareechi or Marishi was the mindborn son of Brahma and one of the Saptarishi. He is the father of Kashyapa and the grandfather of the Devas and Asuras, it is different from Mariachi, described in Jain scriptures, the grandson of the first Jain tirthankara Rishabhanatha and son of Bharata Chakravartin. The founder of Vedanta.the one is referred to as one of the previous reincarnations of the 24th Tirthankara Mahavira. Saptarishi, a Sanskrit dvigu meaning "seven sages" are the seven rishis who are extolled at many places in the Vedas and Hindu literature; the Vedic Samhitas never enumerate these rishis by name, though Vedic texts such as the Brahmanas and Upanisads do so. While earlier texts do not mention Marichi as one of the seven, references can be found in the epic Mahabharata. In some parts of India, people believe these are seven stars of the Big Dipper named "Vashista", "Marichi", "Pulastya", "Pulaha", "Atri", "Angiras" and "Kratu". There is another star visible within it, known as "Arundhati".
He is considered one among the saptarishis. Marichi, like some of the other sages, followed the path of worldly duties denouncing total renunciation, he had the notable being sage Kashyapa. Dharmavrata was one of the many consorts of the sage. Once she was cursed by the sage to become a stone for no fault of her, she proved it by immolating herself. Vishnu was pleased by her devotion, she requested Vishnu to revert her curse, but Vishnu said that the curse could not be reverted, but she would continue to be regarded as Devashila, which would be considered sacred in every Hindu house. Before the creation started, the Hindu god of creation, needed a few people who can be held responsible for the creation of the remaining Universe. Therefore, he is believed to have created ten Prajapatis from nine from his body. Marichi is one of the manasputras of Brahma; the ten Prajapatis are as follows: Marichi Atri Angirasa Pulaha Pulasthya Krathu Vasishta Prachethasa Bhrigu Narada The life of Marichi is known more by the account of his descendants, notably by the works of sage Kashyapa.
Marichi is married to Kala and gave birth to Kashyapa. He is believed to be formed out of the sustained energy of the Hindu god Vishnu, he is believed to have officiated the penance of Brahma at Pushkar, found in modern-day Rajasthan. He is believed to have visited Bhishma during Mahabharatha, when he was lying on the arrow bed. Marichi is quoted as the adviser of young Dhruva to pursue austerities, his name is featured in multiple Hindu scriptures like the Vedas. Krishna in the Bhagavad-Gita says, "Of the Ādityas I am Vishnu, of lights I am the radiant sun, of the Maruts I am Marici, among the stars I am the moon." In Jain scriptures, Marichi was the son of Bharata Chakravartin who after many births was born as 24th Tirthankara of Jainism, Mahavira. In his life as Marichi, he became a Jain monk following Rishabhanatha, first tirthankara, but was unable to follow the hard rules of Digambara penance. So he took a robe, pedals and an umberalla and founded his own religion taking Kapila as his first disciple.
Mahavira Dundas, The Jains, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X
The Saptarishi are the seven rishis in ancient India, who are extolled at many places in the Vedas and Jivan literature. The Vedic Samhitas never enumerate these rishis by name, though Vedic texts such as the Brahmanas and Upanisads do so, they are regarded in the Vedas as the patriarchs of the Vedic religion. The earliest list of the Seven Rishis is given by Jaiminiya Brahmana 2.218-221: Agastya, Bhardwaja, Jamadagni and Vishvamitra followed by Brihadaranyaka Upanisad 2.2.6 with a different list: Gautama and Bharadvaja and Jamadagni, Vashistha and Kashyapa and Atri, Bhrigu. The late Gopatha Brahmana 1.2.8 has Vashistha, Jamadagni, Bharadvaja, Agastya and Kashyapa. In post-Vedic texts, different lists appear. Other representations are Shiva as the Destroyer and Vishnu as the Preserver. Since these seven rishis were among the primary seven rishis, who were considered to be the ancestors of the Gotras of Brahmins, the birth of these rishis was mythicized. In ancient Indian astronomy, the constellation of the Big Dipper is called saptarishi, with the seven stars representing seven rishis, namely "Vashistha", "Marichi", "Pulastya", "Pulaha", "Atri", "Angiras" and "Kratu".
There is another star visible within it, known as "Arundhati". Arundhati is the wife of Vashistha. Vashishtha and Arundhati together form the Mizar double; as per legend, the seven Rishis in the next Manvantara will be Diptimat, Parashurama, Drauni or Ashwatthama and Rishyasringa. Saptarishis are the hierarchy working under the guidance of the highest creative intelligence, Paramatma; the present batch of the Saptarishis are Kashyapa, Vasistha, Gautama Maharishi and Bharadvaja. They bring down to the earth the required knowledge and energies to strengthen the processes of transition, they are the most evolved'light beings' in the creation and the guardians of the divine laws. In post-Vedic religion, Manvantara is the astronomical time within a Kalpa, a "day of Brahma", like the present Śveta Vārāha Kalpa, where again 14 Manvantaras add up to create one Kalpa; each Manvantara is ruled by a specific Manu. Apart from the omnipotent supreme almighty-Vishnu & next in line to brahma's place-Vayu. On, Vayu ascends the throne of Brahma and the process of creation thus begins again after the mahapralaya and their sons are born anew in each new Manvantara according to the Vishnu Purana.
The names of the current Saptarshis are: Kashyapa, Vasistha, Gautama Maharishi and Bharadvaja. The Saptarishis keep changing for every Yuga; as per Hindu Shastras, there are four yugas: Krita Yuga / Sat Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga and Kali Yuga. We are at present in the Kali Yuga. Over all, 4,320,000 years termed as 1 Chaturyuga. 1000 Chaturyugas make the day of 12 hours for Brahma and during another 12 hours, Brahma takes rest and there is no creation during this period. Thus 1 day for Brahma constitutes 1000 Chaturyugas, thus 1 year constitutes 360 x 4,320,000,000 = 1,555,200,000,000 days. The valid avatar's clan will be named after Ashvamedh. At the end of every four ages there is a disappearance of the Vedas and it is the province of the seven Rishis to come down upon earth from heaven to give them currency again. 1. The Shatapatha Brahmana and Brihadaranyaka Upanishad acknowledge the names of seven rishis as: Atri Bharadvaja Gautama Maharishi Jamadagni Kashyapa Vasistha Vishwamitra2. Krishna Yajurveda in the Sandhya-Vandana Mantras has it as: Angiras Atri Bhrigu Gautama Maharishi Kashyapa Kutsa Vasistha3.
Mahabharata gives the Seven Rishis' names: Marichi Atri Pulaha Pulastya Kratu Vasistha Kashyapaetc. 4. Brihat Samhita gives the Seven Rishis' names as: Marichi Vasistha Angiras Atri Pulastya Pulaha Kratu In Jainism it is stated that, "Once at Mathura situated in Uttar Pradesh Seven Riddhidhari Digamber saints having'Aakaashgamini Vidhya' came during the rainy season for chaturmaas whose names were 1.) Surmanyu, 2.) Shrimanyu, 3.) Shrinichay, 4.) Sarvasundar, 5.) Jayvaan, 6.) Vinaylaala and 7.) Jaymitra. They all were sons of King Shri Nandan of queen Dharini. Shri Nandan king took diksha becoming shishya of Omniscient Pritinkar Muniraaj and attained salvation; because of great tapcharan of these seven digamber munis the'Mahamaari' disease stopped its evil effect and they all gained the name as'Saptrishi'. Many idols of these seven munis were made after that event by King Shatrughna in all four directions of the city." Yogini wife of Jogi Nachiketa Dhruva
Angiras is a Vedic rishi of Hinduism. He is described in the Rigveda as a teacher of divine knowledge, a mediator between men and gods, as well as stated in other hymns to be the first of Agni-devas. In some texts, he is considered to be one of the seven great sages or saptarishis, but in others he is mentioned but not counted in the list of seven great sages. In some manuscripts of Atharvaveda, the text is attributed to "Atharvangirasah", a compound of sage Atharvan and Angiras; the student family of Angiras are called "Angirasa", they are credited to be the authors of some hymns in the first, fifth, eighth and tenth book of the Rigveda. Angiras is common name, the numerous mentions in ancient and medieval Indian texts may reflect different people with the same name. In the Hindu Epics and Puranas, his legends and mythologies are inconsistent. Many hymns of the Rigveda credit his students as their authors. For example: Hymns 1.101 through 1.115 dedicated to Agni, Ribhus, Ushas and Surya were authored by Kutsa Angirasa.
Hymn 2.1 dedicated to Agni was authored by Angirasa Saunahotra. Hymns 5.35 and 5.36 dedicated to Indra were authored by Prabhuvasu Angirasa. Hymns 8.2 to Indra were authored by Priyamedha Angirasa. Hymns 9.97, 9.108, 9.112 to Soma were authored by Kutsa Angirasa, Uru Angirasa, Urdhvasadman Angirasa, Krtayasas Angirasa and Sisu Angirasa. Hymns in mandala 10, on Indra, Brihaspati, Surya, Horses, ritual of Royal consecration, others were authored by various Angirasas. Other than crediting authorship, the Vedic texts mention sage Angiras in various roles such as a fire priest or a singer. For example, the allegorical hymn 3.31 of the Rigveda calls him a singer: In the Vedic tradition linked to the Atharvaveda, sage Atharvan was more revered while sage Angiras was controversial. The auspicious practices and the pursuit of good for others were attributed to Atharvan, while the hostile sorcery and pursuit of harm unto others were attributed to Angiras. According to Max Muller – a professor of Sanskrit and Indology at the Oxford University, the sage Angiras in Vedic literature is different from the plural term Angirasa, these terms refer to different people.
The Angiras rishi is different from the group of sorcerers in Atharvaveda named Angirasa, according to Muller, the Vedic rishi is different from a class of divine beings who too are called Angirasa in the Vedic texts and described as "sprung from coals". In Buddhist Pali canonical texts such as Digha Nikaya, Tevijja Sutta describes a discussion between the Buddha and Vedic scholars of his time; the Buddha names ten rishis, calls them "early sages" and makers of ancient verses that have been collected and chanted in his era, among those ten rishis is Angiras. The name Angirasas is applied generically to several Puranic individuals. Further, the Vedic sage Angiras appears in medieval Hindu texts with contradictory roles as well as many different versions of his birth and biography. In some, he is described to be the son of Brahma, in others. Depending on the legend, he has two or four wives. In one myth, his wife is stated to be Surūpa and his sons are Utathya and Brahaspati. Other accounts say that he married Smriti, the daughter of Daksha and married Svadha.
Yet other Puranic accounts state, he married Shubha and they had seven daughters named after aspects of "fire" and a son named Brihaspati. In some legends, sage Brihaspati is his son. According to one legend, Angirasa turned his senses inwards and meditated on Para-Brahman, the creator of the creator, for several years; the great Tejas he got by birth had multiplied infinitely by his penance. He attained many divine qualities and riches, control over many worlds, but he did not stop his penance. Due to this penance he became one with the Para-Brahman and thus attained the state of “Brahmarshi”, he brought them to this earthly world. He is credited as being the source of great number of Vedic Hymns and mantras and believed to have introduced fire-worship along with sage Bhrigu, he is one of Saptarishis in the Puranic mythologies. Angra Mainyu Bṛhaspati Bhrigu The First Maṇḍala of the Ṛig-Veda, Frederic Pincott