Endless Wire (The Who album)
Endless Wire is the eleventh and most recent studio album by the English rock band the Who. It was their first new album of original material in 24 years following the release of It's Hard in 1982; the album was to be released in early 2005 under the working title WHO2. Endless Wire received positive reviews from music critics, it debuted at #7 on the Billboard album chart and #9 in the UK. Portions of it were featured on The Who Tour 2006-2007. Most of the songs from this album were used in the rock musical adaptation of The Boy Who Heard Music which debuted in July 2007 as part of Vassar College's Powerhouse Summer Theater workshop series. Most of what is known about the development of the album has come from Pete Townshend's website. On 21 March 2005, Pete Townshend announced the postponement of the new. On 24 December 2005, Townshend announced that manager Bill Curbishley had introduced a "great scheme" to allow the band to tour in mid-2006 in support of new material if Townshend did not have "a full thirty tracks ready to go."
On 20 March 2006, Daltrey announced that he and Townshend were making progress with the album and that Townshend had written a song about Stockholm syndrome, entitled "Black Widow's Eyes". Daltrey said that Townshend is playing some bass on the album. On 28 March 2006,Townshend announced through the diary portion of his website that a mini-opera, entitled "The Glass Household" now forms the core of the album, it is based on his novella "The Boy Who Heard Music". He announced plans to have a shortened version of the opera released prior to the release of the full album; this diary entry confirmed the line-up of the band: Pino Palladino on bass, Pete Townshend on guitars, his brother Simon Townshend on backing vocals, John "Rabbit" Bundrick on keyboards. Peter Huntington, from Rachel Fuller's band, was on drums because Zak Starkey was touring with Oasis. On 9 April 2006, Townshend announced that the shortened version of "The Glass Household" had been played to executives at Polydor, a release date has been set for June, with a tour of Europe following, the album in September.
On 3 May 2006, Pete Townshend posted on his diary page that the mastering for the new EP, titled Wire & Glass, was complete and that the tracks would soon be sent to Polydor. Townshend anticipated a mid-June release for the EP, a mid-September release for the full album, he had announced that the Who would begin rehearsing for their tour, during which time Townshend would finish recording the rest of the album with Roger Daltrey. A version of "It's Not Enough" was released online at artistdirect.com. "It's Not Enough" had tentatively been announced as the first single off the album, to be released simultaneously. On 3 October 2006, "It's Not Enough". "Tea & Theatre" was made available. On 14 October 2006, Polydor built a website for the album, it was announced from Pete Townshend's website. On the website endlesswire.co.uk, samples of the songs "We Got a Hit", "Endless Wire", "It's Not Enough", "Black Widow's Eyes", "Mike Post Theme", "Man in a Purple Dress" are available to listen to, but not to download.
As of 23 October 2006, the entire album was available to stream on music.aol.com. Endless Wire debuted at #7 on the Billboard 200, selling about 81,000 units in its first week of release. In addition to the 19 tracks listed below, three songs were either considered for inclusion on the album or recorded for the album but were left off: "Ambition"Reportedly written in 1971 for the Lifehouse concept, Townshend debuted this song on In the Attic in 2006. "Uncertain Girl"Another song, debuted by Townshend on In the Attic in 2006. It was recorded in the studio with Zak Starkey on drums, Daltrey on vocals, but Townshend expressed doubt on whether it would make it on the album or not when he first played it on In the Attic, it was not included. However, it did make an appearance in the Vassar College workshop performance of the rock musical The Boy Who Heard Music. "How Can I Help You, Sir?"On 18 December 2005, Pete Townshend posted a diary entry that chronicled the recording of this track: Here is a film I made of a working day developing a demo of a song for the next Who album called "How Can I Help You, Sir?"
I have played this in raw form on Rachel Fuller's IN THE ATTIC and last night on her Pay For View Christmas Special. That is the way. What you can hear here is the way it is beginning to evolve as a rock track. Adding Roger's voice will increase the edge. In a real sense every song I write when I sit at home with an acoustic guitar has two distinct lives; the acoustic version may seem to be softer and more intimate. But in this case — in a song about a sick person's refusal to allow anyone to help them, a lonely person refusing to allow anyone to get close — the acoustic version has more bite; the rock version seems altogether more jolly a throwaway. It will be interesting to see together; the video can be downloaded from Townshend's site. In 2015 the track was released on Townshend's solo compilation Truancy. Townshend is working the songs from this album into a full-length rock musical, a rough version of which debuted 13 July 2007 as part of Vassar College's Powerhouse Summer Theater workshop series.
The production was adapted and directed by Ethan Silverman and presented as a staged concert reading with minimal dialogue. The cast included John Hickok as Ray High, Jon Patrick Walker as Josh, Matt McGrath as Gabriel, Bree Sharp as Leila. Songs in this adaptation included: The song "Real Good Looking Boy" was issued o
"Eminence Front" is a song written and sung by Pete Townshend of The Who. It appears as the sixth track on the group's 1982 studio album, It's Hard; the single reached number 68 on the Billboard Hot 100. It is the only song from the album that the band has opted to play live after the initial post-release tours. Lead singer Roger Daltrey, vocally critical of the album, described "Eminence Front" as the only song on it that he felt was worthy of being released. In the song, Townshend sings about the delusions and drug use of the hedonistic; the lyrics describe a party. Townshend has introduced the song in live performances with: "This song is about what happens when you take too much white powder. In the released version, there is a timing flaw or a syncopation in the first chorus, where Townshend sings "behind an eminence front" at the same time Daltrey sings "it's an eminence front," with Townshend one syllable behind. A more linear-sounding remixed version appears on the 1997 re-release of It's Hard.
Additionally, the remix has Townshend's vocals panned centrally rather than hard right in the stereo field. The song produced a video, shot at a rehearsal in Landover, during their 1982 US tour, which enjoyed consistent airplay on MTV upon its release. Footage from the Who's 1982 concert at Shea Stadium was used in the video. "Eminence Front" was scheduled to be released as a single in the UK by Polydor Records in 1982. The picture sleeve, by Richard Evans, depicted a 1930s Art Deco house in Miami; the song is in the key of F minor. In a negative review of It's Hard, Robert Christgau gave faint praise to "Eminence Front" as the album's high point, sarcastically noting how the aging Townshend "discovers funk. Just in time. Bye." The song is used in the opening of the 1982 PBS NOVA episode "Tracking the Supertrains", during which the Shinkansen, TGV, various research trains are seen traveling at impressive speeds. The song was used in the Miami Vice third-season episode "Kill Shot". CBS had intended to use the song as the theme song for the London-based spin-off of its popular CSI franchise, but the show was scrapped.
In the first episode of HBO's Entourage, the song plays while the characters drive through during the red carpet scene. The song appears in the Local on the 8s forecast music, January 2010 playlist on the Weather Channel; the song is used in commercials for The Americans. This song was used in the second-season episode "Prisoner's Dilemma," of the TV series Person of Interest, when John was released from FBI custody; the song was used in GMC commercials starting in 2015, most notably for the introduction of the 2017 Acadia. The instrumental intro of the song was used as news music package for WVTV "Newswatch 18" of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the 1980s; the instrumental intro of the song is used to close out Michael Felger's and Tony Massarotti's radio show on Boston sports station WBZ-FM. It's used as theme music for the Vicki McKenna show on Milwaukee talk radio station WISN1130; the Oakland Athletics, Los Angeles Dodgers, New York Mets and Dallas Mavericks have used the introduction to the song as background music for player lineup introductions.
However, the Dallas Mavericks use a modified version of the song's instrumental intro. UFC fighter Stephan Bonnar is a Who uses "Eminence Front" as his entrance music. Another UFC fighter, Nate Marquardt uses this song as an entrance song before his fights; the song was the WWF intro song in the 1980s. The song was used in the trailer for the 2000 experimental film Time Code. In the movie Law Abiding Citizen, character Clyde Shelton enjoys a steak dinner in prison while listening to the song on iPod speakers. Oddly, the DVD's subtitle track lists the song as "" when the song is first heard in that prison cell scene, upon returning to that scene after a cutaway the subtitle track refers to the same song, still playing, as ""; the song plays in the movie version of Entourage as Vince and his friends walk the red carpet of the Golden Globes after being nominated for his movie Hyde. The song plays twice during the 2016 film The Infiltrator. Once nearing the end of the movie and again during its closing credits.
The song is played on the radio station K-DST in the video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas and was used for one of the game's trailers. It is available for download in the music video game series, Rock Band, appeared in Sleeping Dogs. Eminence Front lyrics
The Who by Numbers
The Who by Numbers is the seventh studio album by English rock band the Who, released on 3 October 1975 in the United Kingdom through Polydor Records, on 25 October 1975 in the United States by MCA Records. It was named the tenth-best album of the year in The Village Voice Jop critics poll. Pete Townshend has claimed that the band recorded every song he had written for The Who by Numbers due to a writer's block that he was experiencing at the time; the songs on the album were, for the most part, more introspective and personal than many other songs that the band had released. Townshend had his 30th birthday in May 1975 and was struggling with the idea of being too old to play rock and roll and that the band was losing its relevance, he began to feel disenchanted with a feeling that he carried into his songs. He said of the songs on the album: were written with me stoned out of my brain in my living room, crying my eyes out... detached from my own work and from the whole project... I felt empty.
After concluding the album tour for Quadrophenia in June 1974, the Who took an extended hiatus and did not perform live for more than a year. John Entwistle kept. In addition, the band spent this time filming a movie based on the Tommy rock opera; this was their first album on Polydor. The sessions for The Who by Numbers began in April 1975 and lasted through early June; the album was released in October and the band began touring it, which spanned some 70 concerts before concluding in the fall of 1976. For the album's recording, the band recruited producer Glyn Johns; the band had worked with Johns during the 1971 album Who's Next. Compared to previous Who albums, The Who By Numbers took an unusually long time to complete and was marred by numerous breaks and interruptions due to the band members' growing boredom and lack of interest. Only four of the ten songs on The Who By Numbers were performed live, two of which became concert staples. Townshend said of the album's recording sessions: I felt responsible because the Who recording schedule had, as usual, dragged on and on, sweeping all individuals and their needs aside.
Glyn worked harder on The Who by Numbers than I've seen him. He had to, because the group was so useless. We played cricket between went to the pub. I had never done that before. I felt detached from the whole record. Recording the album seemed to take me nowhere. Roger was angry with the world at the time. Keith seemed as impetuous as on the wagon one minute, off the next. John was gathering strength throughout the whole period; the album cover was drawn by John Entwistle. In 1996, when asked about the cover, he replied: "The first release is The Who By Numbers cover, which I never got paid for, so now I'm going to get paid. We were taking it in turns to do the covers, it was Pete's turn before me and we did the Quadrophenia cover, which cost about the same as a small house back about £16,000. My cover cost £32." The Who by Numbers peaked at the number 7 on the UK Albums Chart and number 8 on the Billboard 200 album chart in the US. "Squeeze Box" was a Top 20 hit in both Britain and America, although the US follow-up, "Slip Kid," failed to chart.
The Rolling Stone review of The Who by Numbers stated: "They may have made their greatest album in the face of. But only time will tell."In an interview from Thirty Years of Maximum R&B, Townshend declared "Dreaming from the Waist" and "Sister Disco" as his least favorite songs to play on stage. In contrast, Entwistle declared in the same series of interviews that "Dreaming from the Waist" was one of his favorite songs to perform live. Daltrey referred to the album as his favourite in his memoir; the 1996 remaster was remixed by Jon Astley. On the remaster, the end of "They Are All in Love" is cross-faded with "Blue and Grey." The original album did not feature this cross-fade. On 24 December 2011 the album was reissued in Japan using the original mix; the live bonus tracks from the previous edition were included on the reissue. The packaging replicated the original vinyl release of the album. All songs written except where noted. AlbumSingles The WhoRoger Daltrey – lead vocals Pete Townshend – guitar, backing vocals, lead vocals on "However Much I Booze" and "Blue, Red And Grey" John Entwistle – bass, French Horn,Trumpet, backing vocals, 2nd lead vocal on "Success Story", album cover art Keith Moon – drumsAdditional musiciansNicky Hopkins – pianoProductionGlyn Johns – producer, mixing Jon Astley – remixing Chris Charlesworth – executive producer Bill Curbishley – executive producer Richard Evans – design Doug Sax - mastering Bob Ludwig – remastering Robert Rosenberg – executive producer John Swenson – liner notes Chris Walter – photography Guitar tablature
John Alec Entwistle was an English bass guitarist, singer and film and music producer. In a music career that spanned more than 40 years, Entwistle was best known as the original bass guitarist for the English rock band The Who, he was the only member of the band to have formal musical training. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Who in 1990. Entwistle's instrumental approach used pentatonic lead lines, a then-unusual treble-rich sound created by roundwound RotoSound steel bass strings, he was nicknamed "The Ox" and "Thunderfingers". In 2011, he was voted as the greatest bass guitarist of all time in a Rolling Stone magazine reader's poll, in its special "100 Greatest Bass Players" issue in 2017, Bass Player magazine named Entwistle at number seven. John Alec Entwistle was born on 9 October 1944 in a suburb of London, he was an only child. His father, played the trumpet and his mother, played the piano, his parents' marriage failed soon after he was born, he was raised by his mother at his grandparents' house in South Acton.
Divorce was uncommon in the 1940s, this contributed to Entwistle becoming reserved and socialising little. His musical career began aged seven, he did not enjoy the experience and after joining Acton County Grammar School aged 11, switched to the trumpet, moving to the French horn when he joined the Middlesex Schools Symphony Orchestra. He met Pete Townshend in the second year of school, the two formed a trad jazz band, the Confederates; the group only played one gig together, before they decided that rock'n' roll was a more attractive prospect. Entwistle, in particular, was having difficulty hearing his trumpet with rock bands, decided to switch to playing guitar, but due to his large fingers, his fondness for the low guitar tones of Duane Eddy, he decided to take up the bass guitar instead, he made his own instrument at home, soon attracted the attention of Roger Daltrey, the year above Entwistle at Acton County, but had since left to work in sheet metal. Daltrey was aware of Entwistle from school, asked him to join as a bass guitarist for his band, the Detours.
After joining the Detours, Entwistle played a major role in encouraging Pete Townshend's budding talent on the guitar, insisting that Townshend be admitted into the band as well. Roger Daltrey fired all the members of his band with the exception of Entwistle and the drummer, Doug Sandom, a semi-pro player, several years older than the others. Roger Daltrey relinquished the role of guitarist to Pete Townshend in 1963, instead becoming frontman and lead singer; the band considered several changes of name settling on the name The Who while Entwistle was still working as a tax clerk. When the band decided that the blond Roger Daltrey needed to stand out more from the others, Entwistle dyed his light brown hair black, it remained so until the early 1980s. Around 1963, Entwistle played in a London band called the Initials for a short while. In 1967, Entwistle married his childhood sweetheart Alison Wise and bought a large semi-detached home in Stanmore Middlesex filling it with all sorts of extraordinary artefacts, ranging from suits of armour to a tarantula spider.
His eccentricity and taste for the bizarre was to remain with him throughout his life, when he moved out of the city in 1978, to Stow-on-the-Wold in Gloucestershire, his 17-bedroom mansion, resembled a museum. It housed one of the largest guitar collections belonging to any rock musician. Entwistle picked up two nicknames during his career as a musician, he was nicknamed "The Ox" because of his strong constitution and seeming ability to "Eat, drink or do more than the rest of them." He was later nicknamed "Thunderfingers". Bill Wyman, bass guitarist for the Rolling Stones, described him as "the quietest man in private but the loudest man on stage". Entwistle was one of the first to make use of Marshall stacks in an attempt to hear himself over the noise of his band members, who famously leapt and moved about on the stage, with Pete Townshend and Keith Moon smashing their instruments on numerous occasions. Townshend remarked that Entwistle started using Marshall amplification to hear himself over drummer Keith Moon's rapid-fire drumming style, Townshend himself had to use them just to be heard over Entwistle.
They both continued expanding and experimenting with their rigs, until they were both using twin stacks with new experimental prototype 200 watt amps, at a time when most bands used 50–100 watt amplifiers with single cabinets. All of this gained the Who a reputation for being "the loudest band on the planet", a point well proven when they famously reached 126 decibels at a 1976 concert in London, listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the loudest rock concert in history; the band had a strong influence at the time on their contemporaries' choice of equipment, with Cream and the Jimi Hendrix Experience both following suit. Although they pioneered and directly contributed to the development of the "classic" Marshall sound, they only used Marshall equipment for a couple of years. Entwistle switched to using a Sound City rig, with Pete Townshend following suit as well. Townshend points out that Jimi
Who Are You
Who Are You is the eighth studio album by English rock band the Who, released on 18 August 1978 by Polydor Records in the United Kingdom and MCA Records in the United States. The album received mixed reviews from critics, though it was a commercial success, peaking at number 2 on the US charts and number 6 on the UK charts. Who Are You was the Who's last album to feature Keith Moon as their drummer; the paradoxical nature of the text "Not To Be Taken Away", stenciled on Moon's chair on the album cover was noted by some critics. Moon's death brought concerns, he was replaced by Kenney Jones. Who Are You was recorded at the time when punk rock became popular. However, this was not reflected in the album's music, which incorporates elements of progressive rock and, according to biographer Tony Fletcher, it was produced in such a way as to appeal to commercial rock radio at the time; the album showcased some of Townshend's most complicated arrangements, with multiple layers of synthesizer and strings.
Many of the songs revisited themes from Townshend's long-contemplated Lifehouse project, featuring lyrics about songwriting and music as a metaphor for life, as indicated by titles like "Guitar and Pen", "New Song", "Music Must Change", "Sister Disco". The latter two, along with "Who Are You" appeared on Lifehouse Chronicles, Townshend's actualization of the project. Several of the song's lyrics reflect Townshend's uncertainty about the Who's continued relevance in the wake of punk rock, his dissatisfaction with the music industry. There was a three-year hiatus between Who Are You and the Who's The Who by Numbers; the band was drifting apart during this period, as band members were working on various solo projects, Moon was driving deeper into drug and alcohol abuse. The initial sessions at Ramport Studios, produced by Glyn Johns and Jon Astley, were lackadaisical. Astley felt that he and Johns pushed Moon too hard to play a simpler style, while Johns believed that Moon had "lost confidence in his ability" and would deliberately go out of his way to resist his suggestions.
Moon's health was an object of concern, as his drumming skills had noticeably deteriorated and his performances for most of the sessions were substandard. He was unable to play in 6/8 time on the track "Music Must Change", so drums were removed from the track, replaced with the sound of footsteps and a few cymbal crashes. Bassist John Entwistle remarked that he "couldn't think of anything to play." On another occasion, Astley recalled, "I was doing a drum track, he hadn't learned the song. I had to stand up and conduct, he said,'Can you give me a cue when you get to the middle part?' He hadn't done his homework." Entwistle described him as "really out of condition", "disgusted with himself" as a result. The recording was further delayed when lead singer Roger Daltrey underwent throat surgery, during a lengthy Christmas break, Townshend sliced his hand in a window during an argument with his parents. Former Zombies and Argent member Rod Argent was called in to replace session keyboardist John "Rabbit" Bundrick after Bundrick suffered a broken arm falling out of a taxi at the studio door.
When the sessions resumed in March, they were moved to RAK Studios, which caused further delays due to the equipment malfunctioning, including the wiping of a backing track. Astley stated that the RAK equipment made the existing material sound different when played back, necessitating further delays as he attempted to fix the audio problems. In one incident, Daltrey punched Johns in the face due to an argument over a rough mix, rendering him unconscious; the argument was fueled by Ted Astley adding a string arrangement to "Had Enough", which Daltrey derided as "slushy". After a long and frustrating day at work, Townshend planned to fire Moon from the band unless he cleaned up his act; the plan drove Moon to attempt to work more enthusiastically. Due to a prior commitment to produce the Joan Armatrading album To the Limit, Johns had to leave in April, with Astley remaining as sole producer. Under Astley's command, the sessions returned to Ramport, with all of the drums except for "Who Are You" recorded in the last two weeks of production.
Who Are You was released on 18 August 1978. Moon died on 7 September 1978, just under a month after the album's release. Photographer Terry O'Neil had insisted Moon sit with the back of the chair facing the camera so as to hide his distended stomach, a result of his alcoholism. "Sister Disco" seemed to mourn the death of disco, although it could be construed to be a criticism of it. It featured complicated synthesiser tracks that were the result of hours Townshend spent programming an ARP 2600 synthesiser; the song was never performed with Moon. However, it was performed when the Who toured with Kenney Jones as drummer, became a live favourite, it was included on the band's 2002 Ultimate Collection album. It was revived for their fall 2008 tour; the song "Empty Glass" appeared as a bonus track on reissues of the album. The lyrics in this version were notable for having more suicidal undertones than those in the final version, which appeared on Pete Townshend's 1980 solo album Empty Glass. Most notably, the line, "Killing each other we jump off the ledge" was changed to "Killing each other by driving a wedge" for the latest version.
The album was a commercial success, going 2× platinum in the US and Canada, gold in
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh