Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
Volos is a coastal port city in Thessaly situated midway on the Greek mainland, about 330 kilometres north of Athens and 220 kilometres south of Thessaloniki. It is the capital of the Magnesia regional unit. Volos is the only outlet to the sea from the country's largest agricultural region. With a population of 144,449, it is an important industrial centre, while its port provides a bridge between Europe and Asia. Volos is the newest of the Greek port cities, with a large proportion of modern buildings erected following the catastrophic earthquakes of 1955, it includes the municipal units of Volos, Nea Ionia and Iolkos, as well as smaller suburban communities. The economy of the city is based on manufacturing, trade and tourism. Home to the University of Thessaly, the city offers facilities for conferences and major sporting and scientific events. Volos participated in the 2004 Olympic Games, the city has since played host to other athletic events, such as the European Athletic Championships. Volos hosted the 7th International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics from 27 July to 5 August 2013.
Built at the innermost point of the Pagasetic Gulf and at the foot of Mount Pilio. The city spreads in the plain on the foothills of Mount Pelion, bordering the town of Agria to the east and Nea Anchialos to the south west. Volos' municipality includes both towns, along with many nearby villages, including Makrinitsa and Portaria. Volos is a major commercial port of mainland Greece in the Aegean sea, with connection by ferry and hydrofoil to the nearby Sporades Islands, which include Skiathos and Alonissos. There are connections to Limnos, Lesvos and Skyros. Modern Volos is built on the area of the ancient cities of Demetrias and Iolcos. Demetrias was established by King of Macedon. Iolkos or Iolcus, was the homeland of mythological hero Jason, who boarded the ship Argo accompanied by the Argonauts and sailed in quest of the Golden Fleece to Colchis. To the west of Volos lie the Neolithic settlements of Dimini, with a ruined acropolis and two beehive tombs dating to between 4000–1200 BC, with the remains of the oldest acropolis in Greece, the foundations of a palace and mansions, among its most characteristic examples of Neolithic civilisation.
During the course of the 8th century, mainland Greece was subjected to numerous Bulgarian raids. At the end of the century, a large scale Bulgarian military expedition headed by the chieftain Akamir was launched from Belasica; the Bulgarians plundered Thessalia, from their encampment, located between modern day Volos and Velestino. The Byzantines called those Bulgarians Vielesti. Volos, Velestino and many other placenames in Magnesia originate from that period and are of Slavic origin; the first reference to Golos comes from a Byzantine document dated to 1333, while Volos appears to be a corruption of the term. Golos originated from the Slavic word gološ'seat of administration', or from gol "bald, naked", as the area has sparse vegetation. Two alternative theories allude to a Greek origin through the words βολή, as fishermen threw their nets into the sea from that area, βώλος. In the 14 century Volos came under the control of Serbia, subsequent conquest by the Republic of Venice and the Catalans led to a large drop in the local population.
Volos was held by the Ottoman Empire from 1393–1397 and the in 1403, conquered in 1423. The Ottoman name of the city was قلز "Quluz", it was a center of a kaza in the Sanjak of Tirhala, part of Jannina Vilayet. At the beginning of the Greek Revolution, the provisional government of Greece claimed Volos as part of Greek national territory, but the Treaty of Constantinople, which established a Greek independent state, set its northern boundary between Arta and Volos. However, Volos was incorporated into the Greek Kingdom in 1881 with the rest of Thessaly. Volos is a new city, beginning its strongest growth in the mid-19th century; the locality of its castle was known as Golos by Ottomans and locals, while Ano Volos was known as Gkolos.. After its incorporation into the Greek Kingdom from the Ottoman Empire in 1881, the town had a population of only 4,900, but grew in the next four decades as merchants, businessmen and sailors gravitated toward it from the surrounding area. In the 1920s a large influx of refugees to the settlement took place from Ionia, but from Pontus and Eastern Thrace.
In 1882, Andreas Syngros established the Privileged Bank of Epirus and Thessaly, which the National Bank of Greece acquired in 1899 after its founder's death. Volos was occupied during the Greco Turkish War; the city had a vibrant Jewish community in the early 20th century: from ca. 500 in 1896, it rose to ca. 2,000 in 1930, before falling drastically to 882 members in 1940, because of emigration to the great cities of Thessaloniki and Athens or abroad. During the Axis occupation of Greece, the prompt actions of the local chief rabbi, Moshe Pessach, the Greek authorities, saved about 700 of the local Jewish community from deportation to the Nazi death camps. Volos is well known for its assortment of mezedes and a clear, alcoholic beverage known as tsipouro. A street in a sister city, Rostov-on-Don, bears the name Улица Греческого Города Волос, weaving through a mix of early 20th-century buildings with characteristic inner yards, tiered balconies and open
Ano Liosia Olympic Hall
Ano Liosia Olympic Hall was used to host to judo and wrestling at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece. The arena seats up to 9,300; the hall is situated in Ano Liosia, a suburb northwest of central Athens. It can be used as a multi-purpose arena. After the Olympics, the venue became the site of various television productions, including the Greek version of the reality show So You Think You Can Dance, it is the future home of the Hellenic Academy of Hellenic Digital Archive. From May 19 to June 6, 2010, the arena hosted the Greek national Ice Hockey Championships for both men and women. Ano Liossia Arena at stadia.gr
A velodrome is an arena for track cycling. Modern velodromes feature steeply banked oval tracks, consisting of two 180-degree circular bends connected by two straights; the straights transition to the circular turn through a moderate easement curve. The first velodromes were constructed during the mid-late 19th century; some were purpose-built just for cycling, others were built as part of facilities for other sports. Reflecting the then-lack of international standards, sizes varied and not all were built as ovals: for example, the oldest velodrome in the world, at Preston Park, Brighton, is 579 m long and features four straights linked by banked curves, while the 536 m Portsmouth velodrome, in Portsmouth, has a single straight linked by one long curve. Early surfaces included cinders or shale, though concrete and tarmac became more common. Indoor velodromes were common in the late 19th and early 20th century. For example, the Vélodrome d'hiver was built in Paris in 1909 and featured a 250 m indoor track with a wooden surface.
International competitions such as the Olympic Games led to more standardisation: two-straight oval tracks became the norm, lap lengths reduced. The Vélodrome de Vincennes, used for the 1896 Games was 500 m per lap, while Antwerp's Vélodrome d'Anvers Zuremborg, used in 1920, Helsinki Velodrome, used in 1952, were both 400 m. By the 1960s, tracks of 333.33 m length were used for international competitions. Since 1990, such events are held on velodromes with 250 m laps. London's 2012 Olympic velodrome and a new velodrome in Turkmenistan's capital city Ashgabat both have a 250 m track and a 6,000-seat spectator capacity. Banking in the turns, called superelevation, allows riders to keep their bikes perpendicular to the surface while riding at speed; when travelling through the turns at racing speed, which may exceed 85 km/h, the banking attempts to match the natural lean of a bicycle moving through that curve. At the ideal speed, the net force of the centrifugal force and gravity is angled down through the bicycle, perpendicular to the riding surface.
Riders are not always travelling at a specific radius. Most events have riders all over the track. Team races have some riders at speed and others riding more slowly. In match sprints riders may come to a stop by performing a track stand in which they balance the bicycle on the sloped surface while keeping their feet locked into the pedals. For these reasons, the banking tends to be 10 to 15 degrees less; the straights are banked 10 to 15 degrees more than physics would predict. These compromises make the track ridable at a range of speeds. From the straight, the curve of the track increases into the circular turn; this section of decreasing radius is called the easement transition. It allows bicycles to follow the track around the corner at a constant radial position, thus riders can concentrate on tactics rather than steering. Bicycles for velodromes have no brakes, they employ a single fixed rear gear, or cog. This helps maximise speed, reduces weight, avoids sudden braking while allowing the rider to slow by pushing back against the pedals.
Modern velodromes are constructed by specialised designers. The Schuermann architects in Germany have built more than 125 tracks worldwide. Most of Schuermann's outdoor tracks are made of wood trusswork with a surface of strips of the rare rain-forest wood Afzelia. Indoor velodromes are built with less expensive pine surfaces; the track is measured along a line 20 cm up from the bottom. Olympic and World Championship velodromes must measure 250 m. Other events on the UCI International Calendar may be held in velodromes that measure between 133 m and 500 m, with a length such that a whole or half number of laps give a distance of 1 km; the velodrome at Calshot, Hampshire, UK is only 142 m and has steep banking because it was built to fit inside an aircraft hangar. Forest City Velodrome in London, Canada, is the world's shortest at 138 m. Built to fit a hockey arena, it too has steep banking; the smaller the track, the steeper the banking. A 250 m track banks around 45°, while a 333.33 m track banks around 32°.
Some older velodromes were built to imperial standards. The Dick Lane Velodrome in East Point, Georgia USA, is 321.9 m. Velodrome tracks can be surfaced with different materials, including timber and concrete. Shorter and Olympic quality tracks tend to be timber or synthetics. Important cycling events are held on tracks which have lines laid out in a specified arrangement; some other tracks follow these protocols, but others have a different arrangement of lines to suit their facility and to assist riders in holding a straight line and in avoiding drifting onto the flatter section below the bankings where they risk their tyres sliding out. Between the infield and the actual track is the blue band, 10% of the surface; the blue band is not technically a part of the track.
Athens Olympic Sports Complex
The Athens Olympic Park, is a sport facilities complex located at Marousi, northeast Athens, Greece. The complex consists of five major venues as well as other supplementary sport facilities; the Olympic Athletic Center of Athens has hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1991, the World Championship in Athletics in 1997 as well as other important athletic and cultural events. The most significant event the Athens Olympic Sports Complex has hosted, was the Olympic Games. OACA was the main venue for the Athens Olympic Games in 2004; the complex was revamped for the games under a design produced by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava. The stadium, built in 1982 and extensively refurbished for the games in 2004, including the addition of a roof, hosted the athletics events and the soccer final, as well as the Opening Ceremony on August 13, 2004 and the Closing Ceremony on August 29, 2004, it is used as the home ground of AEK Athens F. C. one of the biggest football clubs in Greece. The Nikos Galis Olympic Indoor Hall was completed in 1995, was the largest indoor venue in use for sporting events at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece.
It is part of the Athens Olympic Sports Complex, in the suburb of Maroussi. The arena was used for artistic gymnastics and trampolining and hosted the finals of the basketball matches at the games. On May 18 and 20, 2006, the Olympic Indoor Hall hosted the 51st Eurovision Song Contest, held in Athens after Greece's victory at the Song Contest in 2005; the Athens Olympic Sports Complex can be reached by Metro, by suburban train, or by direct bus lines [A7, 602, 550. While it was reported in 2008 that all of the Olympic venues utilized for the 2004 games, including certain facilities in the Sports Complex such as the velodrome and tennis center, have fallen into varying states of dereliction or disrepair, all of the facilities in the Athens Olympic Sports Complex are still in use today; the table below illustrates how the Athens Olympic Sports Complex facilities are used today: 2004 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. Pp. 201, 207, 227, 231, 242, 273, 303, 324, 329, 346, 409. Media related to Athens Olympic Sports Complex at Wikimedia Commons Official site Olympic Indoor hall info and pictures at stadia.gr
The Pankritio Stadium is a multi-purpose sports stadium located in Heraklion on the island of Crete. It was completed on 31 December 2003, opened on August 11, 2004; as one of the most modern sports venues in Greece at the time, it was used as one of the football venues to host matches of the 2004 Summer Olympics Football tournament. It has a capacity of 26,240 seats, is the home ground of Heraklion football club Ergotelis, on occasion, the Greece national football team; the Pankritio Stadium is located at the Lido district to the west of the city center. It has been built about 50 meters from the island coast, is neighbored by the Lido Indoor Hall and the city's outdoor pool venue, of which the whole district is named after; the stadium broke ground sometime during the late 80s, however construction work was never completed on time, was indefinitely postponed. Once Greece won the bid to host the 2004 Summer Olympics, construction of the stadium was picked up once again in 2001, it was completed on 31 December 2003.
The total construction cost was estimated at €50,000,000. The new stadium was opened on 11 August 2004, to host an international friendly game between Greece and Switzerland. Due to its size and ranking, the Pankritio was selected as one of the football venues of the 2004 Summer Olympics Football Tournament, hosting in total 10 matches. After the tournament, the stadium was rented out, has since been used as a training and home ground of the city's football club Ergotelis, also by the Greek national football team. In 2006, the Pankritio hosted the 2005–06 Greek Cup Final, the first to be played in Heraklion since 1931. Although considered a football stadium, the Pankritio, has been used to host major athletics events, such as the 2004 Tsiklitiria annual IAAF World Challenge meeting and the 2015 European Team Championships First League; the stadium has been used for a number of music concerts, most notably hosting Deep Purple and Vasilis Papakonstantinou on May 6, 2011. The Pankritio Stadium sports complex features in total two football grounds built to international standards, an 8-lane track, an auxiliary 6-lane track, an indoor gym and swimming pool, multi-purpose halls for boxing, fencing, weightlifting and tae kwon do, a rowing simulator and a physiotherapy room with sauna and hot tub.
Additionally, the stadium features seminar meeting rooms, a dining room, a showroom featuring exhibits from the 2004 Summer Olympics and 2011 Special Olympics. The complex is neighbored by the Lido Indoor Hall; the stadium has been used as the home ground of Football League football team Ergotelis, since its opening in 2004, as their traditional home turf Nikos Kazantzakis Stadium was declared unfit for use in official matches at any level of the Greek football league system since 2004. Between 2006 and 2009, the stadium was used by Ergotelis' rival OFI, before they returned to their original home ground, Theodoros Vardinogiannis Stadium. On occasion, the Pankritio has hosted home games of the Greek national football team, notably attracting large numbers of spectators from all over the island. Τhe stadium attendance record and first sold-out event was set on 20 February 2005, in a Superleague match between Ergotelis and reigning champions Olympiacos with 27,950 tickets being sold. The result was a 2−1 victory for the home team.
Pankritio Stadium hosted six games of the men's football tournament at the 2004 Summer Olympics, four games of the women's Olympic Football tournament. Olympicproperties.gr profile Information and photos of Pankritio Stadium
Hellinikon Fencing Hall
The Hellinikon Fencing Hall is a multi-purpose indoor sporting arena, located adjacent to the Hellinikon Olympic Arena, in Hellinikon, Greece. The venue is part of the Hellinikon Events Hall of the Hellinikon Olympic Complex; the facility was opened on July 30, 2004. It hosted the fencing matches at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Greece; the facility seated 3,800 for the preliminary matches, 5,000 for the final matches. During the 2004 Summer Paralympic Games, the Fencing Hall was the venue for wheelchair fencing. 2004 Summer Olympic official report. Volume 2. P. 318. Olympicproperties.gr profile &