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Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque. There are no symptoms; when severe, it can result in coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, or kidney problems, depending on which arteries are affected. Symptoms, if they occur do not begin until middle age; the exact cause is not known. Risk factors include abnormal cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, smoking, family history, an unhealthy diet. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol and other substances found in the blood; the narrowing of arteries limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to parts of the body. Diagnosis is based upon a physical exam, electrocardiogram, exercise stress test, among others. Prevention is by eating a healthy diet, not smoking, maintaining a normal weight. Treatment of established disease may include medications to lower cholesterol such as statins, blood pressure medication, or medications that decrease clotting, such as aspirin. A number of procedures may be carried out such as percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft, or carotid endarterectomy.

Atherosclerosis starts when a person is young and worsens with age. All people are affected to some degree by the age of 65, it is the number one cause of disability in the developed world. Though it was first described in 1575, there is evidence that the condition occurred in people more than 5,000 years ago; the following terms are similar, yet distinct, in both spelling and meaning, can be confused: arteriosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis is a general term describing any hardening of medium or large arteries; the term atherogenic is used for processes that cause formation of atheroma. Atherosclerosis is asymptomatic for decades because the arteries enlarge at all plaque locations, thus there is no effect on blood flow. Most plaque ruptures do not produce symptoms until enough narrowing or closure of an artery, due to clots, occurs. Signs and symptoms only occur after severe narrowing or closure impedes blood flow to different organs enough to induce symptoms. Most of the time, patients realize that they have the disease only when they experience other cardiovascular disorders such as stroke or heart attack.

These symptoms, still vary depending on which artery or organ is affected. Atherosclerosis begins in childhood, as a thin layer of white-yellowish streaks with the inner layers of the artery walls and progresses from there. Clinically, given enlargement of the arteries for decades, symptomatic atherosclerosis is associated with men in their 40s and women in their 50s to 60s. Sub-clinically, the disease begins to appear in childhood, is present at birth. Noticeable signs can begin developing at puberty. Though symptoms are exhibited in children, early screening of children for cardiovascular diseases could be beneficial to both the child and his/her relatives. While coronary artery disease is more prevalent in men than women, atherosclerosis of the cerebral arteries and strokes affect both sexes. Marked narrowing in the coronary arteries, which are responsible for bringing oxygenated blood to the heart, can produce symptoms such as the chest pain of angina and shortness of breath, nausea, dizziness or light-headedness, breathlessness or palpitations.

Abnormal heart rhythms called arrhythmias—the heart beating either too or too quickly—are another consequence of ischemia. Carotid arteries supply blood to the neck. Marked narrowing of the carotid arteries can present with symptoms such as a feeling of weakness, not being able to think straight, difficulty speaking, becoming dizzy and difficulty in walking or standing up straight, blurred vision, numbness of the face and legs, severe headache and losing consciousness; these symptoms are related to stroke. Stroke is caused by marked closure of arteries going to the brain. Peripheral arteries, which supply blood to the legs and pelvis experience marked narrowing due to plaque rupture and clots. Symptoms for the marked narrowing are numbness within the legs, as well as pain. Another significant location for the plaque formation is the renal arteries, which supply blood to the kidneys. Plaque occurrence and accumulation leads to decreased kidney blood flow and chronic kidney disease, like all other areas, are asymptomatic until late stages.

According to United States data for 2004, in about 66% of men and 47% of women, the first symptom of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a heart attack or sudden cardiac death. Cardiac stress testing, traditionally the most performed non-invasive testing method for blood flow limitations, in general, detects only lumen narrowing of ≈75% or greater, although some physicians claim that nuclear stress methods can detect as little as 50%. Case studies have included autopsies of U. S. soldiers killed in the Korean War. A much-cited report involved autopsies of 300 U. S. soldiers killed in Korea. Although the average age of the men was 22.1 years, 77.3 pe

Belarus in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2016

Belarus participated in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2016. The Belarusian entry for the 2016 contest in Valletta, Malta was selected through a national final organised by the Belarusian broadcaster National State Television and Radio Company of the Republic of Belarus. A national final of ten competing acts participated in a televised production where the winner was determined by a 50/50 combination of votes from jury members made up of music professionals and a public telephone vote. On 26 August 2016, Alexander Minyonok was selected to represent Belarus with the song "Musyka moikh pobed". Prior to the 2016 Contest, Belarus had participated in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest thirteen times since its first entry at the inaugural contest in 2003. Belarus has won the contest twice in 2005 with the song "My vmeste" performed by Ksenia Sitnik and again in 2007 with the song "S druz'yami performed by Alexey Zhigalkovich, they hosted the 2010 contest in Minsk. The national final took place on 26 August 2016, which saw ten competing acts participating in a televised production where the winner was determined by a 50/50 combination of both telephone vote and the votes of jury members made up of music professionals.

Alexander Minyonok was selected to represent Belarus with the song "Musyka moikh pobed". Alexander Minyonok is a young singer who represented Belarus in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2016 with his song "Musyka moikh pobed", he won the Belarusian national final on 26 August 2016, receiving 2,624 telephone vote from the viewing public calculated as eight-points, the maximum twelve-points from the jury members. Alexander, called Sasha, started singing professionally when he was eight, he is an artist of the Belarusian dance band "Sensation" and a student of the Russian Academy of Popular Music of Igor Krutoy. The young artist grew up behind the stage of the well-known Belarusian festival "Slavic Bazaar", where his mother worked. From early childhood, he followed famous artists, including Eurovision stars, took part in many competitions in Belarus. Alexander started singing solo in 2011. Since he has performed a variety of musical styles, he dances, presents TV shows and acts in films, he plays both the piano and the accordion, plans to learn how to play the drums in future.

Sasha dreams of singing with Justin Timberlake. He is a big fan of Justin Bieber and plans one day to perform in New York City's famous Madison Square Garden, he believes that apart from the vocal skills, the main thing for a true artist is his charisma and intentions to give positive energy to audience. In his spare time he loves hoverboarding, rollerblading, cycling, snowboarding in winter, of course playing football with friends. Alexander enjoys nature and watching films. In 2017, Sasha finished runner-up. "Musyka moikh pobed" is a song by Belarusian singer Alexander Minyonok. It will represent Belarus during the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2016, it is written by Kirill Ermakov and Roman Kolodko. During the opening ceremony and the running order draw which took place on 14 November 2016, Belarus was drawn to perform ninth on 20 November 2016, following Poland and preceding Ukraine. During the press conference for the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2016, held in Stockholm, the Reference Group announced several changes to the voting format for the 2016 contest.

Points had been awarded based on a combination of 50% National juries and 50% televoting, with one more set of points given out by a'Kids' Jury'. However, this year, points will be awarded based on a 50/50 combination of each country's Adult and Kids' Jury, to be announced by a spokesperson. For the first time since the inauguration of the contest the voting procedure will not include a public televote. Following these results, three expert jurors will announce their points from 1–8, 10, 12; these professional jurors are: Christer Björkman, Mads Grimstad, Jedward. Belarus in the Eurovision Song Contest 2016

Polk County, Nebraska

Polk County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 5,406, its county seat is Osceola. The county was formed in 1856, was organized in 1870, it was named for President James K. Polk. In the Nebraska license plate system, Polk County is represented by the prefix 41; the Platte River flows northeastward along the northwest boundary of Polk County. The lower portion of the county is drained by a local drainage, flowing east and east-northeastward into Butler County; the county terrain consists of rolling hills, dropping off to the river valley in the northern portion, sloped to the east-southeast in the lower portion of the county. The county terrain is devoted to agriculture. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 441 square miles, of which 438 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 5,639 people, 2,259 households, 1,570 families in the county; the population density was 5/km².

There were 2,717 housing units at an average density of 2/km². The racial makeup of the county was 98.92% White, 0.02% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.28% from other races, 0.41% from two or more races. 1.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,259 households out of which 29.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.90% were married couples living together, 4.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.50% were non-families. 27.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.97. The county population contained 25.10% under the age of 18, 6.00% from 18 to 24, 24.40% from 25 to 44, 23.10% from 45 to 64, 21.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 100.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.70 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $37,819, the median income for a family was $45,081. Males had a median income of $30,286 versus $19,595 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,934. About 4.40% of families and 5.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.20% of those under age 18 and 4.70% of those age 65 or over. Osceola Stromsburg Polk Shelby Durant Swedehome or Swede Home Polk County voters have been reliably Republican for several decades. In only one national election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Polk County, Nebraska