Herberton is a town and locality on the Atherton Tableland in Far North Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Herberton had a population of 855 people; the first European exploration of this area, part of the traditional land of the Dyirbal, was undertaken in 1875 by James Venture Mulligan. Mulligan instead found tin; the town of Herberton was established on 19 April 1880 by John Newell to exploit the tin find, mining began on 9 May. By the September of that year, Herberton had a population of 27 women. Herberton Post Office opened on 22 November 1880. In December 1881 a State School was established; the Herberton Public Library opened in 1995 with a major refurbishment in 2016. In the late 19th century the Mulligan Highway was carved through the hills from Herberton and passed through what is now Main Street, before continuing down to Port Douglas; this road was used by the coaches of Co to access Western Queensland. At its apogee, Herberton was the richest tin mining field in Australia, was home to 17 pubs, 2 local newspapers and a brewery.
Tin mining ceased in Herberton in 1985. At the 2006 census, Herberton had a population of 974. In the 2011 census, Herberton had a population of 934 people. Herberton has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 38 Broadway Street: Holy Trinity Anglican Church Grace Street: Jack & Newell General Store 61 Grace Street: Herberton School of Arts off Jacks Road: Great Northern Mine 2-4 Lillian Street: Herberton Uniting Church Myers Street: Herberton War Memorial Herberton is situated 918 m high on the Great Dividing Range south-west of Atherton. Vegetation ranges from tropical rainforest to the east, wet schlerophyl forests to the north and east and open schleorphyl forests and woodlands to the north and west. Herberton is notably drier than the area around Atherton with average rainfall for Herberton of 1,155 mm. Herberton is the most northerly location in Australia to have recorded a temperature at or below −5 °C, the only location in Tropical North Queensland to have done so; the average minimum temperature ranges from 10 °C in winter to 18 °C in summer, while maximums range from 21 to 29 °C.
Several crops are grown around Herberton, it is the location of Queensland's only tropical vineyard. Herberton is a mini salad bowl with crops including avocados, tomatoes and pumpkins. Poultry and beef industries are present. Herberton's public hospital and the private school, Mt Saint Bernard residential college, are other major employers in the town; the Herberton Mining Museum and Visitor Information Centre opened in 2005, houses mining and social history of the Herberton Mining field, archives for the local area and maintains a genealogy project recording the families of the district and their histories. A Heritage Walk for tourists that takes in some of the old buildings and historical features of the town is a popular attraction. Historic Village Herberton is a 16-acre representation of a mining town filled with streets of buildings of the time, each one a museum in its own right with exhibits such as vintage machinery and Australian antiques, it has more than 50 restored period buildings.
The Herberton Spy & Camera Museum houses antique spy cameras, a photographic gallery and photographic memorabilia with guided tours through the museum and a working photographer and photographic studio. Most a Railway Museum has been established by volunteers in the former Herberton Railway Station building; this is operated by volunteers and only open part-time. The Tepon Equestrian Grounds just out of Herberton have been upgraded with a large undercover pavilion for equestrian and other sporting events such as cycling and mountain biking. Local markets are held on the 3rd Sunday of every month at the Wondecla Oval. There are several caravan parks, motels and B&Bs located in the town; the Tablelands Regional Council operates a Herberton Public Library and Customer Service Centre at 61 Grace Street. The Herberton branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall at 14 William Street. Herberton State School opened on 12 December 1881. In 1912 the school had a secondary top added to the school.
Notable people associated with Herberton include: Bunny Adair, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Cook who attended Herberton State School. Alice Bonar. Founder of the Australian Red Cross in Herberton, now the oldest continuously operating branch in Australia. In 1914 reconvened the branch as a member of the Australian Red Cross. Eldest son David Welbourn Bonar a tunneller at Hill 60 and daughter May was a nurse in World War 1. Nancy Francis and poet known as'Black Bonnet'. Wrote extensively on life in the Daintree area including recording indigenous culture. Wrote poetry published in North queensland The Bulletin. James Douglas Henry Mining Engineer, served in 4th Queensland Imperial Bushmen contingent. Member of the Mining Corps Commanding Officer of 1st Australian Tunnellers involved in Hill 60. Retired to Tepon near Herberton and A. R. P. Warden for Wondecla area in World War 2. John Ledlie, one of the founders of North Queensland firm Armstrong and Stillman. Brought the first electric street lights outside his Herberton store.
Shire Chairman of Herberton Shire Council, member of Cairns Harbour Board and Cairns Regional Electricity Board. Teamed with Robert Ringrose to establish Herberton State High School in 1912. John Newell, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Woothakata, Chairman of Herberton Shire Council, Mayor of Herberton Municipality. One of the discoverers of payable tin and the establishment of Herberton Gold and Mineral Field. Founding member of the Tinaroo Division Board
Tolga is a town and locality on the Atherton Tableland in the Tablelands Region in Far North Queensland, Australia. It is the centre of the region's peanut industry. In the 2016 census, the population of Tolga was 2718. Tolga is located on the Atherton Tableland; the Kennedy Highway traverses the locality from the north-west to the south of the locality, passing through the town, in the southern part of the locality. To the north-west of the town is a large residential development, marketed under the names of Tandara and Panorama Views; the Barron River forms the north-east boundary of the locality. The south-western boundary of the locality is the drainage divide that separates the drainage basin of the Barron River from that of the Mitchell River; the northern and eastern parts of Tolga are flat land used for cropping. However, the western parts of the region are more mountainous and are undeveloped, but is to be the location of the Mount Emerald Wind Farm under construction on the Great Dividing Range.
The Tolga Scrub on the southern side of town is one of the last remaining areas of Mabi rainforest on the Atherton Tableland. It is the most drought resistant type of rainforest in Australia; the Tolga Scrub is 100 metres wide. The name Tolga is thought to be derived from the Aboriginal word for red volcanic soil; the town was called Martin Town, grew out of a Cobb and Co staging post at Rocky Creek. The town's name was changed to Tolga in 1903. During World War II in 1943 the Australian Army established their largest storage and repair centre to the west of the town centred on Griffin Road and Tate Road to support the War in the Pacific, it was known as the 13 Australian Advanced Ordnance Depot and was operated by the Royal Australian Army Ordnance Corps under the command of lieutenant colonel LW Gale with a staff of about 1000 including 200 from the Australian Women's Army Service. The complex had about 150 buildings, including 18 large igloo storage shed; the complex stored and maintained Army vehicles and vehicle parts and ammunition, clothing.
Most buildings on the site were removed in 1946 after the war had ended with one building being relocated to the Atherton Hospital for the use of the Queensland Country Women's Association. On Friday 29 November 1946, three Army personnel were working to remove cordite from the shells in the ammunition dump when the cordite ignited in a blinding flash; the three men were burned in the explosion but managed to crawl over a mile to their headquarters. Although they were rushed to the Atheron hospital, the three men died and were buried at the Atherton War Cemetery. At the 2006 census, Tolga had a population of 843. By the 2011 census, Tolga's population had increased to 2,426 people. Tolga State School opened on 10 October 1895 and is co-educational, catering for Prep - Year 6 with an enrolment of 366 students; the school celebrated its centenary in 1995. Tolga Markets are held at the Tolga Racecourse from 7am to 12pm on the first Sunday of each month. Local produce, hand crafted items, clothing and food are found for sale.
It is considered the second most popular market held on the Atherton Tableland, only smaller than the Yungaburra Markets. The Tolga branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall at 60 Main Street. Tolga has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Bowcock Road: Bones Knob Radar Station Kennedy Highway: Rocky Creek World War Two Hospital Complex University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Tolga Town map of Tolga, 1977
Merriland Hall is a heritage-listed community hall at Mazlin Street, Tablelands Region, Australia. It was built in November 1943 by the Allied Works Council, it is known as Former Atherton Camp Supply Depot. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 28 July 2000. In November 1943 an Australian Defence Canteen was erected at the Atherton Showgrounds. Built for the Army by the Allied Works Council, with D. Prangley in charge and under the supervision of Raymond Clare Nowland, a government Senior Architect, it was a timber arched, unlined igloo structure, sheeted with corrugated iron; the structure was a component of one of the largest military store depots on the Atherton Tablelands. After the war the igloo was purchased by the Atherton Show Society and retained at the Showgrounds, becoming known as Merriland Hall. Atherton became a town when it was surveyed in 1885, named for John Atherton in 1886 when the first lots were put up for sale, it began as a timber town and once much of the timber had been felled, maize grown by Chinese tenant farmers, became the important crop.
Peanuts introduced by Chinese settlers, were an alternative crop to maize. Today dairying is its main industry. Prior to World War II Atherton was a quiet country town. However, by December 1942 the war had impinged upon the area changing the landscape and the lives of the townspeople. In 1942 the Tablelands Base Area was established, creating a constant flow of Army traffic through the town's main street, as camps were set up to train troops in jungle warfare before their being sent to the islands north of Australia. Many of Atherton's buildings housed both American forces; the School of Arts building was taken over by the Red Cross, the Girl Guides hall by the Australian Army for use as its historical section, while the Sharples Theatre became an Army Canteen. Meanwhile, the Barron Valley Hotel was requisitioned by the Australian Army as an Officers Club and, for a short time, General Thomas Blamey made this his headquarters. So much change occurred in Atherton during the war that it has been suggested that both the community and the economy could have been overwhelmed by the strain put upon it.
But the reverse appears to have been true, as the one hundred thousand troops camped throughout the Tablelands area gave the residents the chance to become involved in the war effort by assisting and entertaining the visitors, while still keeping business running. Prosperity came with the influx and Atherton provided much timber towards war requirements. Maple was needed for aeroplane propellers and plywood for use in the manufacture of sea and air craft, while timber was employed in the making of rifles and packing cases; the local people did much to entertain the forces and organised many dances, picture shows and outings as well as inviting the troops into their homes. In return, the soldiers helped in matters such as assisting to enlarge the Methodist Church, too small to accommodate their extra numbers. In 1942 the Military remained there for three years. In November 1943 a large igloo was erected for the Army by the Queensland Building and Engineering Co. under the auspices of the Allied Works Council.
It was 200 by 100 feet in size and built to house the "Daily Issue Department", or Australian Defence canteen. A bakery, which daily supplied bread for all the forces in the area, was built on the western side of the show ring; the canteen igloo was constructed with a nailed hardwood timber arch construction, each arm made up of two half arches, pinned at two supports near the ground and at a central point. It formed an arch with timber bracing nailed into position to form a curved box truss. Although the original US design was intended to be covered with camouflage netting, the igloos built for Queensland were sheeted with iron; these changes, as made by the Allied Works Council, provided a stronger, more durable building which would be capable of withstanding winds of up to 65 miles per hour. The timber used in the igloos was hardwood or Oregon and the outer sheeting was corrugated iron; the Allied Works Council, the builder of this and other wartime prefabricated buildings, was formed in February 1942 to co-ordinate and facilitate the needs of the Australian and US military forces in Australia during the war.
The work carried out by the Allied Works Council included roads, hospitals, ammunition depots, aerodromes and recreation facilities, gun emplacements. The Allied Works Council is significant because so much of their construction work transformed Australia, leaving a post-war legacy of roads and buildings still in use for peaceful pursuits; the Defence Canteen igloo was purchased by the Atherton Tableland Agricultural Society for a low price after the war. When the Atherton Shire Hall, built in 1898, was destroyed by fire in 1948, the war-time igloo became a Community Centre. A committee was formed to manage the hall and they set about building a dance floor measuring 5,000 square feet with a further 2,000 square feet of galleries for seating; the £4,000 needed for this work was put up by the Atherton Shire Council, money raised by the Atherton Choral Society and the Atherton Players. Both these groups put all their spare funds into improving the facilities adding chairs, stage lighting and dressing rooms.
A contest was held to name the new Community Centre hall and Miss Eileen Burke won with the name "Merriland". In July 1951, the committee gave a Grand Ball to celebrate the opening with over 1,200 people in attendance. Merriland Hall went on to host most of the cultural occasions of Atherton for many years. Among the entertainments held at Merriland Hall were concerts by t
Atherton War Cemetery
Atherton War Cemetery is a heritage-listed cemetery at the corner of Kennedy Highway and Rockley Road, Tablelands Region, Australia. It was built in 1942, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 19 November 2010. The Atherton War Cemetery established in 1942, is situated within the Atherton Cemetery Reserve on the Kennedy Highway on the outskirts of Atherton, it contains a Cross of Sacrifice and 164 graves and headstones for soldiers and airmen killed during World War II. The Atherton War Cemetery is an example of the way in which the Imperial War Graves Commission's design principles, which were developed and implemented after World War I, were applied in a region, significant for its World War II history and associations; the Imperial War Graves Commission was established in Britain by Royal Charter on 21 May 1917. The Commission's founder and vice chairman, Sir Fabian Ware, had submitted a memorandum to the 1917 Imperial War Conference outlining his concern for the upkeep of graves and sites of commemoration.
During the conflict, Ware had used his mobile British Red Cross Unit to register and care for graves, had received countless requests from bereaved families for information regarding their loved ones. Once the Commission was formed, it resolved to create lasting memorials to those who lost their lives in battle and those families who had lost their loved ones. To fulfil this aim, the Commission engaged eminent British architects to design the cemeteries and memorials. Sir Edwin Lutyens, Sir Herbert Baker and Sir Reginald Blomfield were the first three principal architects of the Commission and the Director of the British Museum, Sir Frederic Kenyon, drew their recommendations into a set of key principles regarding the development and management of the cemeteries; these principles determined that each of the dead should be commemorated by name on the headstone or memorial. The principles were applied to three experimental cemeteries at Le Treport and Forceville in France. Of these, the last was considered the most successful.
In consultation with renowned garden designer Gertrude Jekyll, a walled cemetery was built there with rows of uniform headstones set in narrow garden beds within a lawn in a symmetrical layout with a centre aisle between Blomfield's Cross of Sacrifice on the western boundary and Lutyens' Stone of Remembrance on the eastern boundary. After some adjustments, Forceville became the template for the Commission's building program; the Imperial War Graves cemeteries thus incorporated the following key elements: The central focus of war cemeteries with over 40 burials is the Cross of Sacrifice. It was designed by an Imperial War Graves Commission architect, he created a tall, finely proportioned stone cross, with a symbolic downward pointing sword of bronze attached to its face, thus emphasising both the military character of the cemetery and the religious affiliation of the majority of the dead. It was designed to represent the faith of the majority and ranges in height between 4.5 metres and 9 metres depending on the size of the cemetery.
Sir Edwin Lutyens was responsible for designing a general monument to be placed in war cemeteries called the Stone of Remembrance. It is suggestive of an altar and yet abstract and non-denominational, with horizontal lines and curved surfaces; the design was based on complex geometry derived from the Parthenon, giving an impression of majesty and tranquillity. Inscribed on the stone is the quote "Their name liveth for evermore", taken from the Ecclesiasticus and chosen by Rudyard Kipling; the Stone of Remembrance is present in cemeteries where there are more than 1,000 burials and elsewhere although not at Atherton. Imperial War Graves Commission cemeteries contain headstones of a standard pattern set in straight rows. At the top of each headstone is engraved the national emblem or the service or regimental badge of the dead person, followed by their rank, unit, date of death, age and an appropriate religious emblem. At the foot of the headstone there is, in many cases, an inscription chosen by the person's relatives.
Some cemeteries, for climatic reasons, use low pedestals with bronze plaques instead of headstones. Creating a garden setting for war cemeteries, in an effort to make them places of quite contemplation and soothing to the bereaved, was one of the earliest ideas generated by the War Graves Commission; these ideas were put into practice by the architects involved, in particular Sir Edwin Lutyens who worked with the renowned garden designer Gertrude Jekyll. Her ideas about traditional cottage garden plants flowering ones, their placement influenced the appearance of war cemeteries. Soon after the Commission completed its program of World War I cemeteries in 1938, World War II began and the Commission realised that their efforts would be needed in many more countries; as that war progressed in the Allies' favour, the Commission began restoring its WWI cemeteries and memorials and commenced the task of commemorating 600,000 Commonwealth casualties from WWII. It built 559 new cemeteries and 36 new memorials and changed its name to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission in the 1960s as the construction program of WWII cemeteries drew to a close.
The Atherton War Cemetery was created on land adjoining the Atherton General Cemetery in 1942, the year before the Tableland's Base Area was established as part
Hou Wang Temple
The Hou Wang Temple is a heritage-listed former temple and now museum at Herberton Road, Tablelands Region, Australia. Built in 1903, it is one of the oldest original Chinese temples in Australasia, it is known as Hou Wang Miau, Atherton Joss House and Atherton Chinese Temple. It is one of only two or three temples outside China known to be dedicated to Hou Wang and is the only surviving timber and iron temple in Queensland; the temple contains a substantial number of original artifacts. Most were made in China during the late 19th and early 20th centuries for this temple, they include a clapperless bell manufactured about 1895 and numerous intricately carved timber panels. It was once the socio-religious focus for over 1,000 Chinese residents who worked as timber cutters, market gardeners and maize growers; the temple and the land it stands on was purchased by a group of Chinese families, who donated it to the National Trust of Queensland. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
The temple's restoration was completed on 15 September 2002, it now includes an art gallery and interpretation centre. The temple and gallery are open to the public six days a week; the Atherton Chinese Temple was built in 1903 by the community of the Chinatown at Atherton using local materials for construction and furnishings ordered from China. It provided a social and spiritual focus for over a thousand people in the township and the surrounding area. Atherton Chinatown was one of many small settlements that developed in Australia during the nineteenth century as homes for the Chinese sojourners who arrived in great numbers to work on the goldfields. Most of these Chinese were males who came from poor areas in south west China and intended to work here until they had gathered enough capital to assure their financial security on their return home. For mutual support and to maintain contacts with their homeland, they lived and worked together, creating such Chinatowns within European settlements, or on their fringes.
Chinese diggers flocked to north Queensland in the 1870s in large numbers following the discovery of gold on the Palmer River and on the Hodgkinson. They were regarded with suspicion and hostility by Europeans, who they outnumbered, were barred from working on newly discovered mineral fields; because of this, as the Palmer River field was faded in importance, most Chinese moved south looking for other means to make a living. They arrived in the Atherton area in the early 1880s, working with European timber getters, set up a camp on the opposite side of Piebald Creek to the tiny European settlement of Prior's Pocket. In 1885, this area was surveyed and named Atherton. Land sales took place and although the Chinese were not allowed to own land, many entered into leases with Europeans and began farming, they grew fruit and vegetables to supply nearby towns and pioneered the growing of maize in north Queensland, which became an important commercial crop. Chinatown grew to service Chinese people in and around Atherton and by 1897 was a thriving residential and commercial centre.
In the 1890s, it was decided to built a temple to serve. Funds were collected and furnishings were ordered from China. In 1903, the temple was constructed of corrugated iron. Brick was the material chosen for temples in Australia and the painting of the front wall to resemble this material suggests that the community would have preferred brick, had it been available; the temple complex consisted of a temple dedicated to the god Hou Wang, a feasting hall and store. It had living quarters for a caretaker and provided accommodation for those visiting the temple from the outlying district. During the 1900s, when Chinatown was at the height of its importance, the temple was a social and spiritual centre for over a thousand people. Following the First World War, Chinese leases on agricultural land in the district were revoked in favour of soldier settlers. During the nineteen twenties, most of the inhabitants of Chinatown and the surrounding farms moved south or to nearby coastal towns. Many of the buildings in Chinatown were removed, some being reused locally.
A caretaker remained at the temple, used by a few old men who remained in the township. Although some repairs were carried out, without a community to support it, the temple fell into disrepair. A cyclone in 1956 blew away the pagoda, replaced by a lean-to. Damage occurred from water leakage. In the 1960s artefacts were removed from the temple, including the image of other gods; some of these artefacts have since been returned. The temple was used intermittently for worship until the early 1970s and contains objects connected with this use; the land on which the temple stands was purchased in 1965 by several local Chinese families. In 1975, the National Trust of Queensland, aware of the temple for some time, gained funding to begin investigative work. In 1977 the area was surveyed, as the Fong On family had offered the temple to the Trust to ensure its preservation. At about the same time cataloging of the remaining artefacts in the temple began; the temple was transferred to the Trust in 1980 and conservation work on the buildings began.
It is now interpreted as a place museum. The temple complex is situated in an open, grassed area, the site of the former Chinatown, its positioning suggests that geomancy was used to select the most auspicious site and alignment for the buildings. The complex consists of a temple, hall and store constructed of corrugated iron and local timbers in a traditional Chinese form; the buildings are marked off from the street by an ornamental pic
Mareeba is a town in Far North Queensland, Australia. The town is 417 metres above sea level on the confluence of the Barron River, Granite Creek and Emerald Creek, it is within the local government area of Shire of Mareeba. The town's name is derived from an Aboriginal word meaning meeting of the waters. In the 2011 census, Mareeba had a population of 10,181 people. Prior to European settlement, the area around Mareeba was inhabited by the Muluridji people, they maintained a hunter/gatherer existence in the area between Mount Carbine, Mareeba and Woodville concentrated between Biboohra and Mount Molloy. In the local Aboriginal language, Mareeba means meeting of the waters - referring to the point at which the Barron River is joined by Granite Creek. On 26 May 1875 James Venture Mulligan became the first European to see the future site of Mareeba when he rode up the eastern bank of the Barron River, passed the junctions of Emerald Creek and Granite Creek; the Mareeba area was first settled by Europeans in 1877 by John Atherton, who arrived with cattle at Emerald End, just north of the town today.
Mareeba became a busy coach stop for Cobb & Co on the road from Port Douglas to Herberton. When the railway arrived in 1893, Mareeba grew into a busy town. Mareeba Post Office opened on 25 August 1893. A Mareeba Diggings Post Office opened by 1893 and closed in 1905. From 1942 to 1945, up to 10,000 Australian and US service personnel used Mareeba Airfield as a staging post for battles in New Guinea and the Pacific; the Americans referred to it as Hoevet Field in honour of Major Dean Carol "Pinky" Hoevet, killed on 16 August 1942. Units that were based at Mareeba during World War II included No. 5 Squadron RAAF, No. 100 Squadron RAAF, the Australian 33rd Light A-A Battery, 19th Bomb Group USAAC, 43rd Bomb Group USAAC and 8th Fighter Group USAAC. Mareeba State School opened on 28 August 1893. Mareeba State High School opened on 25 January 1960. Mareeba Library opened in 1958 and underwent a major refurbishment in 1985. At the 2006 census, Mareeba had a population of 6,806. In October 2011, most of the land of the former state farm / research station at Kairi was sold by the Queensland Government, retaining only 26 hectares.
The sale of the land was to fund the establishment of the Agri-Science Hub at Peters Street in Mareeba. The hub focusses on agricultural development, together with education and training. James Cook University is a partner of the hub, researching tropical agriculture and biosecurity; the hub opened on 16 December 2011. According to the 2016 census, Mareeba includes the largest Italian Australian community of any suburb in Queensland, numbering 1,608 individuals and making up 10.8% of the town's population. Mareeba has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Cairns - Kuranda Line: Rail Bridge over Christmas Creek 136 Walsh Street: Mareeba Shire Hall 167 Walsh Street: Assay Office Mareeba has a tropical savanna climate. Mareeba's tag line on signs coming into the region is "300 sunny days a year" this is because Mareeba is in what is called a rain shadow. Numerous crops are grown throughout Mareeba Shire, including avocados, lychees, sugar cane, macadamias, pineapples, tea tree oil, a variety of vegetables and tropical fruits.
Poultry and cattle are common. Tobacco was once the main grown crop of the local economy, but is no longer grown within the Mareeba shire; the town's main street is the Mulligan Highway which branches off from the Kennedy Highway when coming in from Cairns away passing localities such as Speewah and The Barron Gorge. Tourism contributes to the local economy. Tourist attractions in the Mareeba Shire include the Golden Drop Mango Winery, Jaques Coffee Plantation, Coffee Works, Mareeba Heritage Museum, Mareeba Rock Wallabies and Granite Gorge Nature Park; the Lotus Glen Correctional Centre is located in Arriga, 14 km outside Mareeba, is considered to be in Mareeba. Mareeba has two secondary schools and a TAFE campus. There are several day care centres in the town. St Thomas of Villanova Parish School Mareeba State School Mareeba State High School St. Stephen's Catholic College Tropical North Institute of TAFEMareeba State School opened on 28 August 1893 and Mareeba State High School opened on 25 January 1960.
St Thomas of Villanova Parish School opened on 1 January 1909 and for a period of two years during World War Two, Mareeba State School was taken over by the army, so St Thomas’ accommodated the entire school population of Mareeba. St Thomas' celebrated their centenary in 2009. On 24 January 2006 St Stephen's Catholic College opened after a nearly 10 year approval process regarding the provision of Catholic secondary education. Mareeba Hospital is in the Tablelands Health District, it provides 52 beds, with surgical, pediatric, emergency and x-ray facilities. Mareeba's local sporting teams are: Rugby league — Mareeba Gladiators: The Gladiators participate in the Cairns District Rugby League competition, they last won the Premiership in 2007. Football — Mareeba United Football ClubThe Mareeba United Football Club, known as the Mareeba Bulls is based at Borzi Park, Mareeba: the Bulls have dominated the local football scene for the past decade; the Bulls were Grand Final winners in 2003, Grand Final Winners and NQ Champions in 2004, FNQ premiers and NQ Champions in 2005, FNQ Grand final winners and 2006 and FNQ premier and NQ Champions in 2008.
The sustained success of the Bulls has brought the title for Mareeba as'Football Capital of North Q
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated for their edible fruit. The majority of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes; the genus belongs to the cashew family Anacardiaceae. Mangoes are native to South Asia, from where the "common mango" or "Indian mango", Mangifera indica, has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most cultivated fruits in the tropics. Other Mangifera species are grown on a more localized basis, it is the national fruit of India and Pakistan, the national tree of Bangladesh. It is the unofficial national fruit of the Philippines; the English word "mango" originated from the Malayalam word māṅṅa via Dravidian mankay and Portuguese manga during the spice trade period with South India in the 15th and 16th centuries. Mango is mentioned by Hendrik van Rheede, the Dutch commander of the Malabar region in his 1678 book, Hortus Malabaricus, about plants having economic value.
When mangoes were first imported to the American colonies in the 17th century, they had to be pickled because of lack of refrigeration. Other fruits were pickled and came to be called "mangoes" bell peppers, in the 18th century, the word "mango" became a verb meaning "to pickle". Mango trees grow to 35–40 m tall, with a crown radius of 10 m; the trees are long-lived. In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m, with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots and anchor roots penetrating into the soil; the leaves are evergreen, simple, 15–35 cm long, 6–16 cm broad. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm long. Over 500 varieties of mangoes are known, many of which ripen in summer, while some give a double crop; the fruit takes four to five months from flowering to ripen. The ripe fruit varies in size, color and eating quality. Cultivars are variously yellow, red, or green, carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, which does not separate from the pulp.
The fruits may be somewhat round, oval, or kidney-shaped, ranging from 5–25 centimetres in length and from 140 grams to 2 kilograms in weight per individual fruit. The skin is leather-like, waxy and fragrant, with color ranging from green to yellow, yellow-orange, yellow-red, or blushed with various shades of red, pink or yellow when ripe. Ripe intact mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 cm long. Mangoes have recalcitrant seeds which do not survive drying. Mango trees grow from seeds, with germination success highest when seeds are obtained from mature fruits. Mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years and reached Southeast Asia between the fifth and fourth centuries BCE. By the 10th century CE, cultivation had begun in East Africa; the 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported it at Mogadishu. Cultivation came to Brazil, the West Indies, Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth.
The mango is now cultivated in warmer subtropical climates. Mangoes are grown in Andalusia, Spain, as its coastal subtropical climate is one of the few places in mainland Europe that permits the growth of tropical plants and fruit trees; the Canary Islands are another notable Spanish producer of the fruit. Other cultivators include North America and Central America, the Caribbean, Hawai'i, south and central Africa, China, South Korea, Pakistan and Southeast Asia. Though India is the largest producer of mangoes, it accounts for less than 1% of the international mango trade. Many commercial cultivars are grafted on to the cold-hardy rootstock of Gomera-1 mango cultivar from Cuba, its root system is well adapted to a coastal Mediterranean climate. Many of the 1,000+ mango cultivars are cultivated using grafted saplings, ranging from the "turpentine mango" to the Bullock's Heart. Dwarf or semidwarf varieties can be grown in containers. A wide variety of diseases can afflict mangoes. There are many hundreds of named mango cultivars.
In mango orchards, several cultivars are grown in order to improve pollination. Many desired cultivars are monoembryonic and must be propagated by grafting or they do not breed true. A common monoembryonic cultivar is'Alphonso', an important export product, considered as "the king of mangoes". Cultivars that excel in one climate may fail elsewhere. For example, Indian cultivars such as'Julie', a prolific cultivar in Jamaica, require annual fungicide treatments to escape the lethal fungal disease anthracnose in Florida. Asian mangoes are resistant to anthracnose; the current world market is dominated by the cultivar'Tommy Atkins', a seedling of'Haden' that first fruited in 1940 in southern Florida and was rejected commercially by Florida researchers. Growers and importers worldwide have embraced the cultivar for its exc