Athletics at the 2012 Summer Olympics

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Athletics
at the Games of the XXX Olympiad
Athletics, London 2012.png
Venue Olympic Stadium
Dates 3–12 August
Competitors 2,231 (1,160 men, 1,071 women)[1][2]
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2016 →

The athletics competitions at the 2012 Olympic Games in London were held during the last 10 days of the Games, on 3–12 August. Track and field events took place at the Olympic Stadium in east London. The road events, however, started and finished on The Mall in central London.[3]

Over 2,000 athletes from 201 nations competed in 47 events in total, with both men and women having a very similar schedule of events. Men competed in 24 events and women in 23, of which 21 were the same for both. The women's schedule lacked the 50 km race walk and included 100 m hurdles and heptathlon as opposed to the men's 110 m hurdles and decathlon. The youngest participant in the athletics competition was Andorran 15-year-old Cristina Llovera while the oldest was 46-year-old Ukrainian Oleksandr Dryhol.[4] South African Oscar Pistorius became the first amputee sprinter to compete at the Olympics.[5]

Competition schedule[edit]

The venue for the track and field events was the Olympic Stadium while the walks and the marathons started and finished on The Mall.[6] In the tables below, M stands for morning and A for afternoon.

Q Qualifiers H Heats ½ Semifinals F Final
Men[7]
Date → Fri 3 Sat 4 Sun 5 Mon 6 Tue 7 Wed 8 Thu 9 Fri 10 Sat 11 Sun 12
Event ↓ M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A
100 m Q H ½ F
200 m H ½ F
400 m H ½ F
800 m H ½ F
1500 m H ½ F
5000 m H F
10,000 m F
110 m hurdles H ½ F
400 m hurdles H ½ F
3000 m steeplechase H F
4x100 m relay H F
4x400 m relay H F
Marathon F
20 km walk F
50 km walk F
Long jump Q F
Triple jump Q F
High jump Q F
Pole vault Q F
Shot put Q F
Discus throw Q F
Javelin throw Q F
Hammer throw Q F
Decathlon F
Women
Date → Fri 3 Sat 4 Sun 5 Mon 6 Tue 7 Wed 8 Thu 9 Fri 10 Sat 11 Sun 12
Event ↓ M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A
100 m H ½ F
200 m H ½ F
400 m H ½ F
800 m H ½ F
1500 m H ½ F
5000 m H F
10,000 m F
100 m hurdles H ½ F
400 m hurdles H ½ F
3000 m steeplechase H F
4x100 m relay H F
4x400 m relay H F
Marathon F
20 km walk F
Long jump Q F
Triple jump Q F
High jump Q F
Pole vault Q F
Shot put Q F
Discus throw Q F
Javelin throw Q F
Hammer throw Q F
Heptathlon F


Medal summary[edit]

(WR = World Record, OR = Olympic Record)

Men[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
100 metres
details
Usain Bolt
 Jamaica
9.63
(OR)
Yohan Blake
 Jamaica
9.75 Justin Gatlin
 United States
9.79
200 metres
details
Usain Bolt
 Jamaica
19.32 Yohan Blake
 Jamaica
19.44 Warren Weir
 Jamaica
19.84
400 metres
details
Kirani James
 Grenada
43.94 Luguelín Santos
 Dominican Republic
44.46 Lalonde Gordon
 Trinidad and Tobago
44.52
800 metres
details
David Rudisha
 Kenya
1:40.91
(WR)
Nijel Amos
 Botswana
1:41.73 Timothy Kitum
 Kenya
1:42.53
1500 metres
details
Taoufik Makhloufi
 Algeria
3:34.08 Leonel Manzano
 United States
3:34.79 Abdalaati Iguider
 Morocco
3:35.13
5000 metres
details
Mo Farah
 Great Britain
13:41.66 Dejen Gebremeskel
 Ethiopia
13:41.98 Thomas Longosiwa
 Kenya
13:42.36
10,000 metres
details
Mo Farah
 Great Britain
27:30.42 Galen Rupp
 United States
27:30.90 Tariku Bekele
 Ethiopia
27:31.43
110 metres hurdles
details
Aries Merritt
 United States
12.92 Jason Richardson
 United States
13.04 Hansle Parchment
 Jamaica
13.12
400 metres hurdles
details
Félix Sánchez
 Dominican Republic
47.63 Michael Tinsley
 United States
47.91 Javier Culson
 Puerto Rico
48.10
3000 metres steeplechase
details
Ezekiel Kemboi
 Kenya
8:18.56 Mahiedine Benabbad
 France
8:19.08 Abel Mutai
 Kenya
8:19.73
4×100 metres relay
details [a]
 Jamaica (JAM)
Nesta Carter
Michael Frater
Yohan Blake
Usain Bolt
Kemar Bailey-Cole*
36.84
(WR)
 Trinidad and Tobago (TRI)
Keston Bledman
Marc Burns
Emmanuel Callender
Richard Thompson
38.12  France (FRA)
Jimmy Vicaut
Christophe Lemaitre
Pierre-Alexis Pessonneaux
Ronald Pognon
38.16
4×400 metres relay
details
 Bahamas (BAH)
Chris Brown
Demetrius Pinder
Michael Mathieu
Ramon Miller
2:56.72  United States (USA)
Bryshon Nellum
Joshua Mance
Tony McQuay
Angelo Taylor
Manteo Mitchell*
2:57.05  Trinidad and Tobago (TRI)
Lalonde Gordon
Jarrin Solomon
Ade Alleyne-Forte
Deon Lendore
2:59.40
Marathon
details
Stephen Kiprotich
 Uganda
2:08:01 Abel Kirui
 Kenya
2:08:27 Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich
 Kenya
2:09:37
20 kilometres walk
details
Chen Ding
 China
1:18:46
(OR)
Erick Barrondo
 Guatemala
1:18:57 Wang Zhen
 China
1:19:25
50 kilometres walk
details [b]
Jared Tallent
 Australia
3:36:53
(OR)
Si Tianfeng
 China
3:37:16 Robert Heffernan
 Ireland
3:37:54
High jump
details
Ivan Ukhov
 Russia
2.38 Erik Kynard
 United States
2.33 Mutaz Essa Barshim
 Qatar
Derek Drouin
 Canada
Robert Grabarz
 Great Britain
2.29
Pole vault
details
Renaud Lavillenie
 France
5.97
(OR)
Björn Otto
 Germany
5.91 Raphael Holzdeppe
 Germany
5.91
Long jump
details
Greg Rutherford
 Great Britain
8.31 Mitchell Watt
 Australia
8.16 Will Claye
 United States
8.12
Triple jump
details
Christian Taylor
 United States
17.81 Will Claye
 United States
17.62 Fabrizio Donato
 Italy
17.48
Shot put
details
Tomasz Majewski
 Poland
21.89 David Storl
 Germany
21.86 Reese Hoffa
 United States
21.23
Discus throw
details
Robert Harting
 Germany
68.27 Ehsan Haddadi
 Iran
68.18 Gerd Kanter
 Estonia
68.03
Hammer throw
details
Krisztián Pars
 Hungary
80.59 Primož Kozmus
 Slovenia
79.36 Koji Murofushi
 Japan
78.71
Javelin throw
details [c]
Keshorn Walcott
 Trinidad and Tobago
84.58 Antti Ruuskanen
 Finland
84.12 Vítězslav Veselý
 Czech Republic
83.34
Decathlon
details
Ashton Eaton
 United States
8869 Trey Hardee
 United States
8671 Leonel Suárez
 Cuba
8523
*Indicates the athlete only competed in the preliminary heats.

Women[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
100 metres
details
Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce
 Jamaica
10.75 Carmelita Jeter
 United States
10.78 Veronica Campbell-Brown
 Jamaica
10.81
200 metres
details
Allyson Felix
 United States
21.88 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce
 Jamaica
22.09 Carmelita Jeter
 United States
22.14
400 metres
details
Sanya Richards-Ross
 United States
49.55 Christine Ohuruogu
 Great Britain
49.70 DeeDee Trotter
 United States
49.72
800 metres
details [d]
Caster Semenya
 South Africa
1:57.23 Ekaterina Poistogova
 Russia
1:57.53 Vacant
1500 metres
details [e]
Maryam Yusuf Jamal
 Bahrain
4:10.74 Vacant Vacant
5000 metres
details
Meseret Defar
 Ethiopia
15:04.25 Vivian Cheruiyot
 Kenya
15:04.73 Tirunesh Dibaba
 Ethiopia
15:05.15
10,000 metres
details
Tirunesh Dibaba
 Ethiopia
30:20.75 Sally Kipyego
 Kenya
30:26.37 Vivian Cheruiyot
 Kenya
30:30.44
100 metres hurdles
details
Sally Pearson
 Australia
12.35
(OR)
Dawn Harper
 United States
12.37 Kellie Wells
 United States
12.48
400 metres hurdles
details
Natalya Antyukh
 Russia
52.70 Lashinda Demus
 United States
52.77 Zuzana Hejnová
 Czech Republic
53.38
3000 metres steeplechase
details [f]
Habiba Ghribi
 Tunisia
9:08.37 Sofia Assefa
 Ethiopia
9:09.84 Milcah Chemos Cheywa
 Kenya
9:09.88
4 × 100 m relay
details
 United States (USA)
Tianna Madison
Allyson Felix
Bianca Knight
Carmelita Jeter
Jeneba Tarmoh*
Lauryn Williams*
40.82
(WR)
 Jamaica (JAM)
Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce
Sherone Simpson
Veronica Campbell-Brown
Kerron Stewart
Samantha Henry-Robinson*
Schillonie Calvert*
41.41  Ukraine (UKR)
Olesya Povh
Hrystyna Stuy
Mariya Ryemyen
Elyzaveta Bryzgina
42.04
4 × 400 m relay
details [g]
 United States (USA)
DeeDee Trotter
Allyson Felix
Francena McCorory
Sanya Richards-Ross
Keshia Baker*
Diamond Dixon*
3:16.87  Jamaica (JAM)
Christine Day
Rosemarie Whyte
Shericka Williams
Novlene Williams-Mills
Shereefa Lloyd*
3:20.95  Ukraine (UKR)
Alina Lohvynenko
Olha Zemlyak
Hanna Yaroshchuk
Nataliya Pyhyda
3:23.57
Marathon
details
Tiki Gelana
 Ethiopia
2:23:07
(OR)
Priscah Jeptoo
 Kenya
2:23:12 Tatyana Arkhipova
 Russia
2:23:29
20 kilometres walk
details [h]
Elena Lashmanova
 Russia
1:25:02
(WR)
Qieyang Shenjie
 China
1:25:16 Liu Hong
 China
1:26:00
High jump
details
Anna Chicherova
 Russia
2.05 Brigetta Barrett
 United States
2.03 Svetlana Shkolina
 Russia
2.03
Pole vault
details
Jenn Suhr
 United States
4.75 Yarisley Silva
 Cuba
4.75 Yelena Isinbayeva
 Russia
4.70
Long jump
details
Brittney Reese
 United States
7.12 Yelena Sokolova
 Russia
7.07 Janay DeLoach
 United States
6.89
Triple jump
details
Olga Rypakova
 Kazakhstan
14.98 Caterine Ibargüen
 Colombia
14.80 Olha Saladukha
 Ukraine
14.79
Shot put
details [i]
Valerie Adams
 New Zealand
20.70 Gong Lijiao
 China
20.22 Li Ling
 China
19.63
Discus throw
details [j]
Sandra Perković
 Croatia
69.11 Li Yanfeng
 China
67.22 Yarelys Barrios
 Cuba
66.38
Hammer throw
details [k]
Anita Włodarczyk
 Poland
77.60 Betty Heidler
 Germany
77.13 Zhang Wenxiu
 China
76.34
Javelin throw
details
Barbora Špotáková
 Czech Republic
69.55 Christina Obergföll
 Germany
65.16 Linda Stahl
 Germany
64.91
Heptathlon
details [l]
Jessica Ennis
 Great Britain
6955 Lilli Schwarzkopf
 Germany
6649 Vacant
*Indicates the athlete only competed in the preliminary heats.
  • 800 metres On 10 February 2017, the Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld a four-year ban that effectively stripped of the gold medal of Mariya Savinova, based upon her biological passport.[17] Caster Semenya of South Africa was advanced to gold, and Ekaterina Poistogova of Russia to silver. In the case of bronze medal reallocation the bronze medal will be awarded to Pamela Jelimo of Kenya.
  • 1500 metres On 17 August 2015, the Court of Arbitration for Sport says it approved a settlement agreed to by Turkish athlete Aslı Çakır Alptekin and the IAAF. Alptekin has agreed to forfeit her 1500 metres Olympic title and serve an eight-year ban for blood doping.[18][19] On 29 March 2017, Turkish athlete Gamze Bulut was banned for doping and lost her Olympic silver medal.[20] Maryam Yusuf Jamal of Bahrain was advanced to gold. In the case of silver and bronze medals reallocation the silver medal could be awarded to Tatyana Tomashova of Russia, and the bronze medal could be awarded to Abeba Aregawi of Ethiopia. However when reallocating medals, the IOC has previously elected not to advance athletes with a history of doping violations. Both Tatyana Tomashova and Abeba Aregawi had doping violations in the past. Therefore, it is possible that runners from the United States (Shannon Rowbury) and Slovakia (Lucia Klocová) in the original sixth and seventh positions could be awarded medals.
  • 3000 metres steeplechase On 30 January 2015, the Russian Anti-Doping Agency confirmed that runner Yuliya Zaripova will be stripped of her gold medal in the 3,000 metres steeplechase after testing positive for anabolic steroids.[21] On 4 June 2016, the gold medal was officially reallocated to second place Habiba Ghribi from Tunisia by the IOC[22] and IAAF updated the results.
  • 4 x 400 relay On 1 February 2017, the International Olympic Committee stripped the silver medal of the Russian team due to doping of Antonina Krivoshapka [23] Medals were reallocated.
  • 20 kilometres walk On 24 March 2016, the Court of Arbitration for Sport has issued decision that all competitive results obtained by Olga Kaniskina from 15 August 2009 to 15 October 2012 are disqualified.[11][24] Qieyang Shenjie of China was advanced to silver, and Liu Hong of China to bronze.
  • shot put The original winner, Nadzeya Ostapchuk of Belarus, was stripped of her gold medal shortly after the event after failing a doping test. The rest of the competitors were elevated by one position accordingly. On 20 August 2016, Yevgeniya Kolodko of Russia was also stripped of her silver medal after retested samples from the competition returned a positive doping result.[25] Gong Lijiao of China was advanced to silver, and Li Ling of China to bronze.
  • discus throw The original silver medalist, Darya Pishchalnikova of Russia, was stripped of her silver medal after failing drugs tests. The rest of the competitors were elevated by one position accordingly.[26]
  • hammer throw The original gold medalist, Tatyana Lysenko of Russia, was stripped of her gold medal after failing drugs tests.[27] Medals were reallocated.
  • heptathlon On 29 November 2016, the Court of Arbitration for Sport has issued decision that all competitive results of original bronze medalist Tatyana Chernova of Russia between 15 August 2011 and 22 July 2013 are annulled.[28][29]

Medal table[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States 9 12 7 28
2  Jamaica 4 5 3 12
3  Russia 4 2 3 9
4  Great Britain 4 1 1 6
5  Ethiopia 3 2 2 7
6  Kenya 2 4 6 12
7  Australia 2 1 0 3
8  Poland 2 0 0 2
9  Germany 1 5 2 8
10  China 1 4 4 9
11  Trinidad and Tobago 1 1 2 4
12  France 1 1 1 3
13  Dominican Republic 1 1 0 2
14  Czech Republic 1 0 2 3
15  Algeria 1 0 0 1
 Bahamas 1 0 0 1
 Bahrain 1 0 0 1
 Croatia 1 0 0 1
 Grenada 1 0 0 1
 Hungary 1 0 0 1
 Kazakhstan 1 0 0 1
 New Zealand 1 0 0 1
 South Africa 1 0 0 1
 Tunisia 1 0 0 1
 Uganda 1 0 0 1
26  Cuba 0 1 2 3
27  Botswana 0 1 0 1
 Colombia 0 1 0 1
 Finland 0 1 0 1
 Guatemala 0 1 0 1
 Iran 0 1 0 1
 Slovenia 0 1 0 1
33  Ukraine 0 0 3 3
34  Canada 0 0 1 1
 Estonia 0 0 1 1
 Ireland 0 0 1 1
 Italy 0 0 1 1
 Japan 0 0 1 1
 Morocco 0 0 1 1
 Puerto Rico 0 0 1 1
 Qatar 0 0 1 1
Total 47 46 46 139

Note: Three competitors tied for bronze in the men's high jump event.

Records[edit]

World and Olympic records[edit]

A total of four world records in athletics and eleven Olympic records were broken during the competition. This was fewer than were set at the Beijing Olympics (5 world, 17 Olympic records) but greater than the number set at the 2004 Games in Athens (2 world, 10 Olympic records).

China's Chen Ding was the first Olympic record breaker, improving the men's 20 km walk record.[30] All three Olympic walk records were broken in London as Sergey Kirdyapkin bettered the Olympic 50 km walk time and Elena Lashmanova set a new world record in the women's 20 km walk.[31][32]

Usain Bolt was the first track athlete to improve an Olympic record as he defended his 100 m title with a run of 9.63 s.[33] He later joined the Jamaican 4 × 100 metres relay team (featuring Nesta Carter, Michael Frater and Yohan Blake) to set a world record time of 36.84 s.[34] The women's 4 × 100 metres relay event also saw a world record: an American team of Tianna Madison, Allyson Felix, Bianca Knight and Carmelita Jeter ran 40.82 seconds to take half a second off a record which had stood for nearly 27 years.[35][36] Further women's Olympic records were set by Ethiopia's Tiki Gelana in the marathon and Sally Pearson in the 100 metres hurdles.

David Rudisha improved his own 800 metres world record to 1:40.91 minutes, becoming the first man to break that record at the Olympics since Ralph Doubell did so at the 1968 Games.[37] Renaud Lavillenie was the only man to break a field event record, as he cleared an Olympic best of 5.97 m to win the pole vault competition.[38]

Event Date Name Nationality Result Type
Men's 100 metres 5 August Usain Bolt  Jamaica 9.63 OR
Men's 800 metres 9 August David Rudisha  Kenya 1:40.91 WR OR
Men's 4 × 100 metres relay 11 August Nesta Carter
Michael Frater
Yohan Blake
Usain Bolt
 Jamaica 36.84 WR OR
Men's 20 kilometres walk 4 August Chen Ding  China 1:18:46 OR
Men's 50 kilometres walk 11 August Jared Tallent  Australia 3:36:53 OR
Men's 50 kilometres walk 11 August Sergey Kirdyapkin  Russia 3:35:59 OR
Men's pole vault 10 August Renaud Lavillenie  France 5.97 m OR
Women's 100 metres hurdles 7 August Sally Pearson  Australia 12.35 OR
Women's marathon 5 August Tiki Gelana  Ethiopia 2:23:07 OR
Women's 20 kilometres walk 11 August Elena Lashmanova  Russia 1:25:02 WR OR
Women's 4 × 100 metres relay 10 August Tianna Madison
Allyson Felix
Bianca Knight
Carmelita Jeter
 United States 40.82 WR OR
Women's hammer throw 10 August Tatyana Lysenko  Russia 78.18 m OR

Doping[edit]

Prior to the Olympic competition, several prominent athletes were ruled out of the competition due to failed tests. World indoor medallists Dimitrios Chondrokoukis, Debbie Dunn, and Mariem Alaoui Selsouli were withdrawn from their Olympic teams in July for doping, as was 2004 Olympic medallist Zoltán Kővágó.[39][40][41] At the Olympic competition, Tameka Williams admitted to taking a banned stimulant and was removed from the games.[42] Ivan Tsikhan did not compete in the hammer throw as a re-test of his sample from the 2004 Athens Olympics, where he won silver, was positive.[43]Hassan Hirt,[44] Amine Laâlou,[45] Marina Marghieva,[46] Diego Palomeque,[47] and defending 50 km walk champion Alex Schwazer were also suspended before taking part in their events.[48]

Syrian hurdler Ghfran Almouhamad became the first track-and-field athlete to be suspended following a positive in-competition doping sample.[49] Nadzeya Astapchuk was stripped of the women's shot put title after her sample came back positive for the banned anabolic agent metenolone.[50] Karin Melis Mey was withdrawn before the long jump final when an earlier failed doping test was confirmed.[51]

Multiple medalists were found guilty of doping after the Olympics. Russia has the most (9) medals stripped.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Number of Entries By Event Archived 4 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. IAAF (27 July 2012). Retrieved on 29 July 2012.
  2. ^ Number of athlete totals based upon information available on 27 July 2012. Totals include reserve athletes (back-ups for injuries/non-starters etc).
  3. ^ "Marathon Venue". London 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  4. ^ Athletics at the 2012 London Summer Games. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  5. ^ "Oscar Pistorius makes Olympic history in 400m at London 2012". BBC News. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  6. ^ "London 2012 Athletics - Results & Videos". 10 August 2016. 
  7. ^ Olympic sport competition schedule.
  8. ^ "US Track & Field Athlete, Gay, Accepts Sanction For Anti-Doping Rule Violation". United States Anti-Doping Agency. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  9. ^ "France relay team finally gets Olympic bronze medal". USA Today. 4 July 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015. 
  10. ^ "2012 Olympic 4x100m relay medals officially reallocated after U.S. team stripped of silver". NBS Sports. 4 July 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  11. ^ a b The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) Upholds Six Appeals Filed by the IAAF Against Russian Athlete.
  12. ^ Press, Australian Associated (17 June 2016). "Jared Tallent finally awarded his 2012 Olympic gold medal in Melbourne". theguardian.com. Retrieved 17 June 2016. 
  13. ^ IOC sanctions 4 athletes for failing anti-doping tests. from Olympic.org
  14. ^ "London 2012 javelin throw men - Olympic Athletics". 10 August 2016. 
  15. ^ http://www.kaleva.fi/urheilu/antti-ruuskanen-saa-olympiahopeansa-lahden-mm-kisojen-yhteydessa/752403/
  16. ^ http://sport.idnes.cz/atletika-vitezslav-vesely-vracena-medaile-bronz-z-londyna-zlata-tretra-2017-156-/atletika.aspx?c=A170628_141012_atletika_mne
  17. ^ http://www.bbc.com/sport/athletics/38931007
  18. ^ Association, Press (17 August 2015). "Turkey's Asli Cakir Alptekin stripped of Olympic 1500m title for doping" – via The Guardian. 
  19. ^ "London 2012 1500m women - Olympic Athletics". 9 August 2016. 
  20. ^ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/sport/news/article.cfm?c_id=4&objectid=11828609
  21. ^ "Russian set to be stripped of London 2012 Olympic title after doping ban". Insidethegames.biz. 30 January 2015. 
  22. ^ "Ghribi receives Olympic and world gold medals". Daily Mail. Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  23. ^ https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-three-athletes-for-failing-anti-doping-test-at-london-2012
  24. ^ "London 2012 20km race walk women - Olympic Athletics". 9 August 2016. 
  25. ^ "IOC sanctions Evgeniia Kolodko for failing anti-doping test at London 2012". 20 August 2016. 
  26. ^ "Russian stripped of Olympic medal in discus for doping". CBCsports. 1 May 2013. 
  27. ^ IOC sanctions Tatyana Lysenko for failing anti-doping test at London 2012
  28. ^ The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) issues decisions in the cases of Tatyana Chernova, Ekaterina Sharmina and Kristina Ugarova
  29. ^ Russian heptathlete Tatyana Chernova stripped of medals in doping case
  30. ^ Chen Race Walks home to gold. London 2012. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  31. ^ Sergey Kirdyapkin wins Olympics 50km walk gold in record time. BBC Sport (11 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  32. ^ Aspin, Guy (11 August 2011). Russia's Elena Lashmanova sets new world record in thrilling finish to women's 20km race walk . The Independent. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  33. ^ Hayward, Paul (6 August 2012). Usain Bolt wins men's 100m Olympic final in 9.63 seconds to seal legacy. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  34. ^ Garside, Kevin (12 August 2012). Brilliant Usain Bolt leads Jamaica quartet to world record in 4 × 100 m relay. The Independent. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  35. ^ 40.82! USA shatters women’s 4 × 100 m relay World Record in London!. IAAF (10 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  36. ^ 4x100 Metres Relay All Time. IAAF. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  37. ^ IAAF Statistics Handbook. Berlin 2009 Archived 6 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. IAAF. (pages 546, 548). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  38. ^ Rowbottom, Mike (10 August 2012). Lavillenie – doing his best to continue the story of French vault success. IAAF. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  39. ^ Debbie Dunn withdraws from Olympics after positive drugs test. The Guardian (14 July 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  40. ^ London 2012: Two more athletes withdrawn over anti-doping tests. The Guardian (26 July 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  41. ^ London 2012: Selsouli to miss Games after failed drugs test. BBC Sport (25 July 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  42. ^ London 2012 Olympics: Sprinter Tameka Williams sent home over drugs . Scotsman (30 July 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  43. ^ Ivan Tsikhan tests positive. ESPN (3 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  44. ^ French runner Hirt fails EPO test - source[permanent dead link]. Reuters (10 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  45. ^ London 2012: Amine Laalou, Moroccan 1500m runner, fails doping test. The Guardian (3 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  46. ^ Moldova hammer thrower tossed for doping test. Sports Illustrated (4 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  47. ^ Olympics 400m: Colombian Diego Palomeque fails drugs test. BBC Sport (12 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  48. ^ Anzolin, Elisa (8 August 2012). Athletics - Tearful Schwazer relieved by doping ban. Reuters. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  49. ^ London 2012: Positive doping test for Syrian athlete Ghfran Almouhamad. The Guardian (11 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  50. ^ Bryant, Tom (13 August 2012). Belarus shot putter Nadzeya Ostapchuk stripped of gold for doping. The Guardian. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  51. ^ Two Olympians banned over doping[permanent dead link]. Sky News Australia (19 December 2012) Retrieved on 3 March 2012

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 51°32′19″N 0°00′59″W / 51.5386°N 0.0164°W / 51.5386; -0.0164