The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Clinch County, Georgia
Clinch County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,798; the county seat is Homerville. The county was created on February 1850, named in honor of Duncan Lamont Clinch. With just 8.5 people per square mile, Clinch has one of the lowest population densities of any county in Georgia. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 824 square miles, of which 800 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water, it third-largest by total area. Eastern and southeastern portions of the county lie within the Okefenokee Swamp and its federally protected areas; the vast majority of Clinch County is located in the Upper Suwannee River sub-basin of the Suwannee River basin, with just a portion of the western and northwestern edge of the county and well northwest of Du Pont, located in the Alapaha River sub-basin of the same Suwannee River basin. Atkinson County Ware County Columbia County, Florida Baker County, Florida Echols County Lanier County Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 6,878 people, 2,512 households, 1,823 families residing in the county.
The population density was 8 people per square mile. There were 2,837 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.93% White or European American, 29.50% Black or African American, 0.51% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.10% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. 0.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2010 there were 6,798 people in Clinch County. 69.7% were White or European American, 27.7% were Black or African American, 0.8% were American Indian or Alaska Native, 0.2% were Asian and 0.1% were Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander. There were 2,512 households out of which 36.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.70% were married couples living together, 16.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.40% were non-families. 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.09.
In the county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 11.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,755, the median income for a family was $31,755. Males had a median income of $26,905 versus $19,347 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,023. About 22.20% of families and 23.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.90% of those under age 18 and 30.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,798 people, 2,572 households, 1,821 families residing in the county; the population density was 8.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,007 housing units at an average density of 3.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 67.4% white, 27.7% black or African American, 0.6% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.6% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 11.0% were English, 8.0% were Irish, 8.0% were American. Of the 2,572 households, 38.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.5% were married couples living together, 19.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families, 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age was 36.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $31,963 and the median income for a family was $45,350. Males had a median income of $31,739 versus $25,972 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,709. About 19.1% of families and 25.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.7% of those under age 18 and 24.3% of those age 65 or over. Argyle Du Pont Fargo Homerville Clinch County is the birthplace of actors Ossie Davis and Matthew Lintz, politician Iris Faircloth Blitch, Jonathan Smith, Jolene Ammons, politician W. Benjamin Gibbs, politician William Chester Lankford.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Clinch County, Georgia The Clinch County News - Local newspaper Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Clinch County historical marker Bethany Baptist Church historical marker
Atkinson County Courthouse
The Atkinson County Courthouse is a historic county courthouse in Pearson, Atkinson County, Georgia. It was designed by J. J. Baldwin and built in 1920, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places on September 18, 1980. It was remodeled in the 1980s, it is located at South Main Street. National Register of Historic Places listings in Atkinson County, Georgia
The Satilla River rises in Ben Hill County, near the town of Fitzgerald, flows in a easterly direction to the Atlantic Ocean. Along its 235-mile course are the cities of Waycross and Woodbine; the Satilla drains 4,000 square miles of land, all of it in the coastal plain of southeastern Georgia. It has white sandbars and is the largest blackwater river situated within Georgia; the river derives its name from a Spanish officer named Saint Illa, over a period of time the name was merged to form the word Satilla. The name St. Illa River was in use alongside the name Satilla River in the early nineteenth century; the Satilla enters the Atlantic Ocean about 10 miles south of Brunswick, at the 31st parallel north. Satilla River Marsh Island is one of the few places in Georgia for observing nesting sites of brown pelicans. In May 2010, the city of Waycross purchased the Bandalong Litter Trap and installed it in Tebeau Creek, a tributary of the Satilla River; the trap is manufactured in the United States by Storm Water Systems.
Although the city has maintained a good standing with the Environmental Protection Division, the city wanted to take action to reduce the amount of human generated trash entering the Satilla River and the Atlantic Ocean. Governor Sonny Perdue said, "Water is one of Georgia's most important and precious resources... the litter trap installed by Waycross is a model of stewardship for the state and the nation." The Satilla River litter trap is only the second in the nation. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Satilla River http://www.satillariver.com http://www.satillariverkeeper.org/ Georgia's Coast in photographs and more Bandalong Litter Trap Installed Waycross, Georgia Takes Bold Step in Pollution Control for Satilla River
St. Marys River (Florida–Georgia)
The St. Marys River is a 126-mile-long river in the southeastern United States. From near its source in the Okefenokee Swamp, to its mouth at the Atlantic Ocean, it forms a portion of the border between the U. S. states of Florida. The river serves as the southernmost point in the state of Georgia; the St. Marys River rises as a tiny stream, River Styx, flowing from the western edge of Trail Ridge, the geological relic of a barrier island/dune system, into the southeastern Okefenokee Swamp. Arching to the northwest, it loses its channel within the swamp turns back to the southwest and reforms a stream, at which point it becomes the St. Marys River. Joined by another stream, Moccasin Creek, the river emerges from Okefenokee Swamp at Baxter, Florida/Moniac, Georgia, it flows south east north east-southeast emptying its waters into the Atlantic, near St. Marys and Fernandina Beach, Florida. On 6 July 1805 Lieutenant Robert Pigot of HMS Cambrian arrived off the harbour in the French privateer schooner Matilda, which the British had captured three days earlier.
On 7 July Pigot took Matilda twelve miles up the St Marys River to attack three vessels reported to be there. Along the way militia and riflemen fired on Matilda; the British reached the three vessels, which were lashed in a line cross the river. They consisted of a Spanish privateer schooner and her two British prizes, the ship Golden Grove and the brig Ceres, which the Spanish privateer had captured some two months earlier; the Spaniards had armed Golden Grove with eight 6-pounder guns and six swivels, given her a crew of 50 men. The brig too was armed with small arms; the Spanish schooner carried a crew of 70 men. Pigot engaged the vessels for an hour, after Matilda had grounded, took his crew in her boats and captured Golden Grove; the British captured the other two vessels. Lastly, Pigot fired with a field gun, dispersing them; the British had two men killed, 14 wounded, including Pigot, who had received two bullet wounds to head and one to a leg. A crowd of Americans on the Georgia side of the river watched the entire battle.
See Battle of Fort Peter Martin, Charles. Where the River Ends. New York, Broadway Books, 2008. ISBN 9780767926980. An artist and his dying wife fulfill her wish of one last canoe ride from the headwaters of the St. Marys to the sea. List of rivers of Florida List of rivers of Georgia South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region State of Florida: Guide to the St. Marys River St. Marys River Watershed - Florida DEP
William Yates Atkinson
William Yates Atkinson was the 55th Governor of Georgia from 1894 to 1898. Atkinson was born in the Oakland community in Meriwether County on November 11, 1854, he graduated from the University of Georgia with an LL. B in 1877, he married Susan Cobb Milton, granddaughter of Florida Governor John Milton, in 1880. After graduating from the University of Georgia, Atkinson began practicing law in Newnan. Atkinson was the solicitor of the Coweta Superior Court circuit, he represented Coweta County as a member of the Georgia House of Representatives, where he was the speaker, or presiding officer, during the last two years. As a state representative, he introduced a bill that established the Georgia Normal and Industrial College, which became Georgia College and State University in Milledgeville, Georgia, he was the Georgia Democratic Party state chair from 1890 to 1892. Atkinson was elected Governor of Georgia, he was reelected to a second term in 1896. During his administration, he hired the first woman salaried employee in state government, Ellen Dortch, as assistant state librarian.
In 1897, he vetoed a law that would have prohibited football in the state, due in part to an impassioned letter from Rosalind Burns Gammon, whose son's death had initiated the anti-football legislation. He was vehement in his opposition to the practice of lynching. Atkinson was mentioned by William Henry Holtzclaw founder of Utica Institute in Mississippi, as giving him the money he needed to go back to Tuskegee Institute for college - as well as a kindly lecture on the advisability of staying out of politics. After his two terms as governor, Atkinson bravely confronted the mob in the infamous Sam Hose lynching and tried to get them to allow the legal justice system to take its course, he was unsuccessful and Hose was lynched soon after Atkinson confronted the mob. Atkinson died on August 8, 1899 at the age of 44, he is buried in Oak Hill Cemetery in Newnan. Atkinson County, Georgia is named for him, his son, William Yates Atkinson, Jr. was the Georgia Democratic state chair in 1942 as well as a Georgia state Supreme Court justice from 1943 to 1948.
Atkinson Hall, on the campus of Georgia College and State University, is named for him. This Day in Georgia History:November 11th, Ed Jackson and Charly Pou, Carl Vinson Institute of Government, The University of Georgia List of Speakers of the Georgia House of Representatives Hulett, Keith. "William Y. Atkinson." New Georgia Encyclopedia. September 25, 2014. Web. June 17, 2016. Portrait of William Yates Atkinson William Yates Atkinson at Find a Grave Picture of Georgia Governor William Yates Atkinson with his military staff on horseback at the corner of Peachtree Street and Cain Street in downtown Atlanta, Georgia. Atlanta History Photograph Collection, Atlanta History Center, presented in the Digital Library of Georgia. Web. June 17, 2016. "Governor William Yates Atkinson historical marker". Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved June 18, 2016
The Alapaha River is a 202-mile-long river in southern Georgia and northern Florida in the United States. It is a tributary of the Suwannee River; the Hernando de Soto expedition narrative records mention a "Yupaha" village they encountered after they left Apalachee, "the sound of, suggestive of the Alapaha, a tributary of the Suwanee." Another reference to a village of "Atapaha" "so resembles Alapaha that it is reasonable to suppose they are the same, that the town was on the river of that name." John Reed Swanton's landmark Indian Tribes of North America places the Indian village of Alapaha near where the Alapaha River met the Suwanee, noted that an Indian village of "Arapaja" was 70 leagues from St. Augustine, Florida on the Alapaha River. In the 1840s a German travel writer, Friedrich Gerstäcker wrote a dime novel called Alapaha, or the Renegades of the Border, giving the name to a noble Cherokee "squaw." A translation of this novel was published in the 1870s as #67 in a series of American narratives published by Beadle.
During the American Civil War, the swamps along the Alapaha River in Berrien and Echols counties became a refuge for a number of gangs of Confederate deserters. The Alapaha River rises in southeastern Dooly County and flows southeastwardly through or along the boundaries of Crisp, Turner, Ben Hill, Tift, Atkinson, Lanier and Echols Counties in Georgia, Hamilton County in Florida, where it flows into the Suwannee River 10 miles southwest of Jasper. Along its course it passes the Georgia towns of Rebecca, Willacoochee and Statenville. Near Willacoochee, the Alapaha collects the Willacoochee River. In Florida, it collects the Alapahoochee River and the short Little Alapaha River, which rises in Echols County and flows southwestward; the Alapaha River is an intermittent river for part of its course. During periods of low volume, the river becomes a subterranean river. At 2.3 miles downstream from Jennings, Florida the Dead River enters the Alapaha River. It is a dry river bed with a number of sinkholes, including the Dead River Sink.
During periods of low water flow, the Alapaha River downstream from the confluence of the Dead River and the Alapaha River flows upstream into the Dead River. A few more miles downstream is a second sinkhole variously known as the Alapaha River Sink, Suck Hole, or the Devil's Den on the western bank of the river. At the latter point during the periods of low water flow, the Alapaha River disappears underground leaving a dry bank for much of the remainder of its course; the Alapaha River reappears at the Alapaha River Rise, about a half mile upstream from the confluence of the Alapaha River and the Suwanee River. During a period of low rainfall over 11 miles of the riverbed can be dry as the river goes underground; the United States Board on Geographic Names settled on "Alapaha River" as the stream's name in 1891. According to the Geographic Names Information System, it has been known as: Columbia Gazetteer of North America entry DeLorme. Georgia Atlas & Gazetteer. Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. ISBN 0-89933-253-6.
U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Alapaha River U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Little Alapaha River Underground: The Alapaha River as an Intermittent River