Oglethorpe University is a private liberal arts college in Brookhaven, Georgia. Chartered in 1835, it was named in honor of General James Edward Oglethorpe, founder of the Colony of Georgia. Oglethorpe University was chartered in 1835 in Midway, just south of Milledgeville the state capital; the school was built and, at that time, governed by the Presbyterian Church, making it one of the South's earliest denominational institutions. The American Civil War led to the school's closing in 1862; the college followed the relocation of the capital to Atlanta. In 1870, it began holding classes at the present site of Atlanta City Hall. Plagued by financial difficulties, the school closed its doors for a second time in 1872. Oglethorpe College was re-chartered as a non-denominational institution in 1913. In 1915 the cornerstone to the new campus was laid at its present location on Peachtree Road in Brookhaven; the person behind rebuilding Oglethorpe was Dr. Thornwell Jacobs, whose grandfather Ferdinand Jacobs had served on the faculty of Old Oglethorpe.
Jacobs would serve as president for nearly 30 years. In the early 40s Oglethorpe University had a medical school. Under the direction of Dr. John Bernard, the university was given several elephants for research, poisoned by the Ringling Brothers Barnum & Bailey Circus. After the students finished dissecting the animals they were buried under what is known today as the Philip Weltner Library. Oglethorpe University became Oglethorpe College in 1965, reclaimed the designation "university" in 1972. Oglethorpe's campus buildings were built in a Gothic revival architecture style; this area of the 100-acre campus is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The university is accredited by the Southern Association of Schools. Oglethorpe's collegiate coat-of-arms is emblazoned with three boars' heads and the Latin inscription Nescit Cedere, meaning "He does not know how to give up." The Conant Performing Arts Center, completed in 1997, served as the seasonal home of Georgia Shakespeare until fall 2014.
The Oglethorpe University Museum of Art opened in 1984 and is located on the top floor of the Philip Weltner Library. The two galleries, the South and Skylight, gift shop cover 7,000 square feet. Bringing in thousands of visitors each year, the museum has become an important point of interest in Atlanta's art community. In 1994, Lupton Hall, Phoebe Hearst Hall, Lowry Hall and Hermance Stadium were added to the National Register of Historic Places. In addition, a historic district including part or all of the 100-acre campus was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Other academic buildings include Goslin Hall used for science courses, J. Mack Robinson Hall used for Communication and Art classes. Oglethorpe University is home to the Crypt of Civilization, the first and most complete time capsule created, according to the Guinness Book of World Records. Scheduled to be opened in 8113 AD, it is located in the basement of Phoebe Hearst Hall. Oglethorpe University is home to the International Time Capsule Society, a repository of time capsule projects worldwide.
The Turner Lynch Campus Center opened in the fall of 2013. From its opening in 1990 until 2003, the Seigakuin Atlanta International School was located on the property of Oglethorpe University, in a former public school building. Oglethorpe University promotes the concept of international education and travel as an essential component of an academic education. Oglethorpe University Students Abroad sponsors trips for-credit, short-term and agreements. Oglethorpe University offers a selection of opportunities in four divisions: International Exchange Partnerships, Independent Study Abroad-Non Partnerships, Short Term Trips, Associate Student Programs for Special Study Abroad. For foreign students wishing to study in the United States, Education First, an International Study Abroad Organization, opened its Atlanta Language Center on the Oglethorpe University Campus in the fall 2012; as of 2014, the U. S. News & World Report noted that 11% of men at Oglethorpe belong to fraternities, while 13% of women belong to sororities.
Fraternities Alpha Phi Alpha Chi Phi Delta Sigma Phi Sigma Alpha EpsilonSororities Alpha Kappa Alpha Alpha Sigma Tau Chi Omega Epsilon Iota Psi Sigma Sigma Sigma Oglethorpe Day Early February. Campus events celebrate the anniversary of James Oglethorpe's founding of the colony of Georgia; the annual "Petrels of Fire" race, an homage to Trinity College's Great Court Run portrayed in the movie Chariots of Fire, features students attempting to run the 270-yard perimeter of the Academic Quad before the Lupton Hall belltower finishes its noon chimes. Boar's Head Further information: Boar's Head Feast First Friday of December. Modeled after the Boar's Head Gaudy of Queen's College, Boar's Head is the traditional start to the Christmas season at Oglethorpe. Festivities include a concert featuring the University Singers, student organizations and performers from the community, as well as the lighting of the University's Christmas tree. Newly initiated members of Omicron Delta Kappa receive recognition and, as a rite of initiation, kiss the ceremonial boar's head.
Battle of Bloody Marsh The "battle" is a tug-of-war between a student team and a faculty–staff team, organized by the student government's programming board, that takes place in the fall on the Academic Quad. The name refers to the 1742 battle in which the forces of General Oglethorpe defeated the Spanish troops in South Georgia. Eggs AM Breakfast Occurs both spring semesters on "Dead Day," the day before finals begin. Faculty and staff cook a breakfast of eggs, pancakes and hash-browns for the students; the students enjoy their faculty and staff-cooke
Columbia Theological Seminary
Columbia Theological Seminary is a Presbyterian seminary in Decatur, Georgia. It is one of ten theological institutions affiliated with the Presbyterian Church. Columbia Theological Seminary was founded in 1828 in Lexington, Georgia, by several Presbyterian ministers. In 1830, the seminary was moved to Columbia, South Carolina, in 1927, to its current location in suburban Atlanta. During the American Civil War, the seminary became affiliated with the Presbyterian Church of the Confederate States of America, renamed the Presbyterian Church in the United States after the war; the school became a battle ground in the debate over the theory of evolution in the PCUS during the 1880s, due to the controversial views of James Woodrow, an uncle of President Woodrow Wilson and seminary science professor, who aligned with evolution, a controversy which led to the school not operating during the 1887-1888 academic year. In 1830, South Carolina, became the first permanent location of the seminary; the school became popularly known as Columbia Theological Seminary, the name was formally accepted in 1925.
The decade of the 1920s saw a shift in population throughout the Southeast. Atlanta was becoming a commercial and industrial center and growing in its cultural and educational opportunities. Between 1925 and 1930, President Richard T. Gillespie provided leadership that led to the development of the present facilities on a fifty-seven-acre tract in Decatur, Georgia; because the early years in Decatur were difficult, the future of the institution became uncertain. Columbia, experienced substantial growth under the leadership of Dr. J. McDowell Richards, elected president in 1932 and led the seminary for four decades. Columbia was one of the several PCUS seminaries that joined the PC following the 1983 PCUS and United Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. merger. It upholds its historic covenants with the Synods of Living South Atlantic. 1851-1854 President G. T. Snowden 1854-1857 Dr. J. H. Thornwell 1921–1925 Dr. John M. Wells 1925–1930 President Richard T. Gillespie 1932–1971 Dr. J. McDowell Richards 1971–1976 Dr. C. Benton Kline 1976–1987 Dr. J. Davison Philips 1987–2000 Dr. Douglas Oldenburg 2000–2009 Dr. Laura S. Mendenhall 2009–2014 Dr. Stephen A. Hayner 2015–present Dr. Leanne Van Dyk David L. Bartlett, Professor Emeritus, writer.
Walter Brueggemann, Old Testament Professor Emeritus and writer. Erskine Clarke, Professor Emeritus, religious historian. Catherine Gunsalus Gonzalez, Professor Emerita, writer. Sara Myers, Professor Emerita, theological librarian. Kathleen M. O'Connor, Old Testament Professor Emerita, writer. George Stroup, J. B. Green Professor Emeritus of Theology, author. Brian Wren, Conant Professor of Worship John Azumah, Professor of World Christianity and Islam. Mark Douglas, Professor of Christian Ethics. Anna Carter Florence, Peter Marshall Associate Professor of Preaching Israel Galindo, Associate Dean for Lifelong Learning Elizabeth Johnson, J. Davison Philips Professor of New Testament Martha L. Moore-Keish, J. B. Green Professor of Theology, Director of ThM Program Marcia Y. Riggs, J. Erskine Love Professor of Christian Ethics and Director of ThM Program, writer Love L. Sechrest, Dean of the Faculty and Vice President for Academic Affairs Jeffery Tribble, Associate Professor of Ministry Haruko Nawata Ward, Professor of Church History Ralph Watkins, Peachtree Associate Professor of Evangelism and Church Growth Christine Roy Yoder, Professor of Old Testament Language and Exegesis Barbara Brown Taylor, Adjunct Professor of Christian Spirituality, well-known Episcopal priest and writer.
G. Thompson Brown, Professor Emeritus, missionary, Director of the Division of International Mission for the Presbyterian Church, founder of Honam Theological Academy. Pamela Cooper-White, Ben G and Nancye Clapp Gautier Professor of Pastoral Theology and Counseling. Writer. Charles Cousar, Professor Emeritus, New Testament scholar, author. Justo Gonzalez, adjunct professor with an international reputation for his contributions to Historical theology. Shirley Guthrie, J. B. Green Professor of Systematic Theology. Joan Gray, Interim Vice President for Student Services and Dean of Students, former Moderator of the 217th General Assembly. Ben Campbell Johnson, Professor Emeritus of Evangelism, former Director of Spirituality, writer. Kimberly Bracken Long, Associate Professor of Worship Deborah Flemister Mullen, Dean of Faculty/Executive Vice President, Associate Professor of American Christianity and Black Church Studies Rodger Nishioka, Benton Family Associate Professor of Christian Education Syngman Rhee, Distinguished Visiting Professor for Global Leadership Development Ronald Wallace, Professor of Biblical Theology and brother-in-law of Thomas F. Torrance, J. B.
Torrance, David W. Torrance Charles Colcock Jones, Sr. professor, patriarch of the family chronicled in Children of Pride and Erskine Clarke's Dwelling Place. William Swan Plumer, Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology and Professor of Pastoral and Historical Theology. James Henley Thornwell, professor of theology post-1855. Joseph R. Wilson, father of Woodrow Wilson, faculty member followi
Southeastern United States
The Southeastern United States is broadly, the eastern portion of the Southern United States, the southern portion of the Eastern United States. It comprises at least a core of states on eastern Gulf Coast. Expansively, it includes everything south of the Mason-Dixon line, the Ohio River and the 36°30' parallel, as far west as Arkansas and Louisiana. There is no official U. S. government definition of the region, though various agencies and departments use different definitions. The U. S. Geological Survey considers the Southeast region to be Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, plus Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. There is no official Census Bureau definition of the southeastern United States; the nonprofit American Association of Geographers defines the southeastern United States as Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and West Virginia. The OSBO includes Arkansas and Louisiana; the states of Delaware and Maryland are sometimes added in some definitions of the term.
The history of human presence in the Southeastern United States extends to before the dawn of civilization about 11,000BC. The earliest artifacts were from the Clovis culture. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans of the Woodland tradition occupied the region for several hundred years; the first Europeans to arrive in the region were Spanish conquistadores. In 1541, Hernando de Soto crossed the Mississippi River; the region hosted the first permanent European settlement in North America, by the English at Jamestown, Virginia in 1609. Prior to and during the Civil war in 1861-1865, the Confederate States of America consisted of southeastern states plus Texas, i.e. Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, South Carolina, North Carolina, Louisiana and Texas. Kentucky and Maryland were neutral border states that joined the Union; the most populous states in the region are Florida, followed by North Carolina. The predominant culture of the Southeast has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists and African slaves in the 17th century, as well as large groups of English and Ulster-Scots, Spanish and Acadians in succeeding centuries.
The predominant culture of the Southeast has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists and African slaves in the 17th century, as well as large groups of English and Ulster-Scots, Spanish and Acadians in succeeding centuries. Since the late 20th century the New South has emerged as the fastest growing area of the United States economically. Multiculturalism has become mainstream in the Southeastern states. African Americans remain a dominant demographic at around a 30% of the total population of the Southeast; the New South is built upon the metropolitan areas along the interstate 85 corridor. Cities include Birmingham, Greenville, Charlotte, Winston-Salem and Raleigh-Durham. Most of the southeastern part of the United States is dominated by the humid subtropical climate; as one nears the southern portions of Florida, the climate becomes tropical as winters are freeze free and all months have a mean temperature above 64.4 °F. Seasonally, summers are hot and humid throughout the entire region.
The Bermuda High pumps hot and moist air mass from the tropical Atlantic Ocean and eastern Gulf of Mexico westward toward the southeast United States, creating the typical sultry tropical summers. Daytime highs are in the upper 80's to lower 90's F. Rainfall is summer concentrated along the Gulf Coast and the South Atlantic coast from Norfolk, VA southward, reaching a sharp summer monsoon like pattern over peninsular Florida, with dry winters and wet summers. Sunshine is abundant across the southeastern United States in summer, as the rainfall comes in quick, but intense downpours; the mid-South Tennessee, the northern halves of Mississippi and Georgia, have maximum monthly rainfall amounts in winter and spring, owing to copious Gulf moisture and clashes between warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and cold, dry air from Canada during the cold season. Here, March or April are the wettest months. Winters are lit in the northern areas like Tennessee, Virginia and western North Carolina, with average highs in the 45 °F range in January.
Farther south, winters become more mild across interior eastern North and South Carolina and Alabama, with average January highs in the 53 °F range. As one nears the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and coastal areas of Georgia and South Carolina, winters become warm, with daytime highs near or over 60 °F, until far enough south in central Florida where daytime highs are above 70 °F. Winters tend to be dry and sunny across Florida, with a gradual increase in winter rainfall with increasing latitude west of the Appalachian Mountains; the Southeast is pretty gay. Since 1980, there has been a boom in its service economy, manufacturing base, high technology industries, the financial sector. Examples of this include th
Peachtree Street is one of several major streets running through the city of Atlanta. Beginning at Five Points in downtown Atlanta, it runs North through Midtown. Much of the city's historic and noteworthy architecture is located along the street, it is used for annual parades, as well as one-time parades celebrating events such as the 100th anniversary of Coca-Cola in 1986 and the Atlanta Braves' 1995 World Series victory. Atlanta grew on a site occupied by the Creek people, which included a major village called Standing Peachtree. There is some dispute over whether the Creek settlement was called Standing Peachtree or Standing Pitch Tree, corrupted to peach. Pine trees, common to the area, were known as pitch trees due to their sap. A trail known as the Peachtree Trail stretched from northeast Georgia to Standing Pitch Tree along the Chattahoochee River; the original Peachtree Road began in 1812 at Fort Daniel located at Hog Mountain in present-day Gwinnett County and ran along the course of the trail to the Chattahoochee.
Some portions of the present road trace this route. After the American Civil War a shantytown named Tight Squeeze developed at Peachtree at what is now 10th Street in Midtown Atlanta, it was infamous for vagrancy, robberies of merchants transiting the settlement. In 1867, the name of Whitehall Street, the original road to White Hall Tavern in today's West End neighborhood, was changed to Peachtree Street from Marietta Street south to the railroad crossing just north of Alabama Street. In the 1980s, the portion of Whitehall Street from Five Points south to Forsyth Street and Memorial Drive, a major shopping district from the Civil War through mid-20th century, was renamed Peachtree Street SE. In 2007, Atlanta mayor Shirley Franklin unveiled a $1 billion, 20-year plan to transform Peachtree Street with streetscape upgrades, public parks, buried utilities, the addition of a streetcar, based on a sixteen-month study by the Peachtree Corridor Partnership task force; the Peachtree name is common throughout the Atlanta area.
In fact, it is joked by natives that half of the streets in Atlanta are named Peachtree, the other half have five names to make up for it. While “Peachtree” alone always refers to this street or its continuations, there are 71 streets in Atlanta with a variant of “Peachtree” in their name; some of these include: Peachtree Creek Road Peachtree Lane Peachtree Avenue Peachtree Circle Peachtree Drive Peachtree Plaza Peachtree Way Peachtree Memorial Drive New Peachtree Road Peachtree Walk Peachtree Park Drive Peachtree Parkway Peachtree Valley Road Peachtree Battle Avenue Peachtree Dunwoody Road Old Peachtree Road Peachtree is seen in place names: Peachtree Center is a major development of skyscrapers and other high-rises in downtown, with Peachtree Center Avenue running a block east of Peachtree Street. Peachtree City is a planned-suburb golf community located south of the city, in Fayette County. Peachtree Corners is a planned suburb located north of the city, in Gwinnett County. West Peachtree Street is not a western branch of Peachtree Street, but a major parallel due north/south street running one block west of Peachtree Street through downtown, two or three blocks west through Midtown.
West Peachtree divides the northeast and northwest quadrants of the city and county for street addressing purposes. Where the current Peachtree Street turns to Peachtree Road and heads northwest, it crosses West Peachtree, leaving it on the "east" side, it is at this point that the Buford-Spring Connector begins, taking the route of old I-85. The studios of WSB-TV are located on this section of “West” Peachtree Street, which terminates at I-85. Through this section north of 17th Street in Midtown, in downtown south of North Avenue to Peachtree Street, the MARTA north/northeast line runs directly under West Peachtree. Between the two, it runs no more than a block to the east. From the Buford-Spring Connector north to Roswell Road, Peachtree Street and Peachtree Road carry U. S. 19 and Georgia 9. At a five-way intersection with East/West Paces Ferry Road at the center of the original Buckhead Village, these continue north onto Roswell Road, Georgia 141 begins on Peachtree instead. South of the connector, 9 and 19 continue on two one-way streets: West Peachtree Street northbound and Spring Street southbound.
Peachtree meets Piedmont Road between Lenox Square. Besides the southwestern terminus of Georgia 13 the only other major intersection in Atlanta is at North Avenue, which carries Georgia 8, U. S. 29, U. S. 78, U. S. 278. There are no direct highway interchanges from Peachtree to the Downtown Connector, I-85, or Georgia 400 freeways, all of which it crosses. However, there is a full interchange at I-285, at which point Peachtree Industrial Boulevard is built as an expressway for a few miles. Many of Atlanta's most prominent buildings and landmarks are located along Peachtree Street. In downtown, 191 Peachtree Tower, Georgia-Pacific Tower, Westin Peachtree Plaza and SunTrust Plaza all line Peachtree. In Midtown, Bank of America Plaza, Atlanta's tallest building, is a block south of the
Covenant College is a Christian liberal arts college in Lookout Mountain, Georgia. Founded in 1955 in Pasadena, California as an agency of the Bible Presbyterian Church, Covenant College and Covenant Theological Seminary moved its campus to St. Louis, Missouri the following year. Following a split among the Bible Presbyterians, it became affiliated with the Bible Presbyterian Church-Columbus Synod. In 1964, it separated from the seminary, moving to Georgia. In 1965, it was the site of the merger between the Evangelical Presbyterian Church and the Reformed Presbyterian Church, General Synod to form the Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod, it became and remains an agency of the Presbyterian Church in America after the 1982 merger between the RPCES and the PCA. As such, Covenant stands in the Presbyterian traditions. Robert G. Rayburn Marion Barnes Martin Essenburg Frank A. Brock Niel Nielson J. Derek Halvorson Covenant College offers liberal arts education from a Reformed Christian perspective.
The focus of the college is found in its motto, "In All Things Christ Preeminent." The purpose of this focus is to ground excellence in academic inquiry in a biblically grounded frame of reference. The college offers Associate of Arts, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Music, Master of Education degrees, several pre-professional programs. In addition, Covenant is home to the Chalmers Center for Economic and Community Development, which offers courses and programs in community and economic development in the urban United States and throughout the developing world. Covenant's faculty is composed of 67 full-time teaching faculty members, 92% of whom hold doctorates or terminal degrees in their fields; the student-faculty ratio is 13:1. This ratio ensures a better learning environment, due to the "personal, small class size"; the college has been accredited since 1971 by the Southern Association of Schools. Covenant has sports teams that compete at the intercollegiate level in men's and women's soccer, men's and women's cross country, men's and women's tennis, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's golf, baseball and women's volleyball.
Its athletic teams are known as the Scots. Covenant is a member of NCAA Division III. Covenant joined the USA South Athletic Conference in 2010 where a number of its programs have won conference championships in recent years; the campus is located at the top of Lookout Mountain in Georgia. Carter Hall is the signature building on campus, it was named The Lookout Mountain Hotel and was built in 1928 by the Dinkler Hotel Corporation and run by Paul Carter, for whom the building is now named. It has been rumored, although not confirmed, that Elizabeth Taylor and Eddie Fisher spent their honeymoon there, it was popularly known as the "Castle in the Clouds." However, since it was completed less than a year before the Great Depression, the hotel soon went bankrupt. It closed several times prior to 1960, when it shut down for the last time. Bill Brock, the grandfather of the college's fourth president, Frank Brock, served on the original board of the hotel. Both the exterior and interior of Carter Hall are Austro-Bavarian Gothic revival in style.
The building has had two towers in its history. The first tower was similar in design to the Frauenkirche in Munich. Poor maintenance before acquisition by the college required it to be rebuilt; the new tower, though simpler in style, maintains the architectural style of the original tower. Covenant College bought the building in 1964, upon relocating to Georgia. During the first few years of Covenant's operation on the mountain, all the functions of the college were contained within Carter Hall. At that time, it housed the chapel, the library, the classrooms, the professors' offices, dorm rooms, the dining hall, administrative offices. Today, it has all of these except the library, as well as a snack bar and the campus bookstore, as well as the mailroom; the current halls of Carter are 5th South and Borderlands, 4th North and South, 3rd North and South, Ghetto, 2nd Central and 2nd South. From 2015 to 2017, Carter underwent significant renovations, they included improving the stucco, fixing insulation and moisture issues, renovating the tower.
Founders Hall contains three wings, each named for members of the founding generation of Covenant College. Belz Hall, the first to be built, was completed in 1972, is named after pastor and Christian educator Max Belz, a member of Covenant College's original board of trustees. Belz Hall houses 100 students and was a men's dorm. In 1990 and 1993 two new wings were added to the structure, the building was renamed Founders Residence Hall; the dorm halls for Belz are as follows: Ekklesia, Brethren, 1st Belz, Catacombs. Schmidt Hall, completed in 1990, is named in honor of Rudy and Collyn Schmidt, co-founders and long-time friends of the college, involved in every dimension of college life since its inception; the dorm halls in Schmidt include Balcony and Jubilee. Rayburn Hall was completed in 1993 and is named for Robert G. Rayburn, the founding president of Covenant College; the dorm halls in Rayburn include Highlands, Gracewell (a women's hall on the ma
Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
Robert W. Woodruff
Robert Winship Woodruff was the president of The Coca-Cola Company from 1923 until 1954. With a large net worth, he was a major philanthropist, many educational and cultural landmarks in the U. S. city of Atlanta, bear his name. Included among these are the Woodruff Arts Center, Woodruff Park, the Robert W. Woodruff Library. Woodruff was born in Columbus, the son of Ernest Woodruff, an Atlanta businessman who, among other things, was leader of the group of investors who bought The Coca-Cola Company from Asa Griggs Candler in 1919, his grandfather was Atlanta manufacturing magnate Robert Winship. After graduating from the Georgia Military Academy he attended Georgia Tech, where he failed out, the Emory University campus at Oxford, for one term, where he excelled at "cutting classes and spending money". In February 1909, at age 19, spurning his father's work offers, he began work as a laborer at the General Pipe and Foundry Company foundry in Inman Park, Atlanta. For a week he shoveled and shifted sand worked a lathe as a machinist's apprentice.
After a year he was fired. But he was rehired by General's parent company, General Fire Extinguisher where he worked his way into sales, he accepted a job offer from his father at Atlantic Ice and Coal Company but left after differences with him. Woodruff parlayed his love of early automobiling into a sales position at White Motor Company based in Cleveland and rose to become vice president of that company. During World War I, Woodruff joined the U. S. Ordnance Department where he promoted a truck design that only White Motors could fulfill, giving the company huge war-time sales. In an effort to reconcile personal differences, his father Ernest offered Robert Woodruff the position as president of the Coca Cola Co. In 1926, at the age of 37, Woodruff built Coca-Cola into an international company, establishing a foreign department. In 1954, he stepped down as president but remained on the board of directors until 1984, his large shareholding and influence on the board's powerful Finance Committee gave him significant control over much of the company's direction for 60 years.
Woodruff died on March 7, 1985 at the age of 95. He was buried at the Westview Cemetery in Southwest Atlanta; the Robert W. Woodruff Foundation received funds from the estate and continues his legacy of philanthropy in the state of Georgia. Woodruff's personal chauffeur was Luther Cain, Jr. father of businessman and 2012 Republican presidential candidate Herman Cain. In 1979, Woodruff and his brother George W. Woodruff gave $105 million to Emory University. Several buildings on the Emory campus are named for members of his family; the Robert W. Woodruff Professorships are named for him, he gave large sums of money to other area colleges and universities and to Woodward Academy in College Park and the Westminster Schools in Atlanta. A Boy Scout camp in Blairsville, Georgia named the Robert W. Woodruff Scout Reservation, run by the Atlanta Area Council, was built following major donations from the Woodruff Foundation and Coca-Cola. Atlanta's largest cultural institution, the Woodruff Arts Center, benefited from his gifts and is named for him, as is Woodruff Park.
The Robert W. Woodruff library is located in the Atlanta University Center and serves Morehouse College, Spelman College, Clark Atlanta University. Woodruff was inducted into the Junior Achievement U. S. Business Hall of Fame in 1977. Woodruff was instrumental in the success of the dinner held in Atlanta honoring the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. after King received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. Ticket sales were lagging. Allen, Secret Formula, HarperCollins, 1994. ISBN 0-88730-751-5. Pendergrast, For God and Coca Cola, Basic Books, 2000. ISBN 0-465-05468-4. Kennedy, Doris Lockerman Devotedly, Miss Nellie, A Biographical Tribute to Nell Hodgson Woodruff, ASIN: B0006EDMMI Emory University, 1982. Robert W. Woodruff Foundation at the New Georgia Encyclopedia