1996 Summer Paralympics
The 1996 Paralympic Games in Atlanta, USA were held from August 16 to 25. It was the first Paralympics to get mass media sponsorship, had a budget of USD $81 million, it was the first Paralympic Games where International Sports Federation for Persons with an Intellectual Disability athletes were given full medal status. The mascot for the Paralympic Summer Games in Atlanta 1996 was Blaze. Blaze was created by Trevor Stone Irvin of Irvin Productions in Atlanta. Blaze is a mythical bird that rises from ashes to experience a renewed life; the phoenix appears in Greco-Roman, Arabian, Chinese and Native American folklore and in all instances symbolizes strength, vision and survival. The phoenix was an ideal mascot for the 1996 Atlanta Paralympic Games and for BlazeSports America, a nonprofit organization, the direct legacy of the Games; the phoenix has long been the symbol of Atlanta's rebirth after its devastation in the American Civil War. But most it is the personification of the will and determination of youth and adults with physical disability to achieve full and productive lives.
Blaze, with his bright colors and broad wing span, reflects the traits, identified in a focus group of athletes with disability, as those they believed best represented the drive to succeed of persons with physical disability who pursue sports as recreation and as a competitive endeavor. Today, Blaze is the most recognizable symbol of disability sport in America; the games consisted including three demonstration sports. Archery Athletics Boccia Cycling Equestrian Football 7-a-side Goalball Judo Lawn bowls Powerlifting Racquetball Sailing Shooting Swimming Table tennis Volleyball Wheelchair basketball Wheelchair fencing Wheelchair rugby Wheelchair tennis In total 11 venues were used at the 1996 Summer Olympics and five new venues were used at the Games in Atlanta. Centennial Olympic Stadium – opening/closing ceremonies, athletics Alexander Memorial Coliseum – standing volleyball Georgia Tech Aquatic Center – swimming Henderson Arena – judo and wheelchair rugby Panther Stadium – lawn bowls and 7-side-football Woodruff P.
E. Center – boccia GSU Sports Arena – goalball Marriott Marquis – powerlifiting Sheffield Building – wheelchair fencing Forbes Arena and Omni Coliseum – wheelchair basketball Clayton State Arena – sitting volleyball Lake Lanier – yachting Georgia International Horse Park – equestrian Infinite Energy Center – table tennis Stone Mountain Park – archery,wheelchair tennis and cycling Wolf Creek Shooting Complex – shooting A total of 1577 medals were awarded during the Atlanta games: 518 gold, 517 silver, 542 bronze; the host country, the United States, topped the medal count with more gold medals, more bronze medals, more medals overall than any other nation. Germany took the most silver medals, with 58. In the table below, the ranking sorts by the number of gold medals earned by the top ten nations; the number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and the number of bronze medals. Host country For the first time the Paralympics were being televised on American TV; this has now led to each following paralympic games being televised.
Germany was the second largest contingency of spectators apart from America, highlighted in there 149 medal tally, only second to the USA. A total of 100 nations were represented at the 1996 Games, the combined total of athletes was about 3,260. 1996 Summer Olympics BlazeSports America, the legacy organization of the 1996 Paralympic Games International Paralympic Committee Official site at the Wayback Machine
2000 Summer Paralympics
The 2000 Paralympic Games were held in Sydney, from 18 to 29 October. In September 1993, Sydney won the rights to host the 2000 Paralympic Games. To secure this right it was expected that the New South Wales Government would underwrite the budget for the games; the Sydney games were the 11th Summer Paralympic Games, where an estimated 3,800 athletes took part in the programme. They commenced with the opening ceremony on 18 October 2000, it was followed by the 11 days of fierce international competition and was the second largest sporting event held in Australia. They were the first Paralympic Games outside the Northern Hemisphere; this was the last edition of the Paralympic Summer Games, run independently of the Summer Olympics, although efforts to unify the two events had begun at that time and some areas of both such as the Olympic Village and the operational areas were merged for the first time. At the beginning of his candidacy for the Olympic Games, the city of Sydney showed no interest in hosting the Paralympic Games.
But in 1993, a few months before the final presentation in Monaco, Adrienne Smith, a sporting inclusion activist and the executive secretary of the newly founded Australia Paralympic Federation, along with Ron Finneran, the Federation President lobbied to ensure the Paralympics were part of Sydney’s bid for the 2000 Olympics and underwritten by the Federal and State Governments. They insured that the paralympic athletes would have the same treatment, the same conditions and the same support as their Olympic counterparts. Something that until was unprecedented and would become a point of no return in the Paralympic Games. After the win, Smith commented that, “We couldn’t go public because if we did it would have ruined the Olympic bid. We had no acknowledgement of financial support from the government until the day of the bid in September 1993; the games was estimated to cost AUS$157 million, with the NSW Government and Commonwealth Government contributing AUS$25 million each. The Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games contributed $18 million, within the bid estimates.
The Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee entered into a Host City contract with the International Paralympic Committee, which outlines the SPOC’s obligations in hosting the Paralympic Games. To cover the costs, other revenue was raised via ticket sales; the 110,000 seat Stadium Australia was completed three months early in February 1999, this stadium was funded by the private sector at an estimated cost of $690 million, the Government contributed $124 million to this project. Though there is no budgeted profit, if any profit is made though the games, repayment to the Federal and State Governments is the first priority. In October 1998, governing bodies of the Paralympics including the SOCOG and the Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee initiated a call for volunteers. An estimated total of forty-one thousand Australians answered this call, non-including those sourced from specialist community groups; the major focus between 1999-2000 was completion of the first stage of the Millennium Parklands.
This is composed of 450 hectares of landscape, with up to 40 kilometers of pedestrian and cycle trails. This major first stage included focus on the surrounding Olympic facilities, providing a beautiful landscape for recreational activities and environmental education/preservation. During this time work on the Water Reclamation and Management Scheme will continue to progress; the WRAMS will be in use during the games with the first stage to be implemented. This system will continue after the games, will be developed after the games has been completed; the WRAMS system is only one of the many water saving management strategies to be used during the games period. Plans to use stormwater runoff from Newington to be used as irrigation and a requirement for Olympic venues to utilise water saving techniques and devices are some of the other water saving plans. Stormwater from the Stadium Australia roof is to be collected and used to irrigate the central stadium. An environmental education program is delivered throughout 1999-2000 to ensure that Homebush Bay and the Sydney Olympics and Paralympics continue to be recognised for their commitment to the environment.
The Paralympic Games are governed by the International Paralympic Committee. The Games were organised by the Sydney Paralyampic Organising Committee led by President Dr John Grant and Chief Executive Officer Lois Appleby; the SOCOG was established at the same time as the Sydney Paralympic organising Committee on 12 November 1993 by the Office of Olympic Co-ordination. In January 1995, SPOC became a public company controlled by the Government, receiving support by both State and Commonwealth Governments. A board of directors including the Premier, Minister for the Olympics, the Treasurer and the Minister for Sport, Recreation conducted administration; the Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee was responsible for planning and staging the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games including tickets, information on events and disability categorisation, converting Olympic venues to Paralympic venues, conducting events, facilitating drug testing, arranging broadcasting, housing for athletes, arranging medal ceremonies, transporting athletes and conducting the Paralympic torch relay.
The Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee regulated the use of Paralympic Games indicia and images. A committee known as the Joint Working Group was established in June 1997, linking the Boards of both the Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee and the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games. On 29 November, the Sydney Games Administration Act 2000 was passed; the leg
1996 Summer Olympics
The 1996 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad known as Atlanta 1996, referred to as the Centennial Olympic Games, were an international multi-sport event, held from July 19 to August 4, 1996, in Atlanta, United States. These Games, which were the fourth Summer Olympics to be hosted by the United States, marked the century of the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens—the inaugural edition of the modern Olympic Games, they were the first since 1924 to be held in a different year from a Winter Olympics, under a new IOC practice implemented in 1994 to hold the Summer and Winter Games in alternating, even-numbered years. More than 10,000 athletes from 197 National Olympic Committees competed in 26 sports, including the Olympic debuts of beach volleyball, mountain biking, softball, as well as the new disciplines of lightwight rowing and women's football. 24 countries made their Summer Olympic debut in Atlanta, including eleven former Soviet republics participating for the first time as independent nations.
The hosting United States led the medal count with a total of 101 medals, the most gold and silver medals out of all countries. The U. S. topped the medal count for the first time since 1984, for the first time since 1968 in a non-boycotted Summer Olympics. Notable performances during competition included those of Andre Agassi—who became the first men's singles tennis player to combine a career Grand Slam with an Olympic gold medal, Donovan Bailey—who set a new world record of 9.84 for the men's 100 meters, Lilia Podkopayeva—who became the second gymnast to win an individual event gold after winning the all-round title in the same Olympics. The festivities were marred by violence on July 27, when Eric Rudolph detonated pipe bombs at Centennial Olympic Park—a downtown park, built to serve as a public focal point for the Games' festivities, injuring 111. In 2003, Rudolph confessed to the bombing and a series of related attacks on abortion centers and a gay bar, was sentenced to life in prison.
He claimed that the bombing was meant to protest the U. S. government's sanctioning of "abortion on demand". The Games turned a profit, helped by record revenue from sponsorship deals and broadcast rights, reliance on private funding, among other factors; the Games faced criticism for being overly commercialized, as well as other issues noted by European officials, such as the availability of food and transport. The event had a lasting impact on the city. Atlanta was selected on September 18, 1990, in Tokyo, over Athens, Manchester and Toronto at the 96th IOC Session; the city entered the competition as a dark horse. The US media criticized it as a second-tier city and complained of Georgia's Confederate history. However, the IOC Evaluation Commission ranked Atlanta's infrastructure and facilities the highest, while IOC members said that it could guarantee large television revenues similar to the success of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Additionally, former US ambassador to the UN and Atlanta mayor Andrew Jackson Young touted Atlanta's civil rights history and reputation for racial harmony.
Young wanted to showcase a reformed American South. The strong economy of Atlanta and improved race relations in the South helped to impress the IOC officials; the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games proposed a substantial revenue-sharing with the IOC, USOC, other NOCs. Atlanta's main rivals were Toronto, whose front-running bid that began in 1986 had chances to succeed after Canada had held a successful 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Melbourne, who hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and after Brisbane, Australia's failed bid for the 1992 games and prior to Sydney, Australia's successful 2000 Summer Olympics bid; this would be Toronto's fourth failed attempt since 1960. Greece, the home of the ancient and first modern Olympics, was considered by many observers the "natural choice" for the Centennial Games. However, Athens bid chairman Spyros Metaxa demanded that it be named as the site of the Olympics because of its "historical right due to its history", which may have caused resentment among delegates.
Furthermore, the Athens bid was described as "arrogant and poorly prepared", being regarded as "not being up to the task of coping with the modern and risk-prone extravaganza" of the current Games. Athens faced numerous obstacles, including "political instability, potential security problems, air pollution, traffic congestion and the fact that it would have to spend about $3 billion to improve its infrastructure of airports, rail lines and other amenities"; the total cost of the 1996 Summer Olympics was estimated to be around $1.7 billion. The venues and the Games themselves were funded via private investment, the only public funding came from the U. S. government for security, around $500 million of public money used on physical public infrastructure including streetscaping, road improvements, Centennial Olympic Park, expansion of the airport, improvements in public transportation, redevelopment of public housing projects. $420 million worth of tickets wer
Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games
The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, or BOCOG known as the Beijing Organizing Committee, was an informal name for the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad. It was the organizing committee for the Games of the XIII Paralympiad; the President of BOCOG was Liu Qi (simplified Chinese: 刘淇. On January 28, 2008, BOCOG took control of the Water Cube
Venues of the 1996 Summer Olympics
For the 1996 Summer Olympics, a total of twenty-nine sports venues were used. Several sports venues for the 1996 Olympics were built before the 1960s as college venues; the first professional teams in Atlanta came in 1966, when Major League Baseball's Atlanta Braves moved from Milwaukee and the NFL added the Atlanta Falcons as an expansion team. In 1968, the NBA came to the city when the Atlanta Hawks arrived from St. Louis, the NHL arrived four years with the expansion Atlanta Flames; the Braves and Falcons shared Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium from 1966 through 1991, after which the Falcons moved into the Georgia Dome, playing at that stadium from 1992 through 2016. The Braves would remain at the former stadium through the 1996 season; the Hawks played at Alexander Memorial Coliseum, now McCamish Pavilion, on the campus of Georgia Institute of Technology before the Omni Coliseum was completed in 1972 for both the Hawks and Flames. After the 1979–80 season, the Flames left for their current home of Calgary.
Bidding for the 1996 Games was held in 1990. Seventy-five percent of the venues used for the 1996 Games were owned by the state of Georgia. One of the new venues, the Georgia International Horse Park, had organization problems for the modern pentathlon event that included the competitors being forced to sit under an oak tree during the riding part of the event; the Georgia World Congress Center hosted the dramatic weightlifting 64 kg event that involved national tensions between Greece and Turkey. After the Olympics, the Olympic Stadium, as intended from its construction, was converted into a baseball park known as Turner Field, which opened in 1997; that same year, both Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium and the Omni Coliseum were imploded within one week of one another. Philips Arena was built upon the former Omni's footprint and opened in 1999, while the area where Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium stood is now a parking lot near Turner Field; the Braves vacated Turner Field after their 2016 season to move to a new ballpark, SunTrust Park, in Cobb County.
Before professional sports came to Atlanta and the Southern United States in the 1960s, college sports were followed in a manner similar to that of professional sports in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, Midwestern part of the United States. The oldest of the venues in the South used for the 1996 Games was Legion Field in Birmingham, Alabama which opened in 1926 and used from 1948 to 1988 for the Iron Bowl college football rivalry between Auburn University and the University of Alabama, a game that now alternates between the two schools' on-campus stadiums. Legion Field hosted the SEC Championship Game for the first two seasons of 1992 and 1993 before the venue moved to Atlanta and the Georgia Dome in 1994 where it had remained until the closure of the Georgia Dome. Three years after Legion Field was completed, Sanford Stadium opened on the University of Georgia campus in Athens and has undergone several expansions since its opening; the Citrus Bowl in Orlando, Florida has undergone several expansions of its own.
In Miami the following year, the Orange Bowl opened. Alexander Memorial Coliseum on the Georgia Tech campus opened in 1956. In 1961, the District of Columbia Stadium opened in Washington, D. C. with the National Football League Washington Redskins losing 24-21 to the New York Giants. The Stadium served as home to the second Washington Senators Major League Baseball team from 1961 to 1971 when they moved to the Dallas, Texas area the following year and were renamed the Texas Rangers which they have been known since. Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium opened on April 12, 1966 with the Braves MLB franchise debuting following their move from Milwaukee after the 1965 season with a 3-2 loss to the Pittsburgh Pirates; that same year in the NFL, the expansion Atlanta Falcons debuted with a 19-14 loss to the Los Angeles Rams. Fulton County Stadium would serve as host to the Peach Bowl from 1971 to 1991 before moving to the Georgia Dome where it remained from the 1992 bowl season until 2016. In baseball, Fulton County Stadium hosted the 1972 MLB All-Star Game.
The Stadium would host three World Series in the 1990s before the Olympics, losing twice and winning once. The Falcons would remain at Fulton County Stadium until the 1991 NFL season move to the Georgia Dome the following season, where they remained through the 2016 season; the Georgia Dome hosted Super Bowl XXVIII. It was the Bills' second straight Super Bowl loss to the Cowboys and fourth straight Super Bowl loss overall; the same year that the Falcons debuted in the NFL, the Miami Dolphins made their debut in the American Football League at the Orange Bowl. The Dolphins would join the NFL in 1970 following the AFL–NFL merger, they would remain at the Orange Bowl unti
United States Olympic Committee
The United States Olympic Committee is the National Olympic Committee for the United States. It was founded in 1895 and it is headquartered in Colorado Springs, Colorado. In addition, the USOC is one of only four NOCs in the world that serve as the National Paralympic Committee for their country; the USOC is responsible for supporting and overseeing U. S. teams for the Olympic Games, Paralympic Games, Youth Olympic Games, Pan American Games, Parapan American Games and serves as the steward of the Olympic and Paralympic Movements in the United States. The Olympic Movement is overseen by the International Olympic Committee; the IOC is supported by 35 international federations that govern each sport on a global level, National Olympic Committees that oversee Olympic sport as a whole in their respective nations, national federations that administer each sport at the national level. The National Paralympic Committee is the sole governing body responsible for the selection and training of all athletes participating in the Paralympic Games.
The USOC is 174 NPCs within the international Olympic and Paralympic movements. Forty-seven NGBs are members of the USOC. Fifteen of the NGBs manage sports on the Paralympic program. While the USOC governs four Paralympic sports, five other Paralympic sports are governed by U. S. members of International Paralympic Federations. Unlike most other nations, the United States government does not have a Ministry of Sports and does not fund its Olympic Committee; the USOC was reorganized by the Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act enacted in 1978. It does not receive federal financial support. Pursuant to the Act, the USOC has the exclusive right to use and authorize the use of Olympic-related marks and terminology in the United States; the USOC licenses that right to sponsors as a means of generating revenue in support of its mission. Upon the founding of the International Olympic Committee in 1894, the two American IOC members – James Edward Sullivan and William Milligan Sloane – formed a committee to organize the participation of American athletes in the 1896 Summer Olympics, in Athens, Greece.
In 1921, the committee adopted a constitution and bylaws to formally organize the American Olympic Association. From 1928 to 1953, its president was Avery Brundage, who went on to become the president of the IOC, the only American to do so. In 1940, the AOA changed its name to the United States of America Sports Federation and, in 1945, changed it again to the United States Olympic Association. In 1950, federal mandate allowed the USOA to solicit tax-deductible contributions as a private, non-profit corporation. After several constitutional revisions were made to the federal charter in 1961, the name was changed to the United States Olympic Committee; the Amateur Sports Act of 1978 established the USOC as the coordinating body for all Olympic-related athletic activity in the United States relating to international competition. The USOC was given the responsibility of promoting and supporting physical fitness and public participation in athletic activities by encouraging developmental programs in its member organizations.
The provisions protect individual athletes, provide the USOC's counsel and authority to oversee Olympic and Paralympic business in the United States. The public law not only protects the trademarks of the IOC and USOC, but gives the USOC exclusive rights to the words "Olympic," "Olympiad" and "Citius, Fortius," as well as commercial use of Olympic and Paralympic marks and terminology in the United States, excluding Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands, which fall under the authority of separate NOCs and NPCs. One of the many revolutionary elements contained within the legislation was the Paralympic Amendment – an initiative that integrated the Paralympic Movement into the USOC by Congressional mandate in 1998. U. S. Paralympics, a division of the USOC, was founded in 2001. In addition to selecting and managing the teams which compete for the United States in the Paralympic Games, U. S. Paralympics is responsible for supporting Paralympic community and military sports programs around the country.
In 2006, the USOC created the Paralympic Military Program with the goal of providing Paralympic sports as a part of the rehabilitation process for injured soldiers. Through the U. S. Olympic Committee Paralympic Military Program, USOC hosted the Warrior Games for wounded service personnel from 2010 to 2014, until the organization of the event was taken on by the Department of Defense in 2015; the USOC moved its headquarters from New York City to Colorado Springs on July 1, 1978. Thanks to the generous support of the City of Colorado Springs and its residents, the USOC headquarters moved to its present location in downtown Colorado Springs in April 2010, while the previous site – located just 2 miles away – remains a U. S. Olympic Training Center. In October 2007, the ARCO Training Center in Chula Vista, California was closed temporarily due to the Harris Fire, one of many that ravaged southern California. After convening in 2010 the Working Group for Safe Training Environments, USOC formed the Safe Sport program to address child sexual abuse, bullying and harassment and emotional and sexual misconduct within its domain.
Several national law firms were enlisted "to aid... National Governing Bodies
International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas in 1894, it is the authority responsible for organising the modern Summer and Winter Olympic Games; the IOC is the governing body of the National Olympic Committees, which are the national constituents of the worldwide Olympic Movement. As of 2016, there are 206 NOCs recognised by the IOC; the current president of the IOC is Thomas Bach of Germany, who succeeded Jacques Rogge of Belgium in September 2013. The IOC was created by Pierre de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president; as of January 2019, its membership consists of 96 active members, 45 honorary members, an honorary president and two honour members. The IOC is the supreme authority of the worldwide modern Olympic movement; the IOC organises the modern Olympic Games and Youth Olympic Games, held in summer and winter, every four years. The first Summer Olympics was held in Athens, Greece, in 1896.
The first Summer YOG were in Singapore in 2010 and the first Winter YOG in Innsbruck were in 2012. Until 1992, both Summer and Winter Olympics were held in the same year. After that year, the IOC shifted the Winter Olympics to the years between Summer Games, to help space the planning of the two events from one another, improve the financial balance of the IOC, which receives a proportionally greater income in Olympic years. In 2009, the UN General Assembly granted the IOC Permanent Observer status; the decision enables the IOC to be directly involved in the UN Agenda and to attend UN General Assembly meetings where it can take the floor. In 1993, the General Assembly approved a Resolution to further solidify IOC–UN cooperation by reviving the Olympic Truce. During each proclamation at the Olympics, announcers speak in different languages: French is always spoken first, followed by an English translation, the dominant language of the host nation; the IOC received approval in November 2015 to construct a new headquarters in Lausanne.
The cost of the project was estimated to stand at $156m. The IOC announced on 11 February 2019 that "Olympic House" would be inaugurated on 23 June 2019 to coincide with its 125th anniversary; the Olympic Museum remains in Lausanne. The stated mission of the IOC is to promote the Olympics throughout the world and to lead the Olympic Movement: To encourage and support the organisation and coordination of sport and sports competitions, it is the IOC's supreme organ and its decisions are final. Extraordinary Sessions may be convened by the President or upon the written request of at least one third of the members. Among others, the powers of the Session are: To amend the Olympic Charter. To elect the members of the IOC, the Honorary President and the honorary members. To elect the President, the Vice-Presidents and all other members of the IOC Executive Board. To elect the host city of the Olympic Games. In addition to the Olympic medals for competitors, the IOC awards a number of other honours; the IOC President's Trophy is the highest sports award given to athletes who have excelled in their sport and had an extraordinary career and created a lasting impact on their sport The Pierre de Coubertin medal is awarded to athletes who demonstrate a special spirit of sportsmanship in Olympic events The Olympic Cup is awarded to institutions or associations with a record of merit and integrity in developing the Olympic Movement The Olympic Order is awarded to individuals for distinguished contributions to the Olympic Movement, superseded the Olympic Certificate The Olympic Laurel is awarded to individuals for promoting education, culture and peace through sport The Olympic town status has been given to some towns which have been important for the Olympic movement For most of its existence, the IOC was controlled by members who were selected by other members.
Countries that had hosted. When named, they did not become the representatives of their respective countries to the IOC, but rather the opposite, IOC members in their respective countries. "Granted the honour of becoming a member of the International Olympic Committee and declaring myself aware of my responsibilities in such a capacity, I undertake to serve the Olympic Movement to the best of my ability. The membership of IOC members ceases in the following circumstances: Resignation: any IOC member may cease their membership at any tim