Academy Award for Best Director
The Academy Award for Best Director is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of a film director who has exhibited outstanding directing while working in the film industry; the 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with the award being split into "Dramatic" and "Comedy" categories. However, these categories were merged for all subsequent ceremonies. Nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the directors branch of AMPAS. For the first eleven years of the Academy Awards, directors were allowed to be nominated for multiple films in the same year. However, after the nomination of Michael Curtiz for two films, Angels with Dirty Faces and Four Daughters, at the 11th Academy Awards, the rules were revised so that an individual could only be nominated for one film at each ceremony; that rule has since been amended, although the only director who has received multiple nominations in the same year was Steven Soderbergh for Erin Brockovich and Traffic in 2000, winning the award for the latter.
The Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture have been closely linked throughout their history. Of the 91 films that have been awarded Best Picture, 65 have been awarded Best Director. Since its inception, the award has been given to directing teams. John Ford has received the most awards in this category with four. William Wyler was nominated on twelve occasions, more than any other individual. Damien Chazelle became the youngest director in history to receive this award, at the age of 32 for his work on La La Land. Two directing teams have shared the award; the Coen brothers are the only siblings to have won the award. Kathryn Bigelow is the only woman to have won the award, for 2009's The Hurt Locker. Since the 82nd ceremony held in 2010, when the Best Picture category was no longer limited to 5 nominees, only Bennett Miller and Paweł Pawlikowski have been nominated for films not nominated for Best Picture; as of the 2019 ceremony, Alfonso Cuarón is the most recent winner in this category for his work on Roma.
In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, correspond to the year of film release in Los Angeles County, California. For the first five ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned twelve months from August 1 to July 31. For the 6th ceremony held in 1934, the eligibility period lasted from August 1, 1932, to December 31, 1933. Since the 7th ceremony held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31; as of the 91st Academy Awards, four Asian directors have been nominated a total of six times in this category, one has won the award two times. 1965 – Hiroshi Teshigahara for Woman in the Dunes 1985 – Akira Kurosawa for Ran 1999 – M. Night Shyamalan for The Sixth Sense † 2000 – Ang Lee for Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon † 2005 – Ang Lee for Brokeback Mountain † 2012 – Ang Lee for Life of Pi † As of the 91st Academy Awards, six black directors have been nominated a total of six times in this category, none have won the award.
1991 – John Singleton for Boyz n the Hood § 2009 – Lee Daniels for Precious † 2013 – Steve McQueen for 12 Years a Slave ‡ 2016 – Barry Jenkins for Moonlight ‡ 2017 – Jordan Peele for Get Out §† 2018 – Spike Lee for BlacKkKlansman † As of the 91st Academy Awards, five Latin American directors have been nominated a total of eight times in this category, three have won the award five times. 1985 – Héctor Babenco for Kiss of the Spider Woman † 2003 – Fernando Meirelles for City of God 2006 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for Babel † 2013 – Alfonso Cuarón for Gravity † 2014 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for Birdman ‡ 2015 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for The Revenant † 2017 – Guillermo del Toro for The Shape of Water ‡ 2018 – Alfonso Cuarón for Roma † As of the 91st Academy Awards, seven Oceanic directors have been nominated a total of eleven times in this category, one has won the award. 1942 – John Farrow for Wake Island † 1983 – Bruce Beresford for Tender Mercies † 1985 – Peter Weir for Witness † 1989 – Peter Weir for Dead Poets Society † 1993 – Jane Campion for The Piano † 1995 – Chris Noonan for Babe † 1998 – Peter Weir for The Truman Show 2001 – Peter Jackson for The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring † 2003 – Peter Jackson for The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King ‡ 2003 – Peter Weir for Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World † 2015 – George Miller for Mad Max: Fury Road † As of the 91st Academy Awards, five female directors have been nominated a total of five times in the category, one has won the award.
1976 – Lina Wertmüller for Seven Beauties 1993 – Jane Campion for The Piano † 2003 – Sofia Coppola for Lost in Translation † 2009 – Kathryn Bigelow for The Hurt Locker ‡ 2017 – Greta Gerwig for Lady Bird §† As of the 91st Academy Awards, twenty-five directors of non-English language films have been nominated a total of thirty times in this category, one has won the award. 1961 - Federico Fellini for La Dolce Vita, Italian 1962 - Pietro Germi for Divorce Italian Style, Italian 1963 - Federico Fellini for 8½, Italian 1964 - Michael Cacoyannis for Zorba the Greek, Greek 1965 -
Wallace Michael Shawn is an American character actor, voice actor and essayist. His film roles have included those of Wally Shawn in the Louis Malle directed comedy-drama My Dinner with Andre, John Lahr in Prick Up Your Ears, Vizzini in The Princess Bride, Mr. James Hall in Clueless and providing the voice of Rex in the Toy Story franchise, he plays Dr. John Sturgis on the television series Young Sheldon, he has appeared in a variety of television series, including recurring roles as Grand Nagus Zek in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and as Manny in the game Kings Quest and Cyrus Rose in Gossip Girl. His plays include Obie Award winning Aunt Dan and Lemon, The Designated Mourner and Grasses of a Thousand Colors, he co-wrote the screenplay for My Dinner with Andre with Andre Gregory, he scripted A Master Builder, a film adaptation of the play by Henrik Ibsen, which he starred in. His book Essays was published in 2009 by Haymarket Books. Shawn was born to a Jewish family, his parents were William Shawn, the long-time editor of The New Yorker, journalist Cecille Shawn.
Shawn attended The Putney School, a private liberal arts high school in Putney and graduated with a B. A. in history from Harvard College. He studied philosophy and economics, as well as Latin, at Magdalen College, Oxford intending to become a diplomat, he traveled to India as an English teacher, on a Fulbright program. He taught Latin in Manhattan but, since 1979, has made a living as an actor. Shawn's early plays, such as Marie and Bruce, portrayed emotional and sexual conflicts in an absurdist style, with language, both lyrical and violent. In a conversation with Andre Gregory, parts of which were used to create My Dinner with Andre, Shawn referred to these plays as depicting "my interior life as a raging beast." Critical response was polarized: some critics hailed Shawn as a major writer, while John Simon called Marie and Bruce "garbage" and described Shawn as "one of the unsightliest actors in this city." His 1977 play A Thought in Three Parts caused controversy in London when the production was investigated by a vice squad and attacked in Parliament after allegations of pornographic content.
He was awarded the Obie Award for best playwrighting in 1974 for his play Our Late Night. His plays became more overtly political, drawing parallels between the psychology of his characters and the behavior of governments and social classes. Among the best-known of these are Aunt Dan and Lemon and The Designated Mourner. Shawn's political work has invited controversy, as he presents the audience with several contradictory points of view, such as Aunt Dan and Lemon, which Shawn described as a cautionary tale against fascism; the monologue The Fever created by Shawn to be performed for small audiences in apartments, describes a person who becomes sick while struggling to find a morally consistent way to live when faced with injustice, harshly criticizes the record of the United States in supporting oppressive anti-communist regimes. In 1997, Shawn discussed the political nature of Aunt Dan and Lemon, The Fever and The Designated Mourner in an interview in which he talked extensively about the thematic developments between the three plays, as well as his own views on Marxist and socialist politics, their relevance to American liberalism, how government and individual responsibilities for finding solutions to the dichotomy between rich and poor in the world take hold in the characters presented in his plays.
Aunt Dan and Lemon earned Shawn his second Obie Award for excellence in playwrighting in 1986, The Fever won Best American Play in 1991. Shawn's four plays have been adapted into films: The Designated Mourner and Bruce, My Dinner with Andre and The Fever. Oscar winner Vanessa Redgrave stars in The Fever, which first aired on HBO on June 13, 2007. Shawn has written political commentary for The Nation, in 2004 he published the one-issue-only progressive political magazine Final Edition, which featured interviews with and articles by Jonathan Schell, Noam Chomsky, Mark Strand and Deborah Eisenberg. Shawn is credited as translator of Bertolt Brecht's The Threepenny Opera, which opened at Studio 54 in Manhattan on March 25, 2006, he appears in voice-over during "Song about the Futility of Human Endeavor". He published his first nonfiction work, Essays, on September 1, 2009, it is a collection of essays that expresses his perceptions of politics and other subjects that reflect an aspect of his life.
Shawn's involvement with theater began in 1970 when he met Andre Gregory, who has since directed several of his plays. As a stage actor, he has appeared in his own plays and other projects with Gregory, he made his film debut in 1979, playing Diane Keaton's former husband in Woody Allen's Manhattan and an insurance agent in Bob Fosse's All That Jazz. His best-known film roles include Earl in Strange Invaders and Mr. Hall in Clueless. After seeing his performance in My Dinner With Andre, casting director Janet Hirshenson was so fond of his delivery of the word "inconceivable" that she cast him as Vizzini in The Princess Bride. Other roles include Baron Von Westphalen in Southland Tales, on Gossip Girl as Cyrus Rose, in The Haunted Mansion as Ezra, his rare non-comedic film roles include two collaborations with Andre Gregory and Louis Malle: the semi-autobiographical dialogue My Dinner with Andre, a com
Crime films, in the broadest sense, are a cinematic genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre. Films of this genre involve various aspects of crime and its detection. Stylistically, the genre may overlap and combine with many other genres, such as drama or gangster film, but include comedy, and, in turn, is divided into many sub-genres, such as mystery, suspense or noir. Crime films are based on real events or are adaptations of plays or novels. For example, the 1957 film version of Witness for the Prosecution is an adaptation of a 1953 stage play of that name, in turn based on Agatha Christie's short story published in 1933; the film version was remade in 1982, there have been other adaptations. However, each of these media has its own advantages and limitations, which in the case of cinema is the time constraint. Witness for the Prosecution is a classic example of a "courtroom drama". In a courtroom drama, a charge is brought against one of the main characters, who claims to be innocent.
Another major part is played by the lawyer representing the defendant in court and battling with the public prosecutor. He or she may enlist the services of a private investigator to find out what happened and who the real perpetrator is. However, in most cases it is not clear at all whether the accused is guilty of the crime or not—this is how suspense is created; the private investigator storms into the courtroom at the last minute in order to bring a new and crucial piece of information to the attention of the court. This type of literature lends itself to the literary genre of drama focused more on dialogue and little or no necessity for a shift in scenery; the auditorium of the theatre becomes an extension of the courtroom. When a courtroom drama is filmed, the traditional device employed by screenwriters and directors is the frequent use of flashbacks, in which the crime and everything that led up to it is narrated and reconstructed from different angles. In Witness for the Prosecution, Leonard Vole, a young American living in England, is accused of murdering a middle-aged lady he met in the street while shopping.
His wife hires the best lawyer available because she is convinced, or rather she knows, that her husband is innocent. Another classic courtroom drama is U. S. playwright Reginald Rose's Twelve Angry Men, set in the jury deliberation room of a New York Court of Law. Eleven members of the jury, aiming at a unanimous verdict of "guilty", try to get it over with as as possible, and they would succeed in achieving their common aim if it were not for the eighth juror, who, on second thoughts, considers it his duty to convince his colleagues that the defendant may be innocent after all, who, by doing so, triggers a lot of discussion and anger. A hybrid of action films and crime films and a subgenre of action films as well. Most films of this kind fall in the category of heist films, prison films and sometimes cop and gangster films. Car chases and shootouts are featured. Example include Police Story, The Dark Knight, Baby Driver, Master and Heat. A hybrid of crime and comedy films. Mafia comedy looks at organized crime from a comical standpoint.
Humor comes from the incompetence of the criminals and/or black comedy. Examples include Analyze This, The Pope of Greenwich Village, Lock and Two Smoking Barrels, In Bruges, Mafia!, Tower Heist and Pain & Gain. A combination of crime and drama films. Examples include such films as Straight Badlands. A thriller in which the central characters are involved in crime, either in its investigation, as the perpetrator or, less a victim. While some action films could be labelled as such for having criminality and thrills, the emphasis in this genre is the drama and the investigative/criminal methods. Examples include Untraceable, The Silence of the Lambs, Seven, Memories of Murder, The Call, Running Scared. A genre of Indian cinema revolving around dacoity; the genre was pioneered by Mehboob Khan's Mother India. Other examples include Gunga Jumna and Bandit Queen. A genre popular in the 1940s and 1950s fall into the crime and mystery genres. Private detectives hired to solve a crime are in such films as The Maltese Falcon, The Big Sleep, Kiss Me Deadly, L.
A. Confidential, The Long Goodbye, Chinatown. Neo-noir refers to modern films influenced by film noir such as Sin City. A genre of film that focuses on gangs and organized crime. Examples include Goodfellas, The Godfather, Casino; this film deals with a group of criminals attempting to perform a theft or robbery, as well as the possible consequences that follow. Heist films that are lighter in tone are called "Caper films". Examples include The Killing, Oceans 11, Dog Day Afternoon, Reservoir Dogs, The Town. A Hong Kong action cinema crime film genre; the genre was pioneered by John Woo's A Better Tomorrow and Ringo Lam's City on Fire, starring Chow Yun-fat. Elements of the genre can be seen in Hollywood crime films since the 1990s, such as the work of John Woo and Quentin Tarantino. Film dealing with African-American urban issues and culture, they do not always revolve around crime, but criminal activity features in the storyline. Examples include Menace II Boyz n the Hood. Not concerned with the actual crime so much as the trial in the aftermath.
A typical plot would involve a lawyer trying to prove the innocence of his or her cli
Cocaine known as coke, is a strong stimulant used as a recreational drug. It is snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate and large pupils. High doses can result in high blood pressure or body temperature. Effects begin within seconds to last between five and ninety minutes. Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery. Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. After a short period of use, there is a high risk, its use increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, sudden cardiac death. Cocaine sold on the street is mixed with local anesthetics, quinine, or sugar, which can result in additional toxicity. Following repeated doses a person may have decreased ability to feel pleasure and be physically tired.
Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin and dopamine. This results in greater concentrations of these three neurotransmitters in the brain, it can cross the blood–brain barrier and may lead to the breakdown of the barrier. Cocaine is a occurring substance found in the coca plant, grown in South America. In 2013, 419 kilograms were produced legally, it is estimated. With further processing crack cocaine can be produced from cocaine. Cocaine is the second most used illegal drug globally, after cannabis. Between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year. Use is highest in North America followed by South America. Between one and three percent of people in the developed world have used cocaine at some point in their life. In 2013, cocaine use directly resulted in 4,300 deaths, up from 2,400 in 1990; the leaves of the coca plant have been used by Peruvians since ancient times. Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860. Since 1961, the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime.
Topical cocaine can be used as a local numbing agent to help with painful procedures in the mouth or nose. Cocaine is now predominantly used for lacrimal duct surgery; the major disadvantages of this use are cocaine's potential for cardiovascular toxicity and pupil dilation. Medicinal use of cocaine has decreased as other synthetic local anesthetics such as benzocaine, proparacaine and tetracaine are now used more often. If vasoconstriction is desired for a procedure, the anesthetic is combined with a vasoconstrictor such as phenylephrine or epinephrine; some ENT specialists use cocaine within the practice when performing procedures such as nasal cauterization. In this scenario dissolved cocaine is soaked into a ball of cotton wool, placed in the nostril for the 10–15 minutes before the procedure, thus performing the dual role of both numbing the area to be cauterized, vasoconstriction; when used this way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects.
An alternative method of administration for ENT surgery is mixed with adrenaline and sodium bicarbonate, as Moffett's solution. Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant, its effects can last from 30 minutes to an hour. The duration of cocaine's effects depends on the route of administration. Cocaine can be in the form of fine white powder, bitter to the taste; when inhaled or injected, it causes a numbing effect. Crack cocaine is a smokeable form of cocaine made into small "rocks" by processing cocaine with sodium bicarbonate and water. Crack cocaine is referred to. Cocaine use leads to increases in alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria, increased energy and motor activity, increased feelings of competence and sexuality. Coca leaves are mixed with an alkaline substance and chewed into a wad, retained in the mouth between gum and cheek and sucked of its juices; the juices are absorbed by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be consumed like tea.
Ingesting coca leaves is an inefficient means of administering cocaine. Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not absorbed when ingested alone. Only when mixed with a alkaline substance can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach; the efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors. First, the drug is catabolized by the liver. Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed. Cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped one cup of coca leaf infusion. Orally administered cocaine takes 30 minutes to enter the bloodstream. Only a third of an oral dose is absorbed, although absorption has been shown to reach 60% in controlled settings. Given the slow rate of absorption, maximum physiological and psychotropic effects are attained 60 minutes after cocaine is administered by ingestion.
While the onset of these effects is slow, the effects are sustained for approxima
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Susan Abigail Sarandon is an American actress and activist. She has received an Academy Award, a British Academy Film Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, has been nominated for six Primetime Emmy Awards and nine Golden Globe Awards, she is known for her political activism for a variety of causes. She was appointed a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador in 1999 and received the Action Against Hunger Humanitarian Award in 2006. Sarandon began her career before appearing in the soap opera A World Apart. In 1974, she co-starred as a young Zelda Fitzgerald surrogate in the TV movie F. Scott Fitzgerald and'The Last of the Belles' and in 1975, she starred in the popular cult film The Rocky Horror Picture Show, she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress for Atlantic City, Thelma & Louise, Lorenzo's Oil, The Client, before winning for Dead Man Walking. She has won the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role for The Client, the Screen Actors Guild Award for Best Actress for Dead Man Walking.
Her other films include: Pretty Baby, The Hunger, The Witches of Eastwick, Bull Durham, White Palace, Little Women, Enchanted, The Lovely Bones, The Meddler, A Bad Moms Christmas. She made her Broadway debut in An Evening with Richard Nixon in 1972 and went on to receive Drama Desk Award nominations for the Off-Broadway plays, A Coupla White Chicks Sitting Around Talking and Extremities, she returned to Broadway in the 2009 revival of Exit the King. On television, she is a six-time Emmy Award nominee, including for her guest roles on the sitcoms Friends and Malcolm in the Middle, appearances in the TV films Bernard and Doris and You Don't Know Jack. In 2017, Sarandon portrayed Bette Davis in the first season of FX's anthology series Feud, for which she was nominated for both for acting and producing Emmys, she was nominated for a Daytime Emmy award for executive producing Cool Women in History in 2002. Sarandon was born in the Queens borough of New York City, she is the eldest of nine children of Lenora Marie and Phillip Leslie Tomalin, an advertising executive, television producer, one-time nightclub singer.
She has four brothers, Philip Jr. Terry, Tim and O'Brian, four sisters, Bonnie and Missy, her father was of English and Welsh ancestry, his English ancestors being from Hackney in London and his Welsh ancestors being from Bridgend. On her mother's side, she is of Italian descent, with ancestors from the regions of Tuscany and Sicily. Sarandon attended Roman Catholic schools, she grew up in Edison, New Jersey, where she graduated from Edison High School in 1964. She attended The Catholic University of America, from 1964 to 1968, earned a BA in drama and worked with noted drama coach and master teacher, Father Gilbert V. Hartke. In 1969, Sarandon went to a casting call for the motion-picture Joe with her then-husband Chris Sarandon. Although he did not get a part, she was cast in a major role of a disaffected teen who disappears into the seedy underworld. Between 1970 and 1972, she appeared in the soap operas A World Apart and Search for Tomorrow, playing Patrice Kahlman and Sarah Fairbanks, respectively.
In 1975, she appeared in The Rocky Horror Picture Show. That same year, she played the female lead in The Great Waldo Pepper, opposite Robert Redford, she was twice directed in Pretty Baby and Atlantic City. The latter earned Sarandon her first Academy Award nomination, her most controversial film appearance was in Tony Scott's The Hunger, a modern vampire story in which she had a lesbian sex scene with Catherine Deneuve. She appeared in the comedy-fantasy The Witches of Eastwick alongside Jack Nicholson and Michelle Pfeiffer. However, Sarandon did not become a "household name" until she appeared with Kevin Costner and Tim Robbins in the film Bull Durham, a commercial and critical success. Roger Ebert praised Sarandon's performance in his review for the Chicago Sun-Times: "I don't know who else they could have hired to play Annie Savoy, the Sarandon character who pledges her heart and her body to one player a season, but I doubt if the character would have worked without Sarandon's wonderful performance".
Sarandon was nominated for an Academy Award four more times in the 1990s, as Best Actress in Thelma & Louise, Lorenzo's Oil, The Client winning in 1995 for Dead Man Walking. She was awarded the Women in Film Crystal Award in 1994. Additionally, she has received eight Golden Globe nominations, including for White Palace, Igby Goes Down, Bernard and Doris, her other movies include Little Women, Anywhere but Here, Cradle Will Rock, The Banger Sisters, Shall We Dance, Romance & Cigarettes and Enchanted. Sarandon has appeared in two episodes of The Simpsons, once as herself and as a ballet teacher, "Homer vs. Patty and Selma", she appeared on Friends, Malcolm in the Middle, Mad TV, Saturday Night Live, Chappelle's Show, 30 Rock, Rescue Me, Mike & Molly. Sarandon has contributed the narration to two dozen documentary films, many of which dealt with social and political issues. In addition, she has served as the presenter on many installments of the PBS documentary series, Independent Lens. In 1999 and 2000, she hosted and presented Mythos, a series of lectures by the late American mythology professor Joseph Campbell.
Jacques Daniel Michel Piccoli is a French actor and filmmaker of Ticino descent. He has one of the longest careers in French cinema, is regarded worldwide as a symbol of France's film history, more of the 1960s and 70s, he was born in Paris to a musical family. He has appeared in many different roles, from seducer to cop to gangster to Pope, in more than 170 movies, he has been married three times, first to Éléonore Hirt for eleven years to the singer Juliette Gréco and to Ludivine Clerc. He has one daughter from Anne-Cordélia. Piccoli is politically active on the left, is vocally opposed to the Front National, he won the Best Actor Award at the 1980 Cannes Film Festival for A Leap in the Dark. In 1982, he won the Silver Bear for Best Actor at the 32nd Berlin International Film Festival for his role in Strange Affair. In 2001 he was the recipient of the Europe Theatre Prize. Michel Piccoli on IMDb