Prince's Dock, Liverpool
Princes Dock is a dock on the River Mersey and part of the Port of Liverpool. It is the most southerly of the docks situated in the part of the Liverpool dock system. The dock is now in the zone to one of Liverpools World Heritage Sites. Initially, William Jessop and John Rennie were consulted about the plans for the dock, the dock was built by John Foster, with construction starting around 1810. During the construction, Foster ordered many more stone than was needed. Allegedly, Foster diverted it to his familys building company and he resigned when this was discovered. The dock was named for the Prince Regent, still unfinished, it opened on the day of the Prince Regents coronation as George IV in 1821. Access to the half of the dock system was via Georges Basin, Georges Dock. In 1874 Georges Basin was filled, and in 1899 Georges Dock was filled, on 12 June 1895 Liverpool Riverside Station was opened, situated between Princes Dock and the River Mersey. In 1968 B&I Line commenced a new car ferry service from Carriers Dock further downriver, a passenger only service continued to use Princes Dock until 1969.
Ferry services from Princes Dock finally ended in November 1981 when P&O Ferries closed their Liverpool - Belfast overnight service, the dock subsequently closed to shipping and was partly filled. Commercial redevelopment began when the dock was passed to the Merseyside Development Corporation in 1988, much of Princes Docks wharfage and warehouse space has been replaced by, Three blocks of office accommodation along the river front. The £24 million Malmaison 128-room hotel and it opened in 2007 and is its owning companys first ever new build. It stands alongside the existing Crowne Plaza hotel, the dock was partially filled in to inland canal boat depths precluding deep water vessels. The dock has been divided into two sections spanned by a bridge that was designed by the Liverpool John Moores University Centre for Architectural Research. By March 2009 work was completed on a £22 million extension of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, a new lock and fixed bridge was built at the northern end of Princes Dock.
At the south end of the dock, a new tunnel was constructed which leads to the Pier Head. The tunnel is routed beneath St. Nicholas Place and the road for the new cruise liner facility
Adidas AG is a German multinational corporation, headquartered in Herzogenaurach, that designs and manufactures shoes and accessories. It is the largest sportswear manufacturer in Europe, and the second biggest in the world, Adidas revenue for 2016 was listed at €19.29 billion. Adidas was registered on 18 August 1949 by Adolf Dassler, following a feud at the Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik company between him and his older brother Rudolf. Rudolf had earlier established Puma, which became the business rival of Adidas. The companys clothing and shoe designs typically feature three parallel bars, and the motif is incorporated into Adidass current official logo. The brand name is uncapitalized and is stylized with a case a. Christoph Von Wilhelm Dassler was a worker in a shoe factory, after leaving school, their son, Rudolf Rudi Dassler, joined his father at the shoe factory. When he returned from fighting in World War I, Rudolf received a management position at a porcelain factory, Adolf Adi Dassler started to produce his own sports shoes in his mothers wash kitchen in Herzogenaurach after his return from World War I.
In July 1924, his brother Rudolf returned to Herzogenaurach to join his brothers business. Following Owens haul of four medals, his success cemented the good reputation of Dassler shoes among the worlds most famous sportsmen. Letters from around the world landed on the desks. Business boomed and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of every year before World War II. After Rudolf was picked up by American soldiers and accused of being a member of the Waffen SS, American occupying forces subsequently became major buyers of the Dassler brothers shoes. Although it is a urban myth that the name is an acronym for All Day I Dream About Sports. Puma and Adidas entered into a fierce and bitter rivalry after the split. Indeed, the town of Herzogenaurach was divided on the issue, even the towns two football clubs were divided, ASV Herzogenaurach club was supported by Adidas, while 1 FC Herzogenaurach endorsed Rudolfs footwear. When handymen were called to Rudolfs home, they would deliberately wear Adidas shoes, Rudolf would tell them to go to the basement and pick out a pair of free Pumas.
The two brothers were never reconciled and although both are now buried in the cemetery, they are spaced as far apart as possible
Wirral Waters is a large scale £4. 5bn development that has been proposed by the Peel Group for Birkenhead, on the Wirral Peninsula, England. It is the programme of the Liverpool Waters project. Since 2012 the two projects have enjoyed enterprise zone status, together forming the Mersey Waters Enterprise Zone and this is alongside a waterfront hotel bars, other leisure facilities &15,000 apartments which would be housed in a series of tall, modern towers. Three of these towers are designed to achieve fifty storeys, a dedicated development is proposed at the site of the former Bidston Dock, close to the M53 motorway and the Kingsway road tunnel to Liverpool. This will encompass an additional 571,000 square feet of retail, the architectural practice Broadway Malyan have been employed by Peel, and are responsible for the overall design of the development. Broadway Malyan are responsible for the design of the redevelopment of Mann Island, across the River Mersey, if achieved, the plan will increase dramatically the amount of business space available in the wider conurbation.
Addressing an imbalance that has seen the area develop 5,000,000 square feet office space than other urban centres of a similar profile. It is estimated by the developers that the scheme may lead to the creation of over 27,000 permanent jobs, Peel purchased the Cammell Laird shipyard, in January 2007, to facilitate the development. The scheme was revealed to the public in September 2006, after 18 months of design, Peel stated that the project may take up to 30 years, before it is fully realised, meaning the development may not be completed until the year 2041. The developers intended to submit proposals to the Wirral Council by Christmas 2008 and this did not happen and on 2 November 2009, the developers stated they would post the application soon. However, they threatened to out of the scheme if the Government called a public inquiry into it. On 3 August 2010, the Wirral Waters Scheme was given approval by Wirral Councils Planning Committee. This would lead to one of the UKs biggest developments over the next decade, on 29 November 2010 the project cleared the final planning hurdle after being given full Government approval.
The West Float Land Remediation Project was eligible to start on 27 June 2011, the site is intended for the Peel International Trade Centre. Planning permission was granted for an International Trade Centre, within the Birkenhead dockland, a plan was announced in February 2013, intending to redevelop part of the abandoned Birkenhead Dock Branch route, to run a streetcar system. Options to connect this new system to Conway Park and Birkenhead Park stations are available, in April 2014, Wirral Metropolitan College announced plans for a new campus. The campus is intended for the development of skills needed for realising the Wirral Waters project, plans were submitted for a 60,000 square feet office building at Tower Wharf, in May 2014. As of May 2015, these buildings are under construction, adjacent to Tower Road, in March 2015, Morgan Sindall were awarded a contract to build a £35m manufacturing facility, for large components to be used in the energy sector, on Beaufort Road, alongside West Float
Trafalgar Dock is a dock on the River Mersey, in England, and part of the Port of Liverpool. It is situated in the dock system in Vauxhall and connected to Salisbury Dock to the north. The sites of two docks are located in the vicinity, Victoria Dock was located to the south. Trafalgar Dock was designed by Jesse Hartley, opened in 1836, during the early 1990s, most of the dock basin was used as a designated landfill site. This has left only a section of the part of the dock. What remains of the dock provides access to Clarence Graving Docks, in 2007, work began on a £20 million extension of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, providing a further 1.4 mi of navigable waterway. A new 6.5 m -wide channel was excavated through Trafalgar Dock to the end of West Waterloo Dock as part of the canal route. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter. It has become popular among power stations, which switch from coal to biomass to comply with the law. Biomass most often refers to plants or plant-based materials that are not used for food or feed, as an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are classified into, chemical. Historically, humans have harnessed biomass-derived energy since the time people began burning wood to make fire. Even today, biomass is the source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries. Biomass is all biologically-produced matter based in carbon and oxygen, the estimated biomass production in the world is 104.9 petagrams of carbon per year, about half in the ocean and half on land. Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today, examples include forest residues, yard clippings, wood chips, wood energy is derived by using lignocellulosic biomass as fuel.
Harvested wood may be used directly as a fuel or collected from waste streams to be processed into pellet fuel or other forms of fuels. The largest source of energy from wood is pulping liquor or black liquor, in the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including biofuels. Based on the source of biomass, biofuels are classified broadly into two major categories, first-generation biofuels are derived from sources such as sugarcane and corn starch. Sugars present in this biomass are fermented to produce bioethanol, a fuel which can be used directly in a fuel cell to produce electricity or serve as an additive to gasoline. However, utilizing food-based resources for production only aggravates the food shortage problem. Second-generation biofuels, on the hand, utilize non-food-based biomass sources such as agriculture. These biofuels mostly consist of lignocellulosic biomass, which is not edible and is a waste for many industries.
Despite being the alternative, economical production of second-generation biofuel is not yet achieved due to technological issues. These issues arise due to chemical inertness and structural rigidity of lignocellulosic biomass. Plant energy is produced by crops grown for use as fuel that offer high biomass output per hectare with low input energy
Tesco PLC is a British multinational grocery and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, England, United Kingdom. It is the third largest retailer in the world measured by profits and it has stores in 12 countries across Asia and Europe and is the grocery market leader in the UK, Hungary and Thailand. Tesco was founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen as a group of market stalls and his business expanded rapidly, and by 1939 he had over 100 Tesco stores across the country. This broadening of its appeal was successful, and saw the chain grow from 500 stores in the mid-1990s to 2,500 stores fifteen years later, Tesco is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index. It had a capitalization of approximately £18.1 billion as of 22 April 2015. Jack Cohen, the son of Jewish migrants from Poland, founded Tesco in 1919 when he began to sell war-surplus groceries from a stall at Well Street Market, the Tesco brand first appeared in 1924. The name came about after Jack Cohen bought a shipment of tea from Thomas Edward Stockwell and he made new labels using the initials of the suppliers name, and the first two letters of his surname, forming the word TESCO.
Tesco was floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1947 as Tesco Stores Limited, the first self-service store opened in St Albans in 1956, and the first supermarket in Maldon in 1956. In 1961 Tesco Leicester made an appearance in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest store in Europe, during the 1950s and the 1960s Tesco grew organically, and through acquisitions, until it owned more than 800 stores. The company purchased 70 Williamsons stores,200 Harrow Stores outlets,212 Irwins stores,97 Charles Phillips stores, Jack Cohens business motto was pile it high and sell it cheap, to which he added an internal motto of YCDBSOYA which he used to motivate his sales force. In May 1987, Tesco completed its takeover of the Hillards chain of 40 supermarkets in the North of England for £220 million. In 1994, the took over the supermarket chain William Low after fighting off Sainsburys for control of the Dundee-based firm. This paved the way for Tesco to expand its presence in Scotland, Tesco introduced a loyalty card, branded Clubcard in 1995, and an Internet shopping service.
Overseas operations were introduced the same year, Terry Leahy assumed the role of Chief Executive on 21 February 1997, the appointment having been announced on 21 November 1995. The deal was approved by the European Commission on 6 May 1997, in July 2001 Tesco became involved in internet grocery retailing in the USA when it obtained a 35% stake in GroceryWorks. In 2002 Tesco purchased 13 HIT hypermarkets in Poland and it made a major move into the UK convenience store market with its purchase of T & S Stores, owner of 870 convenience stores in the One Stop and Day & Nite chains in the UK. In June 2003 Tesco purchased the C Two-Network in Japan and it acquired a majority stake in Turkish supermarket chain Kipa. In January 2004 Tesco acquired Adminstore, owner of 45 Cullens, Europa, in Thailand, Tesco Lotus was a joint venture of the Charoen Pokphand Group and Tesco, but facing criticism over the growth of hypermarkets CP Group sold its Tesco Lotus shares in 2003
Birkenhead /ˌbɜːrkənˈhɛd/ is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral in Merseyside, England. Historically in Cheshire, it is on the Wirral Peninsula, along the west bank of the River Mersey, the Birkenhead Urban Area defined as the contiguous built-up area along the eastern side of the Wirral had a total population of 325,264 in the 2011 Census. In the 2011 census, the Parliamentary constituency of Birkenhead had a population of 88,818, the Birkenhead and Tranmere electoral ward, covering a much smaller area, had a population of 15,879. The recorded history of Birkenhead began with the establishment of Birkenhead Priory, during the 19th century Birkenhead expanded greatly, becoming a town as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with Birkenhead Park and Hamilton Square being examples of the era. Around the same time, Birkenhead gained the first street tramway in Britain, the Mersey Railway connected Birkenhead and Liverpool, with the worlds first tunnel beneath a tidal estuary.
Birkenhead is perhaps best known for the shipbuilding of Cammell Laird, in the second half of the 20th century, the town suffered a significant period of decline, with containerisation causing a reduction in port activity. During the first half of the 21st century, the Wirral Waters development is planned to regenerate much of the dockland. The name Birkenhead probably means headland overgrown with birch, from the Old English bircen meaning birch tree, the name is not derived from the Birket, a stream which enters the Mersey between Birkenhead and Seacombe. The Birket is a name which was introduced by Ordnance Survey. The earliest records state that the Mersey ferry began operating from Birkenhead in 1150, the priory was visited in 1275 and 1277 by Edward I. In a royal charter of 13 April 1330, Edward III granted the priory further rights, distanced from the Industrial Revolution in Liverpool by the physical barrier of the River Mersey, Birkenhead retained its agricultural status until the advent of steam ferry services.
In 1817 a steam ferry service started from Liverpool to Tranmere and in 1822 the paddle steamer, Royal Mail, an iron works was initially established by William Laird in 1824 and was joined by his son John Laird in 1828. The business eventually became Cammell Laird, merchant vessels were built such as RMS Mauretania and RMS Windsor Castle. The Mersey Railway tunnel opened in 1886, providing direct access to Liverpool. In September 1932 thousands of unemployed people protested in a series of demonstrations organised by the branch of the National Unemployed Workers Movement. After three days of rioting, police were brought in from elsewhere to help quell the rioters, in addition to the ferries and the railway, the Queensway road tunnel opened in 1934 and gave rapid access to Liverpool. This opened up the Wirral Peninsula for development, and prompted further growth of Birkenhead as an industrial centre. Bolstered by migration from rural Cheshire, southern Ireland and Wales, formerly a township in Bidston Parish of the Wirral Hundred, Birkenhead was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1877, and became a county borough with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888
Shell Oil Company
Shell Oil Company is the United States-based subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell, a multinational oil major of Anglo-Dutch origins, which is amongst the largest oil companies in the world. Approximately 22,000 Shell employees are based in the U. S, the U. S. head office is in Houston, Texas. Shell is the leader through approximately 25,000 Shell-branded gas stations in the U. S. which serve as Shells most visible public presence. At its gas stations Shell provides diesel fuel, gasoline and LPG, Shell products include oils and car services as well as exploration and refining of petroleum products. The Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, the first Shell refinery in the United States, supplies Shell, Shell gasolines previously included the RU2000 and SU2000 lines but they have been superseded by the V-Power line. In 1997, Shell and Texaco entered into two refining/marketing joint ventures, one combined their Midwestern and Western operations and was known as Equilon. The other, known as Motiva, combined the Eastern and Gulf Coast operations of Shell Oil and Star Enterprise, after Texaco merged with Chevron in 2001, Shell purchased Texacos shares in the joint ventures.
In the year 2016, Shell Nederland Raffinaderij BV said that it has started a new unit at the large Pernis refinery in Rotterdam. Until the mid-1980s Shells business in the United States was substantially independent, limited direct involvement from the main office in The Hague and having its stock Shell Oil traded on the New York Stock Exchange were factors.7 billion. Despite the acquisition, Shell Oil remained an independent business. This was due in part to legal reasons as Royal Dutch Shell feared that there could be onerous liability problems if a closer control of Shell Oils affairs was exercised by the parent company. One consequence of independence was that the Shell logo used in the U. S. was slightly different from that used in the rest of the world. In the 1980s Shell Oils independence began to erode as the parent company took a more hands-on approach in running the business. The logo used in the United States is the same as used elsewhere since June 1,1998. Aera Energy —joint venture with ExxonMobil operating in California, Motiva Enterprises —joint venture with Saudi Refining.
Shell Development Emeryville —research facility that operated from 1928–1966 in California, pennzoil Shell Puget Sound Refinery, Washington, was fined $291,000 from 2006 to 2010 for violations of the Clean Air Act making it the second most-fined violator in the Pacific Northwest. As of 2011, it was listed as high priority violator since 2008, in 2008, a lawsuit was filed against Shell Oil Company for alleged Clean Air Act violation. Shell Deer Park facility,20 miles east of Houston, was the nations eighth-largest oil refinery, the facility was the second largest source of air pollution in Harris County, which ranked among the lowest in the nation in several measures of air quality
The Peel Group
The Peel Group is a private real estate, media and infrastructure investment company located in the United Kingdom. Peels extensive real estate assets consist of 850,000 square metres of investment property, Peel is one of the largest property investment companies in the United Kingdom, and has its head office at the Trafford Centre, in Greater Manchester. The Trafford Centre, which opened in 1998, was Peels first major foray into real estate development. The centre was sold in 2011 to Capital Shopping Centres for £1.6 billion, making it the largest property acquisition in British history, other projects which Peel have developed include MediaCityUK and Scout Moor Wind Farm. The group is led by John Whittaker, who maintains a 75% majority stake in the group and its long term aim is to make the North West of England the leading economic region in the United Kingdom. The majority of its developments are concentrated in the region, the group is currently focused on the £50 billion Ocean Gateway development for North West England.
Between 1971 and 1987, the founder, John Whittaker, acquired Peel Mills, John Brights. John Whittaker was born in Lancashire, and many of his ancestors were involved in the cotton industry, the company evolved into Peel Holdings to reflect its status as a property investment company, abandoning the name of Peel Mills. The group remained quiet for the decade, with little development, and from 1971 to 1987. The underused ship canal had fallen into disrepair, its too small for many of the seafaring vessels of the time. Most recently, in 2011, a proposal to build a block of flats in the historic district of Castlefield was rejected for the fifth time by Manchester City Council. The Ship Canal has consequently become a key hub for the Peel Group, the largest asset of the group was formerly the Trafford Centre. The plans had originally conceived in 1984, with the centre opening in 1998 after one of the most prolonged. In 1997, the Peel Group became involved in ownership for the first time. A 76% shareholding in Liverpool Airport was acquired, with Peel taking complete control in 2000, RAF Finningley was purchased in 1999, and redeveloped as Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield, opening in 2005.
In 2002, Barton Aerodrome was purchased by the Manchester Ship Canal Development Company and was subsequently renamed City Airport Manchester, results were mixed, and the Peel Group began looking for an outside investor for Peel Airports. In June 2010 it was announced that Vantage Airport Group had bought a 65% shareholding in Peel Airports, the new management team at Peel Airports quickly began disposing of assets, selling them back to the Peel Group. First to go was City Airport Manchester in 2011, followed by Durham Tees Valley Airport in February 2012, sale of the loss-making DTVA resulted in a one-off impairment charge of £8. 8m, causing Peel Airports losses to rise from £3. 2m to £11. 4m
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles, which roughly covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK. It is landlocked and borders Cheshire, West Yorkshire, for the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government, district councils shared power with the Greater Manchester County Council. The county council was abolished in 1986, and so its districts became unitary authority areas. However, the county has continued to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, and as a ceremonial county, has a Lord Lieutenant. A further devolution of powers to Greater Manchester is set to place upon the election of the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester scheduled for 2017. Before the creation of the county, the name SELNEC was used for the area.
Since deindustrialisation in the century, Greater Manchester has become known as an exporter of media and digital content, for its guitar and dance music. Although the modern county of Greater Manchester was not created until 1974, there is evidence of Iron Age habitation, particularly at Mellor, and Celtic activity in a settlement named Chochion, believed to have been an area of Wigan settled by the Brigantes. Stretford was part of the believed to have been occupied by the Celtic Brigantes tribe. The remains of 1st-century forts at Castlefield in Manchester, and Castleshaw Roman fort in Saddleworth, are evidence of Roman occupation. Much of the region was omitted from the Domesday Book of 1086, Redhead states that this was only a partial survey was taken. During the Middle Ages, much of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire – an ancient division of the county of Lancashire, Salfordshire encompassed several parishes and townships, some of which, like Rochdale, were important market towns and centres of Englands woollen trade.
The development of what became Greater Manchester is attributed to a tradition of domestic flannel and fustian cloth production. Infrastructure such as rows of terraced housing and roads were constructed to house labour, transport goods, however, it was Manchester that was the most populous settlement, a major city, the worlds largest marketplace for cotton goods, and the natural centre of its region. In the 1910s, local government reforms to administer this conurbation as an entity were proposed. In the 18th century, German traders had coined the name Manchesterthum to cover the region in, the English term Greater Manchester did not appear until the 20th century. One of its first known recorded uses was in a 1914 report put forward in response to what was considered to have been the creation of the County of London in 1889
Nelson Dock, Liverpool
Nelson Dock is a dock on the River Mersey and part of the Port of Liverpool. It is situated in the dock system in Vauxhall, connected to Bramley-Moore Dock to the north. The dock was designed by Jesse Hartley and opened in 1848, in 2007, the Peel Group, owners of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Company, unveiled the £5.5 billion Liverpool Waters regeneration programme. Nelson Dock is encompassed in the 150-acre site, lancashire and the South West. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009
Bramley-Moore Dock is a dock on the River Mersey and part of the Port of Liverpool. The dock is located in the dock system in Vauxhall, connected to Sandon Half Tide Dock to the north. Jesse Hartley was the architect with opening in 1848, when built, Bramley-Moore Dock was the most northerly part of the dock system. At the time, access to the River Mersey was from the south, through the new Nelson and Salisbury Docks, when built, Bramley-Moore Dock was used for the largest steamships of the era. In 1851, further docks were opened to the north and these included Wellington Half Tide Dock, which gave a second access point for Bramley-Moore and the Mersey. The berthing of the ships was moved to the new Sandon Dock. Around 1900, the Wellington Dock and the adjoining Sandon Dock were realigned, with the half tide dock separated as Sandon Half Tide Dock, although a mixed use dock, with one of the original transit sheds still in place, Bramley-Moore did extensive coal trade. The coal handling included both coal for export and bunker coal for steamships in the port, transported from the South Lancashire Coalfield, a high-level railway opened in 1857 to transport coal directly to the quayside.
The high-level railway was connected by viaduct to the adjacent Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway line, the high-level railway was operational from 1856 to 1966. After the decline in coal-fired steamships, the continued to export coal. Following the demise of mining in South Lancashire, and most of the UK. The dock is still active with one of the original 1848 transit sheds still in use. Two other quays are used for unloading aggregates, the ports Svitzer tugs are based, with their home berths, in the dock. Bramley-Moore Dock is the location of one of Liverpools brick-built hydraulic accumulator towers, the tower provided hydraulic power to dock gates and lifting equipment. In 2007, the Peel Group, owners of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Company, Bramley-Moore Dock is encompassed in the 150-acre site. Bramley-Moore Dock is the most northern of the docks within the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City World Heritage Site, the hydraulic tower and dock retaining walls are Grade II listed buildings. Jesse Hartley, Dock Engineer to the Port of Liverpool, 1824-60, North Liverpool Docks diagram Map of the location Bramley-Moore Dock aerial photo 1851 map of North Liverpool Docks 1881 map of North Liverpool