National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, honors those who have excelled in playing and serving the sport; the Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations." The word Cooperstown is used as shorthand for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to Canton for the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by the owner of a local hotel. Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939; the erroneous claim that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall.
An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994. Dale Petroskey became the organization's president in 1999. In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years; the Hall of Fame has since sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit. The Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005; the Hall of Fame presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16, 2008, he had been acting as president since March 25, 2008, when Petroskey was forced to resign for having "failed to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" and making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum." Among baseball fans, "Hall of Fame" means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, New York, but the pantheon of players, umpires and pioneers who have been enshrined in the Hall.
The first five men elected were Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, chosen in 1936. As of January 2018, 323 people had been elected to the Hall of Fame, including 226 former Major League Baseball players, 35 Negro league baseball players and executives, 22 managers, 10 umpires, 30 pioneers and organizers. 114 members of the Hall of Fame have been inducted posthumously, including four who died after their selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro league members, 29 were inducted posthumously, including all 24 selected since the 1990s; the Hall of Fame includes Effa Manley. The newest members elected on January 22, 2019, are players Edgar Martínez, Roy Halladay, Mike Mussina and Mariano Rivera, with Rivera becoming the first player to be elected unanimously. Players are inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers' Association of America, or the Veterans Committee, which now consists of four subcommittees, each of which considers and votes for candidates from a separate era of baseball.
Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience who passes a screening committee is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years' membership or more who have been covering MLB at any time in the 10 years preceding the election. From a final ballot including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player, named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored. Players receiving 5% or more of the votes but fewer than 75% are reconsidered annually until a maximum of ten years of eligibility. Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction though they have not met all requirements.
Addie Joss was elected despite only playing nine seasons before he died of meningitis. Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before his fifth year of retirement that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after his death. Roberto Clemente's induction in 1973 set the precedent when the writers chose to put him up for consideration after his death on New Year's Eve, 1972; the five-year waiting period was established in 1954 after an evolutionary process. In 1936 all players were eligible, including active ones. From the 1937 election until the 1945 election, there was no waiting period, so any retired player was eligible, but writers were discouraged from voting for current major leaguers. Since there was no formal rule preventing a writer from casting a ballot for an active player, the scribes did not always comply with the informal guideline.
High Point, North Carolina
High Point is a city located in the Piedmont Triad region of the state of North Carolina. Most of the city is located in Guilford County, with portions spilling into neighboring Randolph and Forsyth counties. High Point is North Carolina's only city; as of the 2010 census the city had a total population of 104,371, with an estimated population of 108,629 in 2014. High Point is the ninth-largest municipality in North Carolina, the 259th largest city in America. High Point is known for its furniture and bus manufacturing; the city is sometimes referred to as the "Home Furnishings Capital of the World". The city's official slogan is "North Carolina's International City" due to the semi-annual High Point Furniture Market that attracts 100,000 exhibitors and buyers from around the world, it is home to one university, High Point University, a private Methodist-affiliated institution founded in 1924. Among the first Europeans to settle Guilford County were German immigrants. High Point was located at the highest point of the 1856 North Carolina Railroad between Charlotte and Goldsboro where it intersected the 1852 Great Western Plank Road.
Its central location and transportation allowed for the delivery of raw materials like cotton and lumber and processed goods in and out of the city and contributed to its early growth. Settled before 1750, High Point was incorporated in 1859. Before it became a major manufacturing center, the most important industries were tobacco and textiles; the first of many High Point furniture factories was opened in 1889. Established in 1924, High Point University is a liberal arts institution with 4,400 undergraduate and graduate students from 51 countries and 46 states, it is ranked by U. S. News and World Report 2013 edition of "America's Best Colleges" 1st among comprehensive universities in the South and in the top 100 nationally; the university offers 44 undergraduate majors, 10 graduate-degree programs and one doctorate program. It is accredited by the Commission of Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, is a member of the NCAA Division I and the Big South Conference; the John H. Adams House, High Point Central High School, Deep River Friends Meeting House and Cemetery, Enterprise Building, First Baptist Church, Dr. C. S. Grayson House, Guilford County Office and Court Building, John Haley House, Hardee Apartments, Highland Cotton Mills Village Historic District, Allen Jay School Rock Gymnasium, Kilby Hotel, O. Arthur Kirkman House and Outbuildings, Model Farm, Eli Moore House, Oakwood Historic District, William Penn High School, Sherrod Park, J. C.
Siceloff House, Spring Hill Methodist Protestant Church Cemetery, Spurgeon House, A. E. Taplin Apartment Building, Tomlinson Chair Manufacturing Company Complex, Uptown Suburbs Historic District, Washington Street Historic District, West High Street Historic District, Lucy and J. Vassie Wilson House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. High Point is the only city in North Carolina that exists within four counties: Davidson, Forsyth and Randolph, it stands within two major watersheds: the Yadkin–Pee Dee to the west and the Cape Fear to the east. Parts of the city rise above 1,000 feet, making it among the highest cities in North Carolina's Piedmont. High Point is located at 35°58′14″N 79°59′51″W, it is bordered by the city of Greensboro to the north, Jamestown to the northeast, Archdale to the southeast. The city limits of Trinity and Thomasville come within half a mile of the High Point city limits to the south and southwest, respectively. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 55.4 square miles, of which 53.8 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles, or 2.96%, is water.
Summers are hot and humid, the dew points will climb to near or above 70 °F by late June through much of August. Nights remain warm above 70 degrees. Most summers the hottest day will record a maximum between 96 and 98 °F. About once every 5 to 10 years the city will climb to or above 100 °F. Winters are cool to cold. Nights average near 30 °F, with the coldest averages in the upper 20s from late December through early February. Most winters the coldest temperature will dip to between 10 and 15 °F. About once every 10 years the minimum will dip below 5 °F and to near or below 0 °F once every 20 years. Daytime highs average near 50 °F in the winter, with the coldest stretch between late December through early February with highs averaging in the upper 40s. Most winters there will be 2 to 4 days; the hottest temperature on record for the area was 103 °F on August 18, 1988, the coldest was −8 °F on January 21, 1985. Rainfall patterns are spread evenly throughout the year, with between seven and eleven wet days per month.
The city averages around 43 inches of rain per year. Snowfall varies from year with most years totaling less than 5 inches. However, there are some years that exceed 20 inches, this brings the overall average to more than 8 inches per year. In the winter of 1959/60 the city had just over 30 inches of snowfall, which stands as the most dating back to the start of snowfall recordkeeping in 1928. In addition to snowfall, some years the city can be impacted by significant ice storms. Cold air wedging up on the east side of the mountains can lock this part of the state into cold air while warmer moist air moves in aloft; this proximity to the mountains creates what is known as the Appalachian
Rich Hill (pitcher)
Richard Joseph Hill is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball. Hill played college baseball for the Michigan Wolverines. Hill was drafted three times in the Major League Baseball draft before signing in 2002, he has played in MLB for the Chicago Cubs, Baltimore Orioles, Boston Red Sox, Cleveland Indians, Los Angeles Angels, New York Yankees and Oakland Athletics. Hill has earned both American National League Pitcher of the Month honors, he is the only pitcher in Major League history to have had a perfect game broken up by a 9th inning fielding error, the only pitcher in Major League history to have a no-hitter broken up in extra innings by a walk-off home run. Hill was born and raised in Milton and played for Milton High School's Varsity baseball team when he was a freshman, he is one of four to do so in the school's history. He was drafted by the Cincinnati Reds in the 36th round of the 1999 Major League Baseball Draft; as a freshman, he pitched in 13 games with five starts and a high 9.23 Earned run average but he became a full-time member of the rotation as a sophomore and was 3–5 with a 3.84 ERA in 15 games, including one complete game shutout.
He was drafted again in the seventh round of the 2001 MLB Draft by the Anaheim Angels but decided to return to school for his junior season, claiming he was unhappy with the money offered by the Angels. Hill pitched for the Chatham A's in the Cape Cod League during the summer of 2000 and 2001, working 56 1⁄3 innings and striking out 76. In his junior season at Michigan in 2002, he was 3–7 with a 3.55 ERA in 15 games, including eight complete games and two shutouts. He struck out 104 while walking only 38. Hill was selected in the fourth round of the 2002 Major League Baseball draft by the Chicago Cubs and signed on July 10, 2002, he had been rated as having one of the best curveballs in the draft but mechanical and control issues kept him out of the early rounds. He began his professional career with the Boise Hawks of the Northwest League, where he was 0–2 with an 8.36 ERA in six games. In 2003 with Boise he was 1–6 with a 4.35 ERA in 14 starts and led the Northwest League in strikeouts with 99.
He was promoted to the Lansing Lugnuts of the Midwest League, where he was 0–1 with a 2.76 ERA in 15 games. In 2004, he was assigned to the Daytona Cubs of the Florida State League, he was 7 -- 6 with a 4.03 ERA in 136 strikeouts. He was selected by Baseball America as having the best curveball in the Cubs organization. Hill began the 2005 season with the West Tenn Diamond Jaxx of the Southern League, he made 10 starts for them, with a 4–3 record and 3.28 ERA while leading the league in strikeouts with 90. He earned a May promotion to the Triple-A Iowa Cubs of the Pacific Coast League. In 11 games for Iowa, he was 6 -- 1 with 92 strikeouts, he earned Milb.com distinctions as breakthrough performer of the year. Hill made his major league debut on June 2005 against the Florida Marlins, he pitched one inning of relief, giving up two runs on three hits, did not factor into the decision. He struck out Carlos Delgado for his first major league strikeout. Hill's first start was on July 25, 2005, subbing for the oft-injured Kerry Wood against the San Francisco Giants.
Once again he gave up two earned runs, but lasted five innings. The game was memorable due to Hill tripping over third-base on his way to the plate after a Todd Walker drive down the right-field line. With just one out and the Cubs down by one, Walker was forced to stop at first base, Jerry Hairston, Jr. at second. Hill did not score, returned to third base unhurt, he did not factor into the decision. He finished the season with an 0–2 record in 10 games while making four starts, his ERA was 9.13 and he struck out 21 while walking 17. In 2006, he started the season in Triple-A with the Iowa Cubs, but was called up on May 4 for a start against the Arizona Diamondbacks, he gained attention in Chicago in the month during the cross-town classic with the Chicago White Sox. On May 20, Hill lost to the White Sox 7–0, was the starter in the game that saw A. J. Pierzynski run over Cubs catcher Michael Barrett at the plate in a huge collision. Hill was sent back to Triple-A Iowa the next day, he was 7 -- 1 with a 1.98 ERA and 135 strikeouts.
He was selected to the mid-season Pacific Coast League all-star game, where he was the top star, he was selected as a post-season all-star and a Baseball America Triple-A All-Star. Hill returned to the majors on July 27 with a start against the St. Louis Cardinals, he lasted only 3 1⁄3 innings. On August 1, he defeated the Arizona Diamondbacks for his first major league victory, on August 6, he got his second win and his first win streak. On September 6, Hill fanned a career high 11 batters in a Cubs victory over the Pittsburgh Pirates. Hill's first complete game and shutout came versus the Cincinnati Reds in a game in which he fanned 10 and allowed just two hits, on September 16. Hill's two complete games were the only CG's by the Cubs' pitching staff in the 2006 season, he was one of the solid contributors in the rotation after being called back up, posting a 6–3 record with a 2.93 ERA. Hill joined the starting rotation of the Cubs after spring training, was the #4 starter in the rotation behind Carlos Zambrano, Ted Lilly, Jason Marquis.
He pitched against the Milwaukee Brewers for his first start of the 2007 season, throwing a perfect g
Rickey Nelson Henley Henderson is an American retired professional baseball left fielder who played in Major League Baseball for nine teams from 1979 to 2003, including four stints with his original team, the Oakland Athletics. Nicknamed the "Man of Steal", he is regarded as baseball's greatest leadoff hitter and baserunner, he holds the major league records for career stolen bases, unintentional walks and leadoff home runs. At the time of his last major league game in 2003, the ten-time American League All-Star ranked among the sport's top 100 all-time home run hitters and was its all-time leader in base on balls. In 2009, he was inducted to the Baseball Hall of Fame on his first ballot appearance. Henderson holds the single-season record for stolen bases and is the only player in AL history to steal 100 bases in a season, having done so three times, his 1,406 career steals is 50% higher than the previous record of 938 by Lou Brock. Henderson is the all-time stolen base leader for the Oakland Athletics and held the New York Yankees' franchise record from 1988 to 2011.
He was among the league's top ten base stealers in 21 different seasons. Henderson was named the AL's Most Valuable Player in 1990, he was the leadoff hitter for two World Series champions: the 1989 Oakland A's and the 1993 Toronto Blue Jays. A 12-time stolen base champion, Henderson led the league in runs five times, his 25-year career elevated Henderson to the top ten in several other categories, including career at bats and outfield putouts and total chances. His high on-base percentage, power hitting, stolen base and run totals made him one of the most dynamic players of his era, he was further known for his unquenchable passion for playing baseball and a buoyant and quotable personality that both perplexed and entertained fans. Once asked if he thought Henderson was a future Hall of Famer, statistician Bill James replied, "If you could split him in two, you'd have two Hall of Famers." Henderson was born in Chicago and named Rickey Nelson Henley, named after singer-actor Ricky Nelson, to John L. Henley and Bobbie Henley on Christmas Day, 1958, in Chicago, in the back seat of an Oldsmobile on the way to the hospital.
Henderson joked, "I was fast. I couldn't wait." When he was two years old, his father left home, his family moved to Oakland, when he was seven. His father died in an automobile accident ten years after leaving home, his mother married Paul Henderson in Rickey Henley's junior year of high school and the family adopted the Henderson surname. As a child learning to play baseball in Oakland, Henderson developed the ability to bat right-handed although he was a left-handed thrower—a rare combination for baseball players non-pitchers. In the entire history of Major League Baseball through the 2008 season, only 57 position players are known to have batted right and thrown left, Henderson is the most successful player to do so. Henderson said, "All my friends were right-handed and swung from the right side, so I thought that's the way it was supposed to be done."In 1976, Henderson graduated from Oakland Technical High School, where he played baseball and football, was an All-American running back with a pair of 1,000-yard rushing seasons.
He ran track, but did not stay with the team as the schedule conflicted with baseball. Henderson received over a dozen scholarship offers to play football. Despite a childhood dream to play for the Oakland Raiders, he turned down the scholarships on the advice of his mother, who argued that football players had shorter careers. In 1983, Henderson married Pamela, they have three children: Angela and Adrianna. Henderson was drafted by the Oakland Athletics in the fourth round of the 1976 Major League Baseball draft, he spent the first season of his minor league career with the Boise A's of the Northwest League. In 46 games, Henderson hit three home runs and two triples. Henderson spent the following season with the Modesto A's, he batted.345 in 134 games during his record-setting season with Modesto. Henderson, along with Darrell Woodard, nearly broke the league record for team stolen bases; the Modesto A's finished the season with 357 stolen bases, just shy of the league record of 370. While Woodard tied the single-season player record with 90 stolen bases, Henderson beat the record by stealing 95 bases, was awarded the Sundial Trophy, given to the Modesto A's Most Valuable Player.
Henderson spent the 1978 season with the Jersey City A's of the Eastern League. After the minor league season ended, he played the 1978–1979 winter season for the Navojoa Mayos of the Mexican Pacific League, he played in six games for the team. In 1979, Henderson started the season with the Ogden A's of the Pacific Coast League. In 71 games for Ogden, he stole 44 bases. Henderson made his major league debut with Oakland on June 24, 1979, getting two hits in four at bats, along with a stolen base, he batted.274 with 33 stolen bases in 89 games. In 1980, Henderson became the 3rd modern-era player to steal 100 bases in a season, his 100 steals broke Eddie Collins' franchise record of 81 in 1910 with what were the Philadelphia Athletics and set a new American League record, surpassing Ty Cobb's 96 set in 1915. He batted.303, had 179 hits, scored 111 runs, drew 117 walks, had a.420 on base % and led the AL by reaching base 301 times. That winter, Henderson played in the Puerto Rican Professional Baseball League.
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air and rail hubs, the city had a population of 285,154 in 2017, making it the nation's 70th-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest cities in the United States, its location at the mouth of the Passaic River has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark–Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, today is one of its busiest. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, IDT Corporation, Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University.
The U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, the Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five political wards and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000. Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony, it was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31, 1693, it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713, it was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships.
During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836; the independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood; as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known. The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, because of the influence of the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire, but Pierson is supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, James McHenry, as late as 1787.
During the American Revolutionary War, British troops made several raids into the town. The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots; the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. In 2018 the city passed legislation to protect residents from displacement brought about by gentrification. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles, including 24.187 square miles of land and 1.920 square miles of water. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida. The city's altitude ranges from 0 in the east to 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, Weequahic. Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were wilderness, with a few dumps and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands. Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west, the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north; the city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City"
Scott Edward Kazmir is an American professional baseball pitcher, a free agent. He has played in Major League Baseball for the Tampa Bay Devil Rays/Rays, Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, Cleveland Indians, Oakland Athletics, Houston Astros, Los Angeles Dodgers. Kazmir was drafted in the first round of the 2002 Major League Baseball draft by the New York Mets and moved through the organization's minor league system. Kazmir was one of the top pitching prospects in baseball when he was sent to the Tampa Bay Devil Rays at the 2004 trade deadline in a publicized and criticized deal. Kazmir made his major league debut with the Devil Rays on August 23, 2004, when he was only 20 years old. During his first four seasons with the club, winning at least 10 games in his every full season with the team. Kazmir was named to his first All Star team in 2006, led the American League with 239 strikeouts and 34 games started in 2007, is still among Tampa Bay's all-time leaders in many pitching categories, including strikeouts, earned run average and games started.
The Devil Rays got off to the best start in franchise history. Kazmir named American League Pitcher of the Month in May and appeared in his second All-Star game in July. However, a series of nagging injuries led to inconsistency in his pitching motion and reduced his effectiveness over the second half of the season and in the playoffs as the Rays made it to their first World Series. Kazmir continued to struggle with injuries and ineffectiveness early in the 2009 season and spent some time on the disabled list, he had several better starts in July and August, at which point the Rays traded him to the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim for several minor league prospects. The Angels released him in June 2011. Kazmir spent over a year trying to recover his pitching touch, working with personal coaches and trainers and pitching for short stints with independent minor league and winter league teams. In December 2012, he signed a minor league deal with the Cleveland Indians and received an invitation to spring training.
Solid performances in spring training earned him a spot in the Indians' starting rotation for 2013, he pitched well enough to come in third in the voting for American League Comeback Player of the Year. In December 2013, Kazmir signed a two-year contract with the Oakland Athletics and continued his resurgence by winning a career-high 15 games during the 2014 season and making his third All-Star appearance. Kazmir continued to pitch well for the A's in the first half of 2015, with his contract expiring at the end of the season, he was traded to his hometown Houston Astros in July. In 2016, he signed a three-year, $48 million free agent contract with the Los Angeles Dodgers. A series of injuries kept him from pitching at all in the major leagues in 2017. Kazmir was traded to the Atlanta Braves after the 2017 season; however and lingering arm issues in spring training led the Braves to release Kazmir before the regular season. Kazmir attended Cypress Falls High School in Harris County, where he was a two-sport athlete, through his sophomore year, pitching on the baseball team and starting at quarterback on the junior varsity football team.
During one stretch on the high school baseball diamond, Kazmir threw five no-hitters in six games. As a senior, he struck out 172 batters in 75 innings pitched and had an earned run average of 0.37. By the time he graduated, Kazmir was averaging around 17 to 18 strikeouts per game. Kazmir was recruited in both sports and verbally committed to the University of Texas at Austin to play college baseball for the Texas Longhorns. However, Kazmir was drafted in the first round of the 2002 MLB draft by the New York Mets and signed on to play professional baseball. Along with teammate Clint Everts, he became half of the first pair of high school pitchers from the same team drafted in the first round. Kazmir advanced through the lower level of the Mets' minor league system and was promoted to the Binghamton Mets of the Class AA Eastern League on July 10, 2004 during his second full season of pro baseball. On July 30, he was traded along with minor league pitcher Joselo Díaz to the Tampa Bay Devil Rays for veteran starting pitcher Víctor Zambrano and minor league reliever Bartolomé Fortunato.
This trade was criticized by the New York media and fan base at the time and since, given Kazmir's subsequent success. The Devil Rays sent Kazmir to their Class AA affiliate, the Montgomery Biscuits of the Southern League, where he started four games, throwing 25 innings and allowing 14 hits while striking out 24. In late August, Tampa Bay called him up to the major leagues, bypassing the Triple-A level altogether. Kazmir made his major-league debut on August 23, 2004, pitching five shutout innings against the Seattle Mariners, he had a 2–3 record and an ERA of 5.67 in 8 appearances in 2004, but he was making strides in his development. On September 9, Kazmir made his only relief appearance with the Rays, allowing one run in three innings against the Yankees. Kazmir started the 2006 season opener April 3 at Baltimore. At 22 years, 2 months and 10 days Kazmir was the youngest opening day starter since Dwight Gooden with the Mets in 1986, he lost the decision after 6 ER in 4 IP, but his first full major league season was a success overall, with a record of 10–8 with 163 strikeouts and a 3.24 ERA in 144.2 innings.
Kazmir pitched best when facing the opponent's ace starter.
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin