The North Atlantic Treaty Organization called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty, signed on 4 April 1949. NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's Headquarters are located in Haren, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium. Since its founding, the admission of new member states has increased the alliance from the original 12 countries to 29; the most recent member state to be added to NATO is Montenegro on 5 June 2017. NATO recognizes Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Ukraine as aspiring members. An additional 21 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs; the combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total.
Members have committed to reach or maintain defense spending of at least 2% of GDP by 2024. On 4 March 1947 the Treaty of Dunkirk was signed by France and the United Kingdom as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance in the event of a possible attack by Germany or the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II. In 1948, this alliance was expanded to include the Benelux countries, in the form of the Western Union referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organization, established by the Treaty of Brussels. Talks for a new military alliance which could include North America resulted in the signature of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949 by the member states of the Western Union plus the United States, Portugal, Norway and Iceland; the North Atlantic Treaty was dormant until the Korean War initiated the establishment of NATO to implement it, by means of an integrated military structure: This included the formation of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe in 1951, which adopted the Western Union's military structures and plans.
In 1952 the post of Secretary General of NATO was established as the organization's chief civilian. That year saw the first major NATO maritime exercises, Exercise Mainbrace and the accession of Greece and Turkey to the organization. Following the London and Paris Conferences, West Germany was permitted to rearm militarily, as they joined NATO in May 1955, in turn a major factor in the creation of the Soviet-dominated Warsaw Pact, delineating the two opposing sides of the Cold War. Doubts over the strength of the relationship between the European states and the United States ebbed and flowed, along with doubts over the credibility of the NATO defense against a prospective Soviet invasion – doubts that led to the development of the independent French nuclear deterrent and the withdrawal of France from NATO's military structure in 1966. In 1982 the newly democratic Spain joined the alliance; the collapse of the Warsaw Pact in 1989–1991 removed the de facto main adversary of NATO and caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATO's purpose, nature and focus on the continent of Europe.
This shift started with the 1990 signing in Paris of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe between NATO and the Soviet Union, which mandated specific military reductions across the continent that continued after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. At that time, European countries accounted for 34 percent of NATO's military spending. NATO began a gradual expansion to include newly autonomous Central and Eastern European nations, extended its activities into political and humanitarian situations that had not been NATO concerns. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany in 1989, the organization conducted its first military interventions in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995 and Yugoslavia in 1999 during the breakup of Yugoslavia. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, most of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. Article 5 of the North Atlantic treaty, requiring member states to come to the aid of any member state subject to an armed attack, was invoked for the first and only time after the September 11 attacks, after which troops were deployed to Afghanistan under the NATO-led ISAF.
The organization has operated a range of additional roles since including sending trainers to Iraq, assisting in counter-piracy operations and in 2011 enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1973. The less potent Article 4, which invokes consultation among NATO members, has been invoked five times following incidents in the Iraq War, Syrian Civil War, annexation of Crimea; the first post-Cold War expansion of NATO came with German reunification on 3 October 1990, when the former East Germany became part of the Federal Republic of Germany and the alliance. As part of post-Cold War restructuring, NATO's military structure was cut back and reorganized, with new forces such as the Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps established; the changes brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union on the military balance in Europe were recognized in the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, signed in 1999. The policies of French President Nicolas Sarkozy resulted in a major reform of France's military position, culminating with the return to full membership on 4 April 2009, which included France rejoining the NATO Military Command Structure, while maintaining an independent nuclear deterrent.
Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional co
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize or perform ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care, economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send"; the word was used in light of its biblical usage. The term is most used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology. A Christian missionary can be defined as "one, to witness across cultures"; the Lausanne Congress of 1974, defined the term, related to Christian mission as, "to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement". Missionaries can be found in many countries around the world. In the Bible, Jesus is recorded as instructing the apostles to make disciples of all nations; this verse is referred to by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission and inspires missionary work. The Christian Church expanded throughout the Roman Empire in New Testament times and is said by tradition to have reached further, to Persia and to India.
During the Middle Ages, the Christian monasteries and missionaries such as Saint Patrick, Adalbert of Prague propagated learning and religion beyond the European boundaries of the old Roman Empire. In 596, Pope Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian Mission into England. In their turn, Christians from Ireland and from Britain became prominent in converting the inhabitants of central Europe. During the Age of Discovery, the Catholic Church established a number of missions in the Americas and in other Western colonies through the Augustinians and Dominicans to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the Native Americans and other indigenous people. About the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans reached Asia and the Far East, the Portuguese sent missions into Africa. Emblematic in many respects is Matteo Ricci's Jesuit mission to China from 1582, peaceful and non-violent; these missionary movements should be distinguished from others, such as the Baltic Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries, which were arguably compromised in their motivation by designs of military conquest.
Much contemporary Catholic missionary work has undergone profound change since the Second Vatican Council of 1962-1965, with an increased push for indigenization and inculturation, along with social justice issues as a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel. As the Catholic Church organizes itself along territorial lines and had the human and material resources, religious orders, some specializing in it, undertook most missionary work in the era after the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West. Over time, the Holy See established a normalized Church structure in the mission areas starting with special jurisdictions known as apostolic prefectures and apostolic vicariates. At a stage of development these foundations are raised to regular diocesan status with a local bishops appointed. On a global front, these processes were accelerated in the 1960s, in part accompanying political decolonization. In some regions, they are still in course. Just as the Bishop of Rome had jurisdiction in territories considered to be in the Eastern sphere, so the missionary efforts of the two 9th-century saints Cyril and Methodius were conducted in relation to the West rather than the East, though the field of activity was central Europe.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, under the Orthodox Church of Constantinople undertook vigorous missionary work under the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. This had lasting effects and in some sense is at the origin of the present relations of Constantinople with some sixteen Orthodox national churches including the Romanian Orthodox Church, the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church; the Byzantines expanded their missionary work in Ukraine after the mass baptism in Kiev in 988. The Serbian Orthodox Church had its origins in the conversion by Byzantine missionaries of the Serb tribes when they arrived in the Balkans in the 7th century. Orthodox missionaries worked among the Estonians from the 10th to the 12th centuries, founding the Estonian Orthodox Church. Under the Russian Empire of the 19th century, missionaries such as Nicholas Ilminsky moved into the subject lands and propagated Orthodoxy, including through Belarus, Moldova, Estonia and China.
The Russian St. Nicholas of Japan took Eastern Orthodoxy to Japan in the 19th century; the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries to Alaska beginning in the 18th century, including Saint Herman of Alaska, to minister to the Native Americans. The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia continued missionary work outside Russia after the 1917 Russian Revolution, resulting in the establishment of many new dioceses in the diaspora, from which numerous converts have been made in Eastern Europe, North America, Oceania. Early Protestant missionaries included John Eliot and contemporary ministers
History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory, it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. History can refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources, are classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
Their works continue to be read today, the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today; the modern study of history is wide-ranging, includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. History is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies; the word history comes from the Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning'inquiry','knowledge from inquiry', or'judge'. It was in that sense; the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes' oath, in Boiotic inscriptions.
The Greek word was borrowed into Classical Latin as historia, meaning "investigation, research, description, written account of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, narrative". History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, but this word fell out of use in the late Old English period. Meanwhile, as Latin became Old French, historia developed into forms such as istorie and historie, with new developments in the meaning: "account of the events of a person's life, account of events as relevant to a group of people or people in general, dramatic or pictorial representation of historical events, body of knowledge relative to human evolution, narrative of real or imaginary events, story", it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, this time the loan stuck. It appears in the 13th-century Ancrene Wisse, but seems to have become a common word in the late 14th century, with an early attestation appearing in John Gower's Confessio Amantis of the 1390s: "I finde in a bok compiled | To this matiere an old histoire, | The which comth nou to mi memoire".
In Middle English, the meaning of history was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "the branch of knowledge that deals with past events. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory. In an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and inflected, the same word is still used to mean both'history' and'story'. Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive history is still used to mean both "what happened with men", "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, or the word historiography.
The adjective historical is attested from 1661, historic from 1669. Historians write in the context of their own time, with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a "true discourse of past" through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race; the modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record; the task of histori
Charles McLean Andrews
Charles McLean Andrews was one of the most distinguished American historians of his time as a leading authority on American colonial history. He wrote 102 major scholarly articles and books, as well as over 360 book reviews, newspaper articles, short items, he is known as a leader of the "Imperial school" of historians who studied, admired the efficiency of the British Empire in the 18th century. Kross argues: His intangible legacy is twofold. First is his insistence that all history be based on facts and that the evidence be found and weighed. Second is his injunction that colonial America can never be understood without taking into account England. Born in Wethersfield, his father, William Watson Andrews, was a minister in the Catholic Apostolic Church. Andrews received his A. B. from Trinity College, Conn. in 1884 and spent two years as principal of West Hartford High School before entering graduate school at Johns Hopkins University. At Johns Hopkins, Andrews studied under Herbert Baxter Adams and received the Ph.
D. in 1889. He was a professor at Bryn Mawr College and Johns Hopkins University before going to Yale University, he was the Farnam Professor of American History at Yale from 1910 to his retirement in 1931. He served as acting president of the American Historical Association in 1924 after the death of Woodrow Wilson, president in his own right in 1925, he held various memberships including the American Philosophical Society, the Royal Historical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Letters, Phi Beta Kappa. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1907, elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1918. Andrews won the Pulitzer Prize in history in 1935 for the first volume of his four-volume work The Colonial Period of American History, he was awarded the gold medal, given once a decade, by the National Institute of Arts and Letters for his work in history, he received honorary doctorates from Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Lehigh University. He married Evangline Holcombe Walker.
Andrews died in New Haven,CT. His Yankee ancestors had been in Connecticut for seven generations, so his interest in American colonial history, including the history of Connecticut, is unsurprising, yet Andrews was not uncritical of early New England. Along with Herbert L. Osgood of Columbia University, Andrews led a new approach to American colonial history, called the "imperial" interpretation. Andrews and Osgood emphasized the colonies' imperial ties to Great Britain, both wrote seminal articles on the subject in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1898. Rather than emphasizing conscious British tyranny leading up to the American Revolution, in works such as The Colonial Period, he saw the clash as the inevitable result of the inability of British statesmen to understand the changes in society in America. Andrews' thorough research into archival sources, a demonstration of scholarship through many books and articles, set a standard that led his colleagues to praise him as the "dean" of colonial historians.
Among his students at Yale who went on to become colonial historians and future leaders of the "imperial" school were Leonard Woods Labaree, Lawrence Henry Gipson, Isabel M. Calder, Beverley W. Bond, Jr. In 1924 he wrote: Ideal Empires and Republics online Colonial Self-Government online The Colonial Period New York, 1912 online Pilgrims and Puritans online Colonial Folkways online The Colonial Period of American History Yale UP: 1934-1937, his magnum opus. Volume 1 volume 2 volume 3 volume 4 The Colonial Background of the American Revolution New Haven, 1924 The Fathers of New England online Jonathan Dickinson's Journal, edited with Evangeline Walker Andrews Boyd, Kelly, ed. Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writers 1:32-34 Eisenstadt, Abraham S. Charles McLean Andrews Essays in Colonial History Presented to Charles McLean Andrews by his Students Kross, Jessica. "Charles M. Andrews" in Clyde N. Wilson, ed. Twentieth-century American Historians pp 9–19 Johnson, Richard R. "Charles McLean Andrews and the Invention of American Colonial History," William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, Vol. 43, No.
4, pp. 520–541 in JSTOR Labaree, Leonard W. "Charles McLean Andrews: Historian, 1863-1943", William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp 3–14 in JSTOR Works by Charles McLean Andrews at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Charles McLean Andrews at Internet Archive Charles McLean Andrews at Find a Grave
Organization of American States
The Organization of American States, or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization, founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states. Headquartered in the United States capital Washington, D. C. the OAS's members are the 35 independent states of the Americas. As of 26 May 2015, the Secretary General of OAS is Luis Almagro; the notion of an international union in the New World was first put forward during the liberation of the Americas by José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar who, at the 1826 Congress of Panama, proposed creating a league of American republics, with a common military, a mutual defense pact, a supranational parliamentary assembly. This meeting was attended by representatives of Gran Colombia, Peru, The United Provinces of Central America, Mexico but the grandly titled "Treaty of Union and Perpetual Confederation" was ratified only by Gran Colombia. Bolívar's dream soon floundered with civil war in Gran Colombia, the disintegration of Central America, the emergence of national rather than New World outlooks in the newly independent American republics.
Bolívar's dream of American unity was meant to unify Hispanic American nations against external powers. The pursuit of regional solidarity and cooperation again came to the forefront in 1889–1890, at the First International Conference of American States. Gathered together in Washington, D. C. 18 nations resolved to found the International Union of American Republics, served by a permanent secretariat called the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics. These two bodies, in existence as of 14 April 1890, represent the point of inception to which the OAS and its General Secretariat trace their origins. At the Fourth International Conference of American States, the name of the organization was changed to the Union of American Republics and the Bureau became the Pan American Union; the Pan American Union Building was constructed in 1910, on Constitution Avenue, Washington, D. C. In the mid-1930s, U. S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt organized an inter-American conference in Buenos Aires. One of the items at the conference was a "League of Nations of the Americas", an idea proposed by Colombia and the Dominican Republic.
At the subsequent Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, 21 nations pledged to remain neutral in the event of a conflict between any two members. The experience of World War II convinced hemispheric governments that unilateral action could not ensure the territorial integrity of the American nations in the event of external aggression. To meet the challenges of global conflict in the postwar world and to contain conflicts within the hemisphere, they adopted a system of collective security, the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance signed in 1947 in Rio de Janeiro; the Ninth International Conference of American States was held in Bogotá between March and May 1948 and led by United States Secretary of State George Marshall, a meeting which led to a pledge by members to fight communism in the western hemisphere. This was the event that saw the birth of the OAS as it stands today, with the signature by 21 American countries of the Charter of the Organization of American States on 30 April 1948.
The meeting adopted the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, the world's first general human rights instrument. The transition from the Pan American Union to OAS would have been smooth if it had not been for the assassination of Colombian leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán; the Director General of the former, Alberto Lleras Camargo, became the Organization's first Secretary General. The current Secretary General is former Uruguayan minister of foreign affairs Luis Almagro. Significant milestones in the history of the OAS since the signing of the Charter have included the following: 1959: Inter-American Commission on Human Rights created. 1959: Inter-American Development Bank created. 1960: First application of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance against the regime of Rafael Trujillo in Dominican Republic 1961: Charter of Punta del Este signed, launching the Alliance for Progress. 1962: OAS suspends Cuba. 1969: American Convention on Human Rights signed. 1970: OAS General Assembly established as the Organization's supreme decision-making body.
1979: Inter-American Court of Human Rights created. 1991: Adoption of Resolution 1080, which requires the Secretary General to convene the Permanent Council within ten days of a coup d'état in any member country. 1994: First Summit of the Americas, which resolved to establish a Free Trade Area of the Americas by 2005. 2001: Inter-American Democratic Charter adopted. 2009: OAS revokes 1962 suspension of Cuba. 2009: OAS suspends Honduras due to the coup which ousted president Manuel Zelaya. 2011: OAS lifts the suspension of Honduras with the return of Manuel Zelaya from exile. 2017: Venezuela announces it will begin the process to leave the OAS in response to what it alleged was OAS interference in Venezuela's political crisis. In the words of Article 1 of the Charter, the goal of the member nations in creating the OAS was "to achieve an order of peace and justice, to promote their solidarity, to strengthen their collaboration, to defend their sovereignty, their territorial integrity, their independence."
Article 2 defines eight essential
New Amsterdam was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland. The factorij became a settlement outside Fort Amsterdam; the fort was situated on the strategic southern tip of the island of Manhattan and was meant to defend the fur trade operations of the Dutch West India Company in the North River. In 1624, it became a provincial extension of the Dutch Republic and was designated as the capital of the province in 1625. By 1655, the population of New Netherland had grown to 2,000 people, with 1,500 living in New Amsterdam. By 1664, the population had exploded to 9,000 people in New Netherland, 2,500 of whom lived in New Amsterdam, 1,000 lived near Fort Orange, the remainder in other towns and villages. In 1664 the English renamed it New York after the Duke of York. After the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–1667, England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands agreed to the status quo in the Treaty of Breda.
The English kept the island of Manhattan, the Dutch giving up their claim to the town and the rest of the colony, while the English formally abandoned Surinam in South America, the island of Run in the East Indies to the Dutch, confirming their control of the valuable Spice Islands. Today much of is in New York City. In 1524, nearly a century before the arrival of the Dutch, the site that became New Amsterdam was named New Angoulême by the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, to commemorate his patron King Francis I of France, former Count of Angoulême; the first recorded exploration by the Dutch of the area around what is now called New York Bay was in 1609 with the voyage of the ship Halve Maen, captained by Henry Hudson in the service of the Dutch Republic, as the emissary of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, Holland's stadholder. Hudson named the river the Mauritius River, he was covertly attempting to find the Northwest Passage for the Dutch East India Company. Instead, he brought back news about the possibility of exploitation of beaver by the Dutch who sent commercial, private missions to the area the following years.
At the time, beaver pelts were prized in Europe, because the fur could be felted to make waterproof hats. A by-product of the trade in beaver pelts was castoreum—the secretion of the animals' anal glands—which was used for its medicinal properties and for perfumes; the expeditions by Adriaen Block and Hendrick Christiaensen in 1611, 1612, 1613 and 1614, resulted in the surveying and charting of the region from the 38th parallel to the 45th parallel. On their 1614 map, which gave them a four-year trade monopoly under a patent of the States General, they named the newly discovered and mapped territory New Netherland for the first time, it showed the first year-round trading presence in New Netherland, Fort Nassau, which would be replaced in 1624 by Fort Orange, which grew into the town of Beverwijck, now Albany. Dominican trader Juan Rodriguez, born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, arrived on Manhattan Island during the winter of 1613–1614, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch.
He was the first recorded non-Native American inhabitant of what would become New York City. The territory of New Netherland was a private, profit-making commercial enterprise focused on cementing alliances and conducting trade with the diverse Native American ethnic groups. Surveying and exploration of the region was conducted as a prelude to an anticipated official settlement by the Dutch Republic, which occurred in 1624. In 1620 the Pilgrims attempted to sail to the Hudson River from England. However, the Mayflower reached Cape Cod on November 1620, after a voyage of 64 days. For a variety of reasons a shortage of supplies, the Mayflower could not proceed to the Hudson River, the colonists decided to settle near Cape Cod, establishing the Plymouth Colony; the mouth of the Hudson River was selected as the ideal place for initial settlement as it had easy access to the ocean while securing an ice-free lifeline to the beaver trading post near present-day Albany. Here, Native American hunters supplied them with pelts in exchange for European-made trade goods and wampum, soon being made by the Dutch on Long Island.
In 1621, the Dutch West India Company was founded. Between 1621 and 1623, orders were given to the private, commercial traders to vacate the territory, thus opening up the territory to Dutch settlers and company traders, it allowed the laws and ordinances of the states of Holland to apply. During the private, commercial period, only the law of the ship had applied. In May 1624, the first settlers in New Netherland arrived on Noten Eylandt aboard the ship New Netherland under the command of Cornelius Jacobsen May, who disembarked on the island with thirty families in order to take legal possession of the New Netherland territory; the families were dispersed to Fort Wilhelmus on Verhulsten Island in the South River, to Kievitshoek at the mouth of the Verse River and further north at Fort Nassau on the Mauritius or North River, near what is now Albany. A fort and sawmill were soon erected at Nut Island; the latter was constructed by Franchoys Fezard and was taken apart for iron in 1648. The threat of attack from other European colonial powers prompted the directors of
Anthony Thomas Grafton is one of the foremost historians of early modern Europe and the current Henry Putnam University Professor at Princeton University. He is a corresponding fellow of the British Academy and a recipient of the Balzan Prize. From January 2011 to January 2012, he served as the President of the American Historical Association. Grafton was born in Connecticut, he was educated at Phillips Academy. He attended the University of Chicago, from which he graduated with a bachelor of arts degree in history in 1971 and a master of arts degree in 1972, he made Phi Beta Kappa in 1970, in the college. After studying at University College, under the celebrated ancient historian Arnaldo Momigliano, from 1973 to 1974, he earned his PhD in history from the University of Chicago in 1975, he still retains links with the University of London's Warburg Institute. After a brief period teaching at Cornell's history department, he was appointed to a position at Princeton University in 1975, where he has subsequently remained.
Since January 2007, he has been a co-editor of the Journal of the History of Ideas. Anthony Grafton is noted for his studies of the classical tradition from the Renaissance to the eighteenth century, in the history of historical scholarship, his many books include a profound study of the scholarship and chronology of the foremost classical scholar of the late Renaissance, Joseph Scaliger, a revisionist account of the significance of Renaissance education, more studies of Girolamo Cardano as an astrologer and Leon Battista Alberti. In 1996, he delivered the Triennial E. A. Lowe Lectures at Corpus Christi College, University of Oxford, speaking on Ancient History in Early Modern Europe, he is co-author of an article on the marginalia of Gabriel Harvey, one of the founding pieces of scholarship in the field of the history of reading. The best introduction to his preoccupation with the relations between scholarship and science in the early modern period is Defenders of the Text, one of his several essay collections, the most recent of, Worlds Made by Words.
In some ways his most original and accessible book is The Footnote: A curious history, a case study in what might be called the history of history, from below. He writes on a wide variety of topics for The New Republic, The American Scholar, The New York Review of Books, he owns a bookwheel. Los Angeles Times Book Prize, History, 1993 Balzan Prize for History of the Humanities, 2002 Honorary degree from Leiden University, 2006 The Sigmund H. Danziger, Jr. Memorial Lecture in the Humanities, University of Chicago, 2011 Grafton, Anthony. "The history of ideas: Precept and practice, 1950-2000 and beyond." Journal of the History of Ideas 67#1: 1-32. Online Joseph Scaliger: A Study in the History of Classical Scholarship, Oxford-Warburg Studies. With Lisa Jardine, From Humanism to the Humanities. Education and the Liberal Arts in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Europe. ISBN 0-7156-2100-9 Forgers and Critics. Creativity and Duplicity in Western Scholarship. Defenders of the Text: The Traditions of Scholarship in the Age of Science, 1450-1800.
Commerce with the Classics: Ancient Books and Renaissance Readers. The Footnote: A Curious History. Cardano's Cosmos: The Worlds and Works of a Renaissance Astrologer. Leon Battista Alberti: Master Builder of the Italian Renaissance. Bring Out Your Dead: The Past as Revelation. What Was History?: The Art of History in Early Modern Europe. With Megan Hale Williams and the Transformation of the Book: Origen and the Library of Caesarea. Codex in Crisis. Video: Anthony Grafton: Codex in Crisis on YouTube, Authors@Google, February 12, 2009. With Brian A. Curran, Pamela O. Long, Benjamin Weiss, Obelisk: A History. Worlds Made by Words. Review by Véronique Krings, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2009.09.32, "I Have Always Loved the Holy Tongue": Isaac Casaubon, The Jews, a Forgotten Chapter in Renaissance Scholarship. Anthony Grafton at The New York Review of Books Appearances on C-SPAN