Light rail, light rail transit, or fast tram is a form of urban rail transit using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, on an exclusive right-of-way. There is no standard definition, but in the United States, light rail operates along exclusive rights-of-way and uses either individual tramcars or multiple units coupled to form a train, lower capacity and lower speed than a long heavy-rail passenger train or metro system. A few light rail networks tend to have characteristics closer to rapid transit or commuter rail. Other light rail networks are tram-like in nature and operate on streets. Light rail systems are found on all inhabited continents, they have been popular in recent years due to their lower capital costs and increased reliability compared with heavy rail systems. Many original tram and streetcar systems in the United Kingdom, United States, elsewhere were decommissioned starting in the 1950s as the popularity of the automobile increased. Britain abandoned its last tram system, except for Blackpool, by 1962.
Although some traditional trolley or tram systems exist to this day, the term "light rail" has come to mean a different type of rail system. Modern light rail technology has West German origins, since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new American light rail vehicle was a technical failure. After World War II, the Germans retained many of their streetcar networks and evolved them into model light rail systems. Except for Hamburg, all large and most medium-sized German cities maintain light rail networks; the basic concepts of light rail were put forward by H. Dean Quinby in 1962 in an article in Traffic Quarterly called "Major Urban Corridor Facilities: A New Concept". Quinby distinguished this new concept in rail transportation from historic streetcar or tram systems as: having the capacity to carry more passengers appearing like a train, with more than one car connected together having more doors to facilitate full utilization of the space faster and quieter in operationThe term light rail transit was introduced in North America in 1972 to describe this new concept of rail transportation.
The first of the new light rail systems in North America began operation in 1978 when the Canadian city of Edmonton, adopted the German Siemens-Duewag U2 system, followed three years by Calgary and San Diego, California. The concept proved popular, although Canada has few cities big enough for light rail, there are now at least 30 light rail systems in the United States. Britain began replacing its run-down local railways with light rail in the 1980s, starting with the Tyne and Wear Metro and followed by the Docklands Light Railway in London; the historic term light railway was used because it dated from the British Light Railways Act 1896, although the technology used in the DLR system was at the high end of what Americans considered to be light rail. The trend to light rail in the United Kingdom was established with the success of the Manchester Metrolink system in 1992; the term light rail was coined in 1972 by the U. S. Urban Mass Transportation Administration to describe new streetcar transformations that were taking place in Europe and the United States.
In Germany the term Stadtbahn was used to describe the concept, many in UMTA wanted to adopt the direct translation, city rail. However, UMTA adopted the term light rail instead. Light in this context is used in the sense of "intended for light loads and fast movement", rather than referring to physical weight; the infrastructure investment is usually lighter than would be found for a heavy rail system. The Transportation Research Board defined "light rail" in 1977 as "a mode of urban transportation utilizing predominantly reserved but not grade-separated rights-of-way. Electrically propelled. LRT provides a wide range of passenger capabilities and performance characteristics at moderate costs." The American Public Transportation Association, in its Glossary of Transit Terminology, defines light rail as:...a mode of transit service operating passenger rail cars singly on fixed rails in right-of-way, separated from other traffic for part or much of the way. Light rail vehicles are driven electrically with power being drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley or a pantograph.
However, some diesel-powered transit is designated light rail, such as the O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa, Canada, the River Line in New Jersey, United States, the Sprinter in California, United States, which use diesel multiple unit cars. Light rail is similar to the British English term light railway, long-used to distinguish railway operations carried out under a less rigorous set of regulation using lighter equipment at lower speeds from mainline railways. Light rail is a generic international English phrase for these types of rail systems, which means more or less the same thing throughout the English-speaking world; the use of the generic term light rail avoids some serious incompatibilities between British and American English. T
Metro Rapid is a local express bus service in Los Angeles County, California with bus rapid transit characteristics. It has fewer stops than the Metro Local service; the system is operated by Metro. Two routes are operated by one by Culver CityBus and one by Torrance Transit; the Rapid program speeds up travel time for passengers, complementing the Metro Local bus network operated by the Metro as well as other bus routes operated by smaller agencies. Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their prominent red color. Based on availability of equipment, units in non-Metro Rapid livery may be placed into service on lines that use Metro Rapid buses. To speed up travel times, buses are equipped with special transmitter devices that send a signal to traffic lights, which cause them to favor the bus by holding green lights longer and shortening red lights. Metro Rapid buses stop less than Metro Local buses, with Rapid stops located only at major intersections and transfer points; the frequency of Metro Rapid buses is increased as well, as more buses on a line translates to less wait time at each station.
All Metro Rapid buses are low-floor CNG buses for alighting. As a result of a recent federal court consent decree ruling, beginning in June 2006 all Rapid routes began operating from at least 5 am to 9 pm, five days a week, with a maximum of 10-minute peak headways and 20-minute midday and evening headways; some Rapid routes operate on weekends as well. The Metro Rapid Program was implemented in June 2000-December 2002 with the goal of improving bus speeds within urbanized Los Angeles County. Lines 720, 745, 754 and 750 were the pilot routes of the program. Metro claims travel times were reduced by as much as 29%. Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their silver livery; some Rapid stops are equipped with "NextBus" technology which indicates the wait time before the next bus arrives. NextBus displays were installed at stops on Lines 720 and 750. Metro Rapid Lines 720, 770 and 780 are the only lines, they take 2 hours from start to end during rush hours. Line 720 is the most frequent of all Rapids.
In the morning rush hour, the Rapid 720 ranges from every 2–10 minutes. A year after Metro introduced SmartBus technology on most of their buses, marquees were modified on most Metro Rapid buses in which the "STOP REQUESTED" portion scrolls across the marquee instead of staying in place and "PLEASE USE REAR EXIT" scrolls slowly. Months marquees were switched back to their original format; the fare is the same as other Metro rail service. Routes are numbered in the 700 series. Critics see the Metro Rapid system as not sufficient to meet Los Angeles' growing transit needs. Limited funds, would be better spent on extending the region's rail network. Rapid buses do not have efficiency of light - or heavy-rail technology. Other critics claim. For many years and its predecessor, the SCRTD, operated limited-stop routes, which were similar to Metro Rapid service in the middle of their routes, but made local stops at each end. Rapid buses do not change traffic signals outside of the City of Los Angeles because only the City has tied the transponders to the signal network.
The Los Angeles County Department of Public Works is working on rectifying the problem for all the other cities where Rapid buses pass through, but individual signals have to be reprogrammed to give signal priority to Rapid buses. In addition, only Rapid-branded buses have transponders, which causes problems when not enough Rapid buses are available. Another complaint concerns the placement of Local and Rapid stops at separate locations at the same intersection; this was done to eliminate the backing up of buses at stops, but has resulted in a dangerous move called the "Rapid Bus Shuffle", in which a rider waiting at a Local stop runs to a Rapid stop, or vice versa, if the other bus arrives first. In response, some Rapid stops are placed adjacent to Local bus stops. In addition, civil rights organizations like the Bus Riders Union complain about cutbacks in Local service required to implement Rapid service. Between 25 and 50% of Local service is cut and replaced by Rapid service. Thus, riders not living or working near a Rapid stop must walk a longer distance to an intersection with both Local and Rapid stops, or wait longer for a Local bus.
The Special Master of the consent decree between Metro and the BRU has ordered that no more than 33% of the resources for Rapids come from Local service. It should be noted that Metro staff has never considered Metro Rapid a substitute for rail service, but is instead a pragmatic interim measure given current budgetary constraints. Another major complaint is the lack of Saturday and holiday service on several of its high-volume routes like the 705, 710 and 740 where many patrons commute from inner-city suburbs, Downtown LA, or the South Bay to major cities for their jobs and local shopping; the Metro Rapid fleet consists of low-floor buses manufactured by both North American Bus Industries, New Flyer. Foothill Transit's Silver Streak made its debut on March 18, 2007, using the El Monte Busway and the San Bernardino Freeway; this route is not part of the official Metro Rapid program. Metro Rapid Homepage Metro Rapid timetable page Rapid Bus increa
East Los Angeles, California
East Los Angeles, or East L. A. is an unincorporated area in California. It is 96% Latino—the highest percentage of any neighborhood in Los Angeles County, the highest of any census-designated place in the country, with a population of more than 100,000. East L. A. is located east of the Boyle Heights district of Los Angeles, south of the El Sereno district of Los Angeles, north of the city of Commerce, west of the cities of Monterey Park and Montebello. The unincorporated area known as City Terrace occupies the northern part of the East L. A. CDP. East Los Angeles is the least ethnically diverse community in Los Angeles County as noted by the Los Angeles Times' Mapping L. A. survey. The 2010 United States Census reported that East Los Angeles had a population of 126,496. Population density was 16,973.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of East Los Angeles was 53,934 White, 817 African American, 1,549 Native American, 1,144 Asian, 63 Pacific Islander, 54,846 from other races, 4,143 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 122,784 persons. The Census reported that 126,176 people lived in households, 174 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 146 were institutionalized. There were 30,816 households, out of which 17,509 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 15,497 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 7,104 had a female householder with no husband present, 3,238 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,516 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 199 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 3,781 households were made up of individuals and 1,781 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.09. There were 25,839 families; the population was spread out with 39,804 people under the age of 18, 15,193 people aged 18 to 24, 37,354 people aged 25 to 44, 23,281 people aged 45 to 64, 10,864 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.9 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males. There were 32,201 housing units at an average density of 4,320.8 per square mile, of which 10,986 were owner-occupied, 19,830 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.2%. 47,123 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 79,053 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, East Los Angeles had a median household income of $37,982, with 26.9% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of 2000, there were 124,283 people, 29,844 households, 25,068 families residing in the community; the population density was 16,697.4 people per square mile. There were 31,096 housing units at an average density of 4,177.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the community was 39.3% White, 4.52% Black or African American, 1.29% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 54.01% from other races, 4.22% from two or more races. 96.8 % of the population were Latino. As of 2000, speakers of Spanish as a first language accounted for 87.30%, while English accounted for 12.65%, Japanese was spoken by 0.16%, Armenian made up 0.09%, Vietnamese was at 0.07%, Chinese at 0.05%, Russian at 0.04%, Tagalog at 0.03%, Mandarin was at 0.03% of the population.
There were 29,844 households out of which 51.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 21.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.0% were non-families. 12.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.15 and the average family size was 4.42. The age distribution of the community was as follows: 34.6% under the age of 18, 12.6% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 14.2% from 45 to 64, 7.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.2 males. The median income for a household in the community was $28,544, the median income for a family was $29,755. Males had a median income of $21,065 versus $18,475 for females; the per capita income for the community was $9,543. About 24.7% of families and 27.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.0% of those under age 18 and 13.5% of those age 65 or over.
East Los Angeles has a large Latino population that consists of Mexicans, Guatemalans and Nicaraguans. Latino communities These were the ten cities or neighborhoods in Los Angeles County with the largest percentage of Latino residents, according to the 2000 census: Light rail service to East L. A. is provided by the Metro Gold Line's Eastside Extension, which opened in 2009. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority provides bus service from East L. A. throughout the L. A. area. Local shuttle service is provided by El Sol; as East Los Angeles is an unincorporated community, it does not have a local government and relies on the County of Los Angeles for local services. Supervisor Hilda L. Solis represents East LA on the Board of Supervisors. In the California State Legislature, East Los Angeles is in the 24th Senate District, represented by Democrat Maria Elena Durazo, in the 51st Assembly District, represented by D
Pershing Square station
Pershing Square is a heavy-rail subway station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located on Hill Street between 4th and 5th Streets, near Pershing Square in Downtown Los Angeles; this station is served by the Metro Red Line and the Metro Purple Line and various local bus services. The Metro Silver Line heading northbound to El Monte Station stops at the street level; the Metro Silver Line heading southbound to Harbor Gateway Transit Center does not stop near the station. The station uses an island platform layout and is decorated with a neon art piece by Stephen Antonakos; the work pays tribute to the first neon sign in the United States, hung in 1924 in the Pershing Square area. The station installed station canopies for the stations entrance in 2014. Pershing Square is near Angels Grand Central parking. Rail services: Red and Purple Line service hours are from 5:00 AM until 12:45 AM daily. Silver Line service hours are from 4:15 AM until 1:45 AM Monday- Friday & 5:00 A. M.- 1:45 A.
M. Saturdays/ Sundays & Holidays. Metro bus services: Metro Local: 2, 4, 10, 14, 16, 18, 28, 30, 33, 37, 38, 40, 45, 48, 53, 55, 62, 68, 70, 71, 76, 78, 79, 81, 83, 90, 91, 92, 94, 96, 302*, 316* & 378* Metro Express: 442*, 460, 487 & 489* Metro Rapid: 720, 728, 733, 745, 770 & 794 Metro Liner: Metro Silver Line Other local and commuter bus services: Foothill Transit: Silver Streak LADOT Commuter Express: 419* LADOT DASH: B, D Montebello Transit: 40, 50, 90* Orange County Transportation Authority: 701*, 721* Torrance Transit: 4* Note: * indicates commuter service that operates only during weekday rush hours. Pershing Square Historic Core/Broadway Angels Flight Grand Central Market Hilton Checkers Hotel Library Tower Jewelry District Millennium Biltmore Hotel Omni Los Angeles Hotel Richard J. Riordan Central Library Title Guarantee and Trust Company Building Angels Knoll parkOUE Skycrape LA Days of Summer S. W. A. T. Lethal Weapon 3 Speed He Was a Quiet Man "Takers" Bad Day 2005 video by musician Daniel Powter Pershing Square Station connections overview
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is an agency that operates public transportation in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It was formed in 1993 out of a merger of the Southern California Rapid Transit District and the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission, it is chartered under state law as a regional transportation planning agency. Metro directly operates light rail, heavy rail and bus rapid transit services, it directs planning for rail and freeway projects within Los Angeles County. It funds 27 local transit agencies as well as access paratransit services; the agency develops and oversees transportation plans, funding programs, both short-term and long-range solutions to mobility and environmental needs in the county. The agency is the primary transit provider for the City of Los Angeles, providing the bulk of such services, while the City of Los Angeles Department of Transportation operates a much smaller system of its own: Commuter Express bus service to outlying suburbs in the city of Los Angeles and the popular DASH mini-bus service in downtown and other neighborhoods.
Metro's headquarters are in a high-rise building adjacent to Union Station in downtown Los Angeles. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates the third-largest public transportation system in the United States by ridership with a 1,433 mi² operating area and 2,000 peak hour buses on the street any given business day. Metro operates 105 miles of urban rail service; the authority has 9,892 employees, making it one of the region's largest employers. The authority partially funds sixteen municipal bus operators and an array of transportation projects including bikeways and pedestrian facilities, local roads and highway improvements, goods movement, Metrolink regional commuter rail, Freeway Service Patrol and freeway call boxes within the greater metropolitan Los Angeles region. Security and law enforcement services on Metro property are provided by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's Transit Services Bureau via contract, in conjunction with Metro Transit Enforcement Department, Los Angeles Police Department and Long Beach Police Department.
In 2006, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority was named Outstanding Transportation System for 2006 by the American Public Transportation Association. Most buses and trains have "America's Best" decals affixed. Metro Rail is a rail mass transit system with four light rail lines; as of November 2016, the system runs a total of 105 miles, with 93 stations and over 316,000 daily weekday boardings. Starting in 2019, lines will be renamed with lettered designations, citing a lack of distinct colors available for future services; the Blue Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Long Beach. The Red Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los North Hollywood; the Green Line is a light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk in the median of the 105 Freeway. It provides indirect access to Los Angeles International Airport via a shuttle bus; the Purple Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and the Mid-Wilshire district of Los Angeles.
Most of its route is shared with the Red Line. The Gold Line is a light rail line running between East Los Angeles and Azusa via Downtown Los Angeles; the Expo Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Los Santa Monica. Metro Busway is an express bus system with characteristics of bus rapid transit with two lines operating on dedicated or shared-use busways; the system runs a total of 60 miles, with 28 stations and over 42,000 daily weekday boardings as of May 2016. The Metro Busway system is meant to mimic the Metro Rail system, both in the vehicle's design and in the operation of the line. Vehicles stop at dedicated stations, vehicles receive priority at intersections and are painted in a silver livery similar to Metro Rail vehicles; the Metro Orange Line is a bus rapid transit line running between North Chatsworth. The Metro Silver Line is a limited-stop bus line running between El Monte, Downtown Los Angeles, Harbor Gateway, with some buses serving San Pedro. Metro is the primary bus operator in the Los Angeles Basin, the San Fernando Valley, the western San Gabriel Valley.
Other transit providers operate more frequent service in the rest of the county. Regions in Los Angeles County that Metro Bus does not serve at all include rural regions, the Pomona Valley, the Santa Clarita Valley, the Antelope Valley. Metro operates two types of bus services. However, when mechanical problems or availability equipment occurs, a bus of any color may be substituted to continue service on the route. Metro Local buses are painted in an off-orange color which the agency has dubbed “California Poppy”; this type of service makes frequent stops along major thoroughfares. There are 18,500 stops on 189 bus lines; some Metro Local routes make limited stops along part of their trip but do not participate in the Rapid program. Some Metro Local bus lines are operated by contractors MV Transportation, Southland Transit, Transdev. Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their bright red color which the agency has dubbed “Rapid Red”; this bus rapid transit service offers limited stops on many of the county's more heavi
Wilshire/Normandie is a heavy-rail subway station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located at Wilshire Boulevard and Normandie Avenue, in Los Angeles' Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown District; this station is served by the Purple Line. Wilshire/Normandie is one of only two heavy rail subway stations in the system not served by the Red Line. Purple Line service hours are from 5:00 AM until 12:45 AM daily. Metro Local: 18, 20, 206 Metro Rapid: 720 Metro.net: Station connections overview
Vermont/Sunset is a heavy-rail subway station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located at Vermont Avenue and Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles, among the East Hollywood neighborhoods of Los Feliz, Silver Lake, Little Armenia; this station is served by the Red Line. The intersection of Vermont/Sunset is home to three major area hospitals: Kaiser Permanente, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center; the station's main entrance is on the northeast corner of Vermont and Sunset, next to the Saban Research building of CHLA. There is an elevator-only entrance on the northwest corner, in front of Kaiser. Michael Davies is the artist for the Vermont/Sunset station, depicting several different themes, the main ones being medical colors and slides blended with a futuristic space theme; the medical slides placed into circular orbits on the floor of the upper platform area are real slides of human cellular structures, including red blood cells, chromosomes and sperm.
Red Line service hours are from 5:00 AM until 12:45 AM daily. Metro services Metro Local: 2, 175, 204, 206, 302 Metro Rapid: 754Other local services LADOT DASH: Hollywood, Los Feliz, Griffith Observatory Shuttle Station connections overview