The Chthonic Chronicles
The Chthonic Chronicles is the sixth studio album by English metal band Bal-Sagoth. The first in five years since 2001's Atlantis Ascendant, it is rumoured to be their last album; this album was released in Europe on 10 March 2006 through Nuclear Blast and in the US on 16 May through Candlelight Records, with a remastered digipak edition from Metal Mind Productions following in October 2011. The Chthonic Chronicles is rumoured to be the band's final album, their first album's introduction song is called "Hatheg-Kla", the final song on The Chthonic Chronicles is called "Return to Hatheg-Kla" making their vision of an epic Hexalogy come full circle. Although Bal-Sagoth vocalist-lyricist Byron Roberts most refers to The Chthonic Chronicles as "the end of the Hexalogy", this could refer to the end of this particular set of stories. Byron has stated himself that there is an abundance of lyrical material left for the possible continuation of Bal-Sagoth; the obscurely-worded album title refers to a key story element in the lyrics, the chronicles themselves are a pure work of fiction from lyrics writer Roberts.
The rare word has been used in literature by T. S. Eliot, C. F. Keary and M. McCarthy, is Greek in origin, meaning "earthly" dealing with the underworld and spirits.. Bal-Sagoth's now-established tradition of lyrics revolving around antediluvian settings, such as Atlantis, Lemuria and Mu, is once again present, song titles such as "Shackled to the Trilithon of Kutulu" indicate that a heavy H. P. Lovecraft inspiration is present too; the band continues previous storylines in the songs "Invocations Beyond the Outer-World Night", "The Obsidian Crown Unbound" and "Unfettering the Hoary Sentinels of Karnak". In November 2011, The Chthonic Chronicles was reissued as a limited edition digipak by Nuclear Blast's affiliate label Metal Mind Productions; the reissue featured remastered audio. All lyrics written by all music written by Jonny Maudling and Chris Maudling. Byron Roberts – vocals, artwork concept Chris Maudling – guitars Jonny Maudling – keyboards Mark Greenwell – bass Dan "Storm" Mullins – drums Martin Hanford - cover art Mags - engineering Achim Köhler - mastering The Chthonic Chronicles at Discogs
Starfire Burning Upon the Ice-Veiled Throne of Ultima Thule
Starfire Burning Upon the Ice-Veiled Throne of Ultima Thule is Bal-Sagoth's second full-length album, released in November 1996 through Cacophonous Records. This was the last album to feature Jason Porter on bass guitar, as he was replaced by Alistair MacLatchy in December 1996; as with the first album, the band only had around two weeks to record this album. They had major problems with recording the album: the temperature in the recording studio was so high that the recording equipment broke down several times; the cover artwork for the album is a painting by the famed artist Joe Petagno, based on a concept by Bal-Sagoth vocalist/lyricist Byron Roberts. In the song titled "And Lo, When the Imperium Marches Against Gul-Kothoth Dark Sorceries Shall Enshroud the Citadel of the Obsidian Crown", a strong synthesizer melody begins at 4:17; this melody is a variation upon the melody heard in the 1982 film Conan the Barbarian during the scene inside Thulsa Doom's stronghold, composed by Basil Poledouris.
Again from the score of Conan the Barbarian, at 00:37 in the track "Recovery", the theme seems to be faithfully adapted by Bal-Sagoth in the track "In the Raven-Haunted Forests of Darkenhold, Where Shadows Reign and the Hues of Sunlight Never Dance" at 2:02. The band explains their inspiration came from John Williams and Basil Poledouris' scores amongst others. On 13 May 2016 the album was re-released by Cacophonous Records as a special edition CD featuring remastered audio, expanded lyric booklet, new sleeve notes and exclusive new artwork. All songs composed by Byron Roberts and Jonny and Chris Maudling. Byron Roberts – vocals, cover concept, logo Chris Maudling – guitar, bass Jonny Maudling – keyboards, drums Joe Petagno - cover art Mags - producer, engineering
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Anthropology is the scientific study of humans and human behavior and societies in the past and present. Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans. Archaeology, which studies past human cultures through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States and Canada, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right or grouped under other related disciplines, such as history; the abstract noun anthropology is first attested in reference to history. Its present use first appeared in Renaissance Germany in the works of Otto Casmann, their New Latin anthropologia derived from the combining forms of the Greek words ánthrōpos and lógos. It began to be used in English via French Anthropologie, by the early 18th century. In 1647, the Bartholins, founders of the University of Copenhagen, defined l'anthropologie as follows: Anthropology, to say the science that treats of man, is divided ordinarily and with reason into Anatomy, which considers the body and the parts, Psychology, which speaks of the soul.
Sporadic use of the term for some of the subject matter occurred subsequently, such as the use by Étienne Serres in 1839 to describe the natural history, or paleontology, of man, based on comparative anatomy, the creation of a chair in anthropology and ethnography in 1850 at the National Museum of Natural History by Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau. Various short-lived organizations of anthropologists had been formed; the Société Ethnologique de Paris, the first to use Ethnology, was formed in 1839. Its members were anti-slavery activists; when slavery was abolished in France in 1848 the Société was abandoned. Meanwhile, the Ethnological Society of New York the American Ethnological Society, was founded on its model in 1842, as well as the Ethnological Society of London in 1843, a break-away group of the Aborigines' Protection Society; these anthropologists of the times were liberal, anti-slavery, pro-human-rights activists. They maintained international connections. Anthropology and many other current fields are the intellectual results of the comparative methods developed in the earlier 19th century.
Theorists in such diverse fields as anatomy and Ethnology, making feature-by-feature comparisons of their subject matters, were beginning to suspect that similarities between animals and folkways were the result of processes or laws unknown to them then. For them, the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was the epiphany of everything they had begun to suspect. Darwin himself arrived at his conclusions through comparison of species he had seen in agronomy and in the wild. Darwin and Wallace unveiled evolution in the late 1850s. There was an immediate rush to bring it into the social sciences. Paul Broca in Paris was in the process of breaking away from the Société de biologie to form the first of the explicitly anthropological societies, the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris, meeting for the first time in Paris in 1859; when he read Darwin, he became an immediate convert to Transformisme, as the French called evolutionism. His definition now became "the study of the human group, considered as a whole, in its details, in relation to the rest of nature".
Broca, being what today would be called a neurosurgeon, had taken an interest in the pathology of speech. He wanted to localize the difference between man and the other animals, which appeared to reside in speech, he discovered the speech center of the human brain, today called Broca's area after him. His interest was in Biological anthropology, but a German philosopher specializing in psychology, Theodor Waitz, took up the theme of general and social anthropology in his six-volume work, entitled Die Anthropologie der Naturvölker, 1859–1864; the title was soon translated as "The Anthropology of Primitive Peoples". The last two volumes were published posthumously. Waitz defined anthropology as "the science of the nature of man". By nature he meant matter animated by "the Divine breath". Following Broca's lead, Waitz points out that anthropology is a new field, which would gather material from other fields, but would differ from them in the use of comparative anatomy and psychology to differentiate man from "the animals nearest to him".
He stresses. The history of civilization, as well as ethnology, are to be brought into the comparison, it is to be presumed fundamentally that the species, man, is a unity, that "the same laws of thought are applicable to all men". Waitz was influential among the British ethnologists. In 1863 the explorer Richard Francis Burton and the speech therapist James Hunt broke away from the Ethnological Society of London to form the Anthropological Society of London, which henceforward would follow the path of the new anthropology rather than just ethnology, it was the 2nd society dedicated to general anthropology in existence. Representatives from the French Société were present. In his keynote address, printed in the first volume of its new publication, The Anthropological Review, Hunt stressed the work of Waitz, adopting his definitions as a standard. Among the first associates were the young Edward Burnett Tylor, inventor of cultural anthropology, his brother Alfred Tylor, a geologist. Edward had referred to himself as an ethnologist.
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The Antediluvian is the time period referred to in the Bible between the fall of humans and the Genesis flood narrative in the biblical cosmology. The narrative takes up chapters 1–6 of the Book of Genesis; the term found its way into early science until the late Victorian era. Colloquially, the term is used to refer to any murky period; the Sumerian flood myth is the direct mythological antecessor to the biblical flood myth as well as other Near Eastern flood stories, reflects a similar religious and cultural relevance to their religion. Much as Jews and Christians, ancient Sumerians divided the world between pre-flood and post-flood eras, the former being a time where the gods walked the earth and humans were immortal. After the flood, humans ceased to be immortal and the gods distanced themselves. In the Christian Bible and Hebrew Torah, the Antediluvian period begins with the Fall of the first Man and woman, according to Genesis and ends with the destruction of all life on the earth except those saved with Noah in the ark.
According to Bishop Ussher's 17th-century chronology, the Antediluvian period lasted for 1656 years, from Creation at 4004 BC to the Flood at 2348 BC. The elements of the narrative include some of the best-known stories in the Bible — the creation and Eve, Cain and Abel, followed by the genealogies tracing the descendants of Cain and Seth, the third mentioned son of Adam and Eve.. The Bible speaks of this era as being a time of great wickedness. There were Gibborim in the earth in those days as well as Nephilim; the Gibborim were unusually powerful. The antediluvian period ended when God sent the Flood to wipe out all life except Noah, his family, the animals they took with them; the Nephilim reappear much in the biblical narrative, in Numbers 13:31–33. Early scientific attempts at reconstructing the history of the Earth were founded on the biblical narrative and thus used the term Antediluvian to refer to a period understood to be similar to the biblical one. Early scientific interpretation of the biblical narrative divided the Antediluvian into sub-periods based on the six days of Creation: Pre-Adamitic Primary Secondary Adamitic, corresponding to St. Augustine's First Age of his Six Ages of the WorldPrior to the 19th century, rock was classified into three main types: primary or primitive and tertiary.
The primary rocks are void of fossils and were thought to be associated with the creation of the world in the primary Pre-Adamitic period. The secondary rocks containing copious fossils, though human remains had not been found, were thought to have been laid down in the secondary Pre-Adamitic period; the Tertiary rocks were thought to have been put down after Creation and in connection to a flood event, were thus associated with the Adamitic period. The Post-Flood period was termed a name still in use in geology; as mapping of the geological strata progressed in the early decades of the 19th century, the estimated lengths of the various sub-periods were increased. The fossil rich Secondary Pre-Adamitic period was divided up into the Coal period, the Lias and the Chalk period expanded into the now-familiar geologic time scale of the Phanerozoic; the term Antediluvian was used in natural science well into the 19th century and lingered in popular imagination despite detailed stratigraphy mapping the Earth's past, was used for the Pleistocene period, where humans existed alongside now extinct megafauna.
Writers such as William Whiston and Henry Morris who launched the modern Creationist movement described the Antediluvian period as follows: People lived much longer than those alive today between 700–950 years, as reported in the genealogies of Genesis. Whiston calculated that as many as 500 million humans may have been born in the Antediluvian period, based on assumptions about lifespans and fertility rates. Instead, the Earth was watered by mists. However, there has since been debate among Creationists over the authenticity of arguments such as the one that'there was no rain before the Flood' and previous ideas about what the Antediluvian world was like are changing. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the understanding of the nature of early Earth went through a transformation from a biblical or deist interpretation to a naturalistic one. Back in the early 18th century, Plutonists had argued for an ancient Earth, but the full impact of the depth of time involved in the Pre-Adamitic period was not accepted until uniformitarianism as presente
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
The Power Cosmic
The Power Cosmic is Bal-Sagoth's fourth album, released in 1999. The album was Bal-Sagoth's first recording for Nuclear Blast; this was the first Bal-Sagoth album to not contain a full lyric booklet. The full version of the lyric booklet was featured as exclusive downloadable content at the band's official website, was released with the Russian sub-licensed edition of the album; this was the only version of The Power Cosmic which featured a full lyric booklet until the album's digipack reissue of November 2011, released by Metal Mind Productions, which included an expanded version of the lyrics and more story content written by Bal-Sagoth lyricist Byron Roberts. The primary story within the album is that of Zurra, a rogue demigod, released from his imprisonment beneath the Mare Imbrium and searches space to reassemble the powerful artifact known as the Empyreal Lexicon; the song "Of Carnage and a Gathering of the Wolves" takes place in Darkenhold forest, a location last referenced in track 9 of the album Starfire Burning Upon the Ice-Veiled Throne of Ultima Thule.
"The Scourge of the Fourth Celestial Host" references Marvel Comics hero The Silver Surfer battling the Fourth Celestial Host. Within the lyrics, The Silver Surfer is referred to by the name Norrin-Radd, Thor is referenced by mention of his "uru hammer", Galactus is referred to by the name Galan of Taa; the celestials Arishem and Exitar, the watcher Uatu, Shalla-Bal are referenced within the song and lyrics. The album title itself, The Power Cosmic, is a reference to the superpowers possessed by Galactus and the Silver Surfer, was chosen because Byron Roberts is a great admirer of Marvel Comics and the works of Jack Kirby, as mentioned in the 50th issue of the magazine "The Jack Kirby Collector". In November 2011, The Power Cosmic was reissued as a limited edition digipack by Nuclear Blast's affiliate label Metal Mind Productions; the reissue featured an expanded lyric booklet, additional artwork, remastered audio. In July 2013, The Power Cosmic was released on CD in Argentina via Icarus Music under license from Nuclear Blast GmbH.
All lyrics written by Byron Roberts. Byron Roberts – vocals Chris Maudling – guitars Jonny Maudling – keyboards Mark Greenwell – bass Dave Mackintosh – drums Martin Hanford - cover art Mags - engineering, mixing J. C. Dhien - photography