Salvatore "Robert" Loggia was an American actor and director. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Jagged Edge and won the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor for Big. In a career spanning over sixty years, Loggia performed in many films including The Greatest Story Ever Told, Revenge of the Pink Panther, An Officer and a Gentleman, Prizzi's Honor, Oliver & Company, Innocent Blood, Independence Day, Lost Highway, Return to Me, Tim and Eric's Billion Dollar Movie, he appeared on television series including the Walt Disney limited series, The Nine Lives of Elfego Baca, Mancuso, FBI, Malcolm in the Middle, The Sopranos, Men of a Certain Age, was the star of the 1966-67 NBC martial arts / action series, T. H. E. Cat. Salvatore Loggia, an Italian American, was born in Staten Island, New York on January 3, 1930, to Biagio Loggia, a shoemaker born in Palma di Montechiaro, Province of Agrigento and Elena Blandino, a homemaker born in Vittoria, Province of Ragusa, Sicily.
He grew up in the Little Italy neighborhood. He attended New Dorp High School before going to Wagner College, he started courses towards a degree in journalism at the University of Missouri, but still switched to drama courses with Alvina Krause at Northwestern University. After serving in the United States Army, he married Marjorie Sloan in 1954 and began a long career at the Actors Studio, studying under Stella Adler. At age 25, he made his debut on Broadway in The Man With the Golden Arm in 1955. Although Loggia made his first film in 1956, in an uncredited appearance, it was not until he was cast as a New Mexico lawman Elfego Baca, two years that he made a breakthrough in Hollywood. Loggia was a radio and TV anchor on the Southern Command Network in the Panama Canal Zone, he came to prominence playing a real-life sheriff in The Nine Lives of Elfego Baca, a series of Walt Disney TV shows, he starred as the proverbial cat-burglar-turned-good circus artist Thomas Hewitt Edward Cat in a short-lived detective series called T.
H. E. Cat, first broadcast in 1966. At first, T. H. E. Cat appeared to be a success, Loggia said: "We're drawing about a 30 per cent share of the audience, which NBC considers fine for a new show with a new star." After NBC cancelled the series when viewing figures failed to deliver, Loggia went into a mid-life crisis—a "Dante-esque descent into the inferno", as he called it later. For six years his career foundered, his marriage fell apart. Restless and unnerved riddled with self-doubt, a chance meeting with Audrey O'Brien was his saving grace, she helped him out of the crisis, they married. Despite playing Frank Carver on the CBS soap opera The Secret Storm in 1972, he took a new course when he decided to begin a career in directing, he carried on acting and amassed many television credits in a variety of roles, including appearances on Overland Trail, Target: The Corruptors!, The Untouchables, The Eleventh Hour, Breaking Point, Combat!, Columbo, Ellery Queen, The High Chaparral, Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, The Big Valley, The Wild Wild West, Little House on the Prairie,"The Rockford Files", Starsky & Hutch, Charlie's Angels, Magnum, P.
I. Quincy, M. E. Kojak, Hawaii Five-0, The Bionic Woman, Falcon Crest, The Sopranos and Oliver Stone's miniseries Wild Palms; the director Blake Edwards cast Loggia in his films in minor or supporting roles. These included Revenge of the Pink Panther. O. B., a satire about Hollywood. Loggia acted in several acclaimed films such as An Officer and a Gentleman, Prizzi's Honor, Independence Day. Other films starring Loggia include Over The Top, Necessary Roughness, Return to Me. Loggia was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of crusty private detective Sam Ransom in the crime thriller Jagged Edge, he was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series, his first such honor, for portraying FBI agent Nick Mancuso in the TV series Mancuso, FBI, a follow-up to the previous year's miniseries Favorite Son. Loggia appeared as a mobster in multiple films, including Bill Sykes, the immoral loanshark and shipyard agent in Disney's animated film Oliver & Company, Salvatore "The Shark" Macelli in John Landis' Innocent Blood, Mr. Eddy in David Lynch's Lost Highway, Don Vito Leoni in David Jablin's The Don's Analyst.
Additionally, he played violent mobster Feech La Manna in several episodes of The Sopranos. In 1998, Loggia appeared in a television commercial lampooning obscure celebrity endorsements. In it, a young boy names Loggia as someone he would trust to recommend Minute Maid orange-tangerine blend. Loggia appears and endorses the drink, to which the boy exclaims, "Whoa, Robert Loggia!" The commercial was referenced in a Malcolm in the Middle episode in which Loggia made a guest appearance as "Grandpa Victor". In addition to voicing Sykes in Disney's Oliver & Company, Loggia had several other voice acting roles, in multiple media, including: Admiral Petrarch in the computer game FreeSpace 2, the narrator of the Scarface: The World is Yours game adaptation and the anime movie The Dog of Fla
Arquitectonica is an international architecture, landscape architecture, interior design, urban planning corporation headquartered in Miami, Florida’s Coconut Grove neighborhood. The firm has offices in ten other cities throughout the world. Arquitectonica began in 1977 as an experimental studio founded by Peruvian architect Bernardo Fort-Brescia, Laurinda Hope Spear, Andrés Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Hervin Romney. Today, the firm continues to be led by Bernardo Fort-Brescia and Laurinda Hope Spear, has designed such famous buildings as the Banco de Credito Headquarters, Atlantis Condominium, the Pink House, the American Airlines Arena in Miami and the Westin Hotel and entertainment complex in New York, amongst many others; until 2010, Arquitectonica's global headquarters were in Downtown Miami, until their new offices at 2900 Oak Avenue in the Coconut Grove neighborhood of Miami were opened in 2010. Arquitectonica has regional offices in New York City, Los Angeles, Paris, Hong Kong, Manila, Dubai, São Paulo, Lima.
The firm is known for sophisticated surface facade articulation. Arquitectonica's structures are bold in color and graphic in form and the firm has become famous for its signature style, a dramatic, expressive'high tech' modernism. In June 2011, two new major projects were announced for Arquitectonica, both in Downtown Miami: the new $700 million Brickell City Centre project in Miami's Brickell neighborhood, the $3-billion Genting Resorts World Miami project in Miami's Arts & Entertainment District neighborhood. Cyberport Campus, Pok Fu Lam Festival Walk in Kowloon Tong, Kowloon Novotel Citygate Hong Kong in Tung Chung, Lantau Landmark East in Kwun Tong, Kowloon East Forfar, Kowloon Homantin Hillside, Ho Man Tin City of Dreams Casino Resort, Cotai Riviera TwinStar Square, Shanghai The Longemont Shanghai Hotel, Shanghai King Glory Plaza, Shenzhen Taikoo Hui, Guangzhou ABC & CCB Bank Headquarters, Shanghai Mandarin Oriental Hotel, Shanghai Longemont Hotel and Office Tower, Shanghai West Mangrove, Shenzhen OneE-Com Center, Manila SM Bay City District SM Mall of Asia, Bay City, Metro Manila One Rockwell, Metro Manila The Beaufort, Bonifacio Global City,Taguig, Metro Manila Pacific Plaza Towers, Fort Bonifacio, Metro Manila Fairmont Raffles Makati, Metro Manila Mall of Asia Arena, Metro Manila SM City North EDSA Mall, Quezon City, Metro Manila SM Megamall Expansion & Renovation, Ortigas Center, Mandaluyong City, Metro Manila SMX Convention Center, Metro Manila SM Aura Premier, Bonifacio Global City, Taguig City, Metro Manila SM Seaside City Cebu, Cebu City, Cebu BDO Corporate Center, Ortigas Center, Mandaluyong City, Metro Manila Marriott Hotel in Lima, Banco de Crédito headquarters, Lima United States Embassy, Lima Westin Libertador Lima Lima HSBC headquarters in Lima Luxury Collection Paracas Resort & Spa, Paracas Luxury Collection Tambo del Inka Hotel, Urubamba Alba Condominium Leonie Hill Serviced Apartments Orchard Scotts Hotel & Residences Visioncrest Condominium BonaVista Apartements, Jakarta Menara Karya, Jakarta Menara Satrio, Jakarta Tempo Scan Tower, Jakarta Satrio Square, Jakarta Bubny Intermodal Center, Prague Marriott Hotel & Offices, Prague Auditorium de Dijon, France Mazars Headquarters, Paris, France Microsoft Headquarters, Issy les Moulineaux, France Bouygues Telecom Headquarters, Issy les Moulineaux, France EQWATER Office Building, Issy les Moulineaux, France Beb Beirut, Beirut Plus Towers, Beirut The Gate Shams, Abu Dhabi Lulu Island, Abu Dhabi Al Manhal, Abu Dhabi Al Mashtal, Abu Dhabi Columbus Bay Master Plan, Monte Cristi Province Porta Nuova Condominium Solaria & Aria Towers, Milan Nexus World Condominium Banque de Luxembourg Headquarters Lorca Mall, Lorca International Financial Center, Seoul Caracas Palace Hotel.
Sharm El Sheikh Resort, Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt Icon Vallarta, Puerto Vallarta 375 East Wacker Drive, Lakeshore East, Chicago Miami Beach Convention Center JW Marriott Nashville AIA Florida Firm of the Year AIA Miami Firm of the Year The AD 100 Official website Bronx Museum
American Institute of Architects
The American Institute of Architects is a professional organization for architects in the United States. Headquartered in Washington, D. C. the AIA offers education, government advocacy, community redevelopment, public outreach to support the architecture profession and improve its public image. The AIA works with other members of the design and construction team to help coordinate the building industry; the AIA is headed by Robert Ivy, FAIA as EVP/Chief Executive Officer and William J. Bates, FAIA as 2019 AIA President; the American Institute of Architects was founded in New York City in 1857 by a group of 13 architects to "promote the scientific and practical perfection of its members" and "elevate the standing of the profession." This initial group included Charles Babcock, Henry W. Cleaveland, Henry Dudley, Leopold Eidlitz, Edward Gardiner, Richard Morris Hunt, Fred A. Petersen, Jacob Wrey Mould, John Welch, Richard M. Upjohn and Joseph C. Wells, with Richard Upjohn serving as the first president.
They met on February 23, 1857, decided to invite 16 other prominent architects to join them, including Alexander Jackson Davis, Thomas U. Walter, Calvert Vaux. Prior to their establishment of the AIA, anyone could claim to be an architect, as there were no schools of architecture or architectural licensing laws in the United States, they drafted a constitution and bylaws by March 10, 1857, under the name New York Society of Architects. Thomas U. Walter, of Philadelphia suggested the name be changed to American Institute of Architects; the members signed the new constitution on April 15, 1857, having filed a certificate of incorporation two days earlier. The constitution was amended the following year with the mission "to promote the artistic and practical profession of its members. Architects in other cities were asking to join in the 1860s, by the 1880s chapters had been formed in Albany, Boston, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Rhode Island, San Francisco, St. Louis, Washington, D. C; as of 2008, AIA had more than 300 chapters.
The AIA is headquartered at 1735 New York Avenue, NW in Washington, D. C. A design competition was held in the mid-1960s to select an architect for a new AIA headquarters in Washington. Mitchell/Giurgola won the design competition but failed to get approval of the design concept from the United States Commission of Fine Arts; the firm resigned the commission and helped select The Architects Collaborative to redesign the building. The design, led by TAC principals Norman Fletcher and Howard Elkus, was approved in 1970 and completed in 1973. In honor of the 150th anniversary of the organization, the building was formally renamed in 2007 the "American Center for Architecture" and is home to the American Institute of Architecture Students, the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture and the National Architectural Accrediting Board. More than 90,000 licensed architects and associated professionals are members. AIA members adhere to a code of ethics and professional conduct intended to assure clients, the public, colleagues of an architect's dedication to the highest standards in professional practice.
There are five levels of membership in the AIA: Architect members are licensed to practice architecture by a licensing authority in the United States. Associate members are not licensed to practice architecture but they are working under the supervision of an architect in a professional or technical capacity, have earned professional degrees in architecture, are faculty members in a university program in architecture, or are interns earning credit toward licensure. International associate members hold an architecture license or the equivalent from a licensing authority outside the United States. Emeritus members have been AIA members for 15 successive years and are at least 70 years of age or are incapacitated and unable to work in the architecture profession. Allied members are individuals whose professions are related to the building and design community, such as engineers, landscape architects, or planners. Allied membership is a partnership with the American Architectural Foundation. There is no National AIA membership category for students, but they can become members of the American Institute of Architecture Students and many local and state chapters of the AIA have student membership categories.
The AIA's most prestigious honor is the designation of a member as a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. This membership is awarded to members who have made contributions of national significance to the profession. More than 2,600, or 2% of all members, have been elevated to the AIA College of Fellows. Foreign architects of prominence may be elected to the College as Honorary Fellows of the AIA; the AIA has a staff of more than 200 employees. Although the AIA functions as a national organization, its 217 local and state chapters provide members with programming and direct services to support them throughout their professional lives; the chapters cover the entirety of its territories. Components operate in the United Kingdom, Continental Europe, the Middle East, Hong Kong and Canada. By speaking with a united voice, AIA architects influence government practices that affect the practice of the profession and the quality of American life; the AIA monitors legislative and regulator
Greater Downtown Miami
Downtown Miami is an urban city center, based around the Central Business District of Miami, United States. In addition to the central business district, the area consists of the Brickell Financial District, Historic District, Government Center, Arts & Entertainment District and Park West; the neighborhood is divided by the Miami River and is bordered by Midtown to the north, Biscayne Bay to the east, Civic Center and Overtown to the west, Coconut Grove to the south. Brickell Avenue and Biscayne Boulevard are the main north-south roads, Flagler Street is the main east-west road; the neighborhood is defined by the Miami Downtown Development Authority as the 3.8-square-mile -area east of Interstate 95 between the Rickenbacker Causeway to the south and Julia Tuttle Causeway to the north. Locally known as Downtown, the area is a cultural and commercial center of South Florida, tracing its present-day history back to the 19th century. In recent years, Downtown Miami has grown and physically expanded to become the fastest-growing area in Miami, with rapid increase in population and the greatest concentration of high-rises in the region.
Greater Downtown is home to many major museums, education centers, company headquarters, government offices, theaters and many of the oldest buildings in the city. Downtown Miami is the historic heart of Miami, along with Coconut Grove, is the oldest settled area of Miami, with early pioneer settlement dating to the early 19th century. Urban development began in the 1890s with the construction of the Florida East Coast Railway by Standard Oil industrialist Henry Flagler down to Miami at the insistence of Julia Tuttle. Flagler, along with developers such as William Brickell and George E. Merrick helped bring developer interest to the city with the construction of hotels, resorts and the extension of Flagler's rail line. Flagler Street, originating in Downtown, is a major east-west road in Miami named after the tycoon; as of 2009, there are 71,000 year-round residents in Greater Downtown, with close to 200,000 populating the Downtown area during the daytime, making Downtown Miami one of the most populous downtowns in the U.
S. after New York City and Chicago. With recent mass construction of high-rise residential buildings and office towers, Downtown has experienced large growth, with new shops, bars and restaurants opening up, attracting many new residents. Along with Brickell, Downtown has grown from 40,000 residents in 2000, to over 70,000 in 2009, making it one of the fastest-growing areas in Florida, it was estimated in February 2010, that about 550 new residents move to the Downtown area every month. As of 2009, over 190,000 office employees work in Brickell. Downtown is served by the Miami Metrorail at Historic Overtown/Lyric Theatre, Government Center, Brickell stations, accessible from Broward and Palm Beach counties via Tri-Rail transfer station; the Metro connects to the Downtown Metromover, which encompasses 22 stations on the clockwise Inner loop and counterclockwise Brickell and Omni branch loops. Government Center station is Downtown's main station and allows for transfers to all Metromover loops, Metrorail trains, Metrobus lines at the Stephen P. Clark Government Center.
Downtown Miami is centered on the Central business district, best known by local Miamians as "Downtown". Although distinct neighborhoods with different characters, the following neighborhoods are labeled under the umbrella term of "Downtown Miami": The Central business district, better known by locals as just "Downtown", is the historic center of Miami, what is traditionally called "Downtown". Downtown is bound by NE 6th St to the north, Biscayne Bay to the east, the Miami River to the west and south. Within this area, is where the majority of Miami's historic buildings are, the main shopping street, Flagler Street, libraries, offices and colleges, as well as the vast majority of local, county and federal government offices and courthouses. Miami Historic District and Government Center are located within the CBD. Downtown is directly served by the Miami Metrorail at: Government Center Station, by 13 Metromover stations on the Downtown and Omni Loops. Brickell is south of the Miami River, is a mixed upper-class residential neighborhood as well as Miami's major financial district along Brickell Avenue.
The Shops at Mary Brickell Village and Simpson Park are located within Brickell. Brickell is directly served by the Miami Metrorail at: Brickell Station, by five Metromover stations on the Brickell Loop; the Arts & Entertainment District is an urban neighborhood with numerous hotels, high-rise residential buildings. The neighborhood's former name Omni comes from the Omni International Mall on Biscayne Boulevard; the district borders Biscayne Bay the east, NE 2nd Ave to the west, NE 21st St to the north and I-395 to the south. Pace Park, Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, the Miami Herald headquarters are located within the district; the Arts & Entertainment District is served by the Miami Metrorail at: Government Center Station, by two Metromover stations on the Omni Loop. Park West is the neighborhood just west of Museum Park, east of NW 1st Ave, south of I-195, north of NE 6th St. Park West was known for its nightclubs, in recent years has been the talk of much revitalization and project proposals for the revitalization of the area.
By the end of 2015 most of the nightclu
Scarface (1983 film)
Scarface is a 1983 American crime film directed by Brian De Palma and written by Oliver Stone, a remake of the 1932 film of the same name. The film tells the story of Cuban refugee Tony Montana who arrives in 1980s Miami with nothing and rises to become a powerful drug kingpin; the cast features Michelle Pfeiffer, Steven Bauer, Robert Loggia, F. Murray Abraham, Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio. Pacino became interested in a remake of the 1932 version after seeing it, he and producer Martin Bregman began to develop it. Sidney Lumet was hired to direct the film but was replaced by De Palma, who hired Stone to write the script. Filming took place from November 1982 to May 1983; the film was shot in Los Angeles. The film's soundtrack was composed by Giorgio Moroder. Scarface was released on December 9, 1983 and grossed $44 million at the domestic box office and $65.9 million worldwide. Initial critical reception was negative due to excessive violence and profanity and graphic drug usage; some Cuban expatriates in Miami objected to the film's portrayal of Cubans as criminals and drug traffickers.
In the years that followed, critics have reappraised it, it is now considered by some to be one of the best films in the crime genre. Screenwriters and directors such as Martin Scorsese have praised the film, it has been referenced extensively in pop culture in rap and hip hop music as well as comic books, television programs, video games; the film has long since become a cult classic. In 1980, Cuban refugee and ex-convict Antonio "Tony" Montana arrives in Miami, Florida, as part of the Mariel boatlift, where he is sent to a refugee camp with his best friends, Manny Ribera and Chi-Chi; the four are released and given green cards in exchange for murdering a former Cuban general at the request of Miami drug dealer Frank Lopez. They become dishwashers in a diner, but a disgusted Tony proclaims that he is meant for bigger things. Frank's right-hand man, Omar Suarez, sends the four to purchase cocaine from Colombian dealers, but the deal goes bad. Angel is dismembered with a chainsaw, while Chi-Chi rescue Tony and kill the Colombians.
Suspecting that Omar set them up, Tony and Manny insist on delivering the recovered drugs and money to Frank. During their meeting, Tony is attracted to Elvira Hancock. Frank befriends Tony and Manny. Months Tony is reunited with his mother Georgina and younger sister Gina, of whom he is fiercely protective. Disgusted by his life of crime, Georgina throws Tony out. Manny is attracted to Gina. Frank sends Omar to Cochabamba to meet with cocaine kingpin Alejandro Sosa. Tony negotiates a deal without Frank's approval, angering Omar. Sosa claims that Frank is weak. Tony vouches for Frank's organization and Sosa, taking a liking to Tony, agrees to the deal, but not before warning Tony to never betray him. Back in Miami, Frank is infuriated by the unauthorized deal struck by Tony. At a nightclub, corrupt detective Mel Bernstein attempts to extort money from Tony in return for police protection and information. Tony angers Frank further by pursuing Elvira in the club. Tony spots Gina and her drug dealer boyfriend, making out in the men's bathroom while she snorts cocaine.
Both of them are beaten. Hitmen attempt to assassinate Tony. Tony, certain that his boss sent both Bernstein and the assassins, confronts Frank, with Manny and Chi-Chi in tow. At gunpoint, Frank confesses to the attempted hit and begs for his life, but he and Bernstein are killed. Tony marries becomes the distributor of Sosa's product, he builds a multimillion-dollar empire, living in a vast guarded estate. By 1983, Tony becomes dissatisfied with his lifestyle and cocaine addiction, his money launderer demands a greater percentage, while Manny resents Tony's growing paranoia and abusive treatment of Elvira. A sting by Federal agents results in Tony being charged with tax evasion, with an inevitable prison sentence. Sosa offers to use his government connections to keep a desperate Tony out of prison, but only if Tony assassinates a journalist intending to expose Sosa about his drug operations. Tony, during a public dinner, accuses Manny of causing his arrest and Elvira of being an infertile junkie, causing Elvira to leave him.
He travels to New York City to carry out the assassination with Sosa's henchman, who plants a radio-controlled bomb under the journalist's car. However, the journalist is unexpectedly accompanied by his wife and children. Disgusted, Tony kills Alberto. An enraged Sosa calls Tony to promise retribution. Tony, at his mother's behest, tracks down Gina. Tony finds Manny with Gina. A stunned and remorseful Tony returns to his mansion, bringing Gina along, begins a massive cocaine binge by himself in his office. While Sosa's men begin attacking the mansion, a drugged Gina appears and accuses Tony of wanting her for himself and attempts to kill him, but is slain by one of Sosa's men, in turn killed by Tony. With Tony's men all dead and assassins outside, Tony turns a grenade launcher-equipped M16A1 on Sosa's men, mowing down many. Tony is shot by the remaining attackers, but continues to taunt them until he is fatally shot from behind by the shotgun-wielding assassin known as The Skull, his corpse falls into a fountain below, in front of a statue with the i
A condominium shortened to condo, in the United States and in most Canadian provinces, is a type of living space similar to an apartment but independently sellable and therefore regarded as real estate. The condominium building structure is divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas that are jointly owned. Similar concepts in other English-speaking countries include strata title in Australia, New Zealand, the Canadian province of British Columbia. Residential condominiums are constructed as apartment buildings, but there has been an increase in the number of "detached condominiums", which look like single-family homes but in which the yards, building exteriors, streets are jointly owned and jointly maintained by a community association. Unlike apartments, which are leased by their tenants, condominium units are owned outright. Additionally, the owners of the individual units collectively own the common areas of the property, such as hallways, laundry rooms, etc. as well as common utilities and amenities, such as the HVAC system, so on.
Many shopping malls are industrial condominiums in which the individual retail and office spaces are owned by the businesses that occupy them while the common areas of the mall are collectively owned by all the business entities that own the individual spaces. The common areas and utilities are managed collectively by the owners through their association, such as a homeowner association. Scholars have traced the earliest known use of the condominium form of tenure to a document from first-century Babylon; the word condominium originated in Latin. Italy uses condominio, the modern Italian form of condominium. Both condo and condominium are used colloquially in the Canadian province of Quebec, where the official term is divided co-ownership. In France, the term is copropriété, the common areas of these properties are managed by a Syndicat de copropriété, or "co-property union". Latin American nations use the term propiedad horizontal meaning "horizontal property" but abstractly meaning that all owners of the property have equal interest.
The word condominio is used. However, in Spain, the legal term is comunidad de propietarios and the popular term is comunidad de vecinos. "Condominium" is a Latin word formed by adding the prefix con- to the word dominium. Its meaning is therefore "shared property". Condominia referred to territories over which two or more sovereign powers shared joint dominion; this technique was used to settle border disputes when multiple claimants could not agree on how to partition the disputed territory. For example, from 1818 to 1846, Oregon Country was a condominium over which both the United States and Great Britain shared joint sovereignty until the Oregon Treaty resolved the issue by splitting the territory along the 49th parallel and each country gaining sole sovereignty of one side; the difference between an "apartment" complex and condominium is purely legal. There is no way to differentiate a condominium from an apartment by looking at or visiting the building. What defines. A building developed as a condominium could be built at another location as an apartment building.
As a practical matter, builders tend to build condominiums to higher quality standards than apartment complexes because of the differences between the rental and sale markets. Technically, a condominium is a collection of individual home units and common areas along with the land upon which they sit. Individual home ownership within a condominium is construed as ownership of only the air space confining the boundaries of the home; the boundaries of that space are specified by a legal document known as a Declaration, filed on record with the local governing authority. These boundaries will include the wall surrounding a condo, allowing the homeowner to make some interior modifications without impacting the common area. Anything outside this boundary is held in an undivided ownership interest by a corporation established at the time of the condominium's creation; the corporation holds this property in trust on behalf of the homeowners as a group—it may not have ownership itself. Condominiums have conditions and restrictions, additional rules that govern how the individual unit owners are to share the space.
It is possible for a condominium to consist of single-family dwellings. There are "detached condominiums" where homeowners do not maintain the exteriors of the dwellings, etc. and "site condominiums" where the owner has more control and ownership over the exterior appearance. These structures are preferred by gated communities. A homeowners association, whose members are the unit owners, manages the condominium through a board of directors elected by the membership; this exists under various names depending on the jurisdiction, such as "unit title", "sectional title", "commonhold", "strata council", or "tenant-owner's association", "body corporate", "Owners Corporation", "condominium corporation" or "condominium association". Another variation of this concept is the "time share", although not all time shares are condominiums, not all time shares involve actual ownership of real property. C
Telemundo is an American Spanish language terrestrial television network owned by Comcast through NBCUniversal. It is the second largest provider of Spanish language content nationally behind American competitor Univision, with programming syndicated worldwide to more than 100 countries in over 35 languages; the channel broadcasts programs and original content aimed at Latin American audiences in the United States and worldwide, consisting of telenovelas, reality television, news programming and films — either imported or Spanish-dubbed. In addition, Telemundo operates NBC Universo, a separate channel directed towards young Hispanic audiences. Telemundo is headquartered in the Miami suburb of Beacon Lakes, has 1,900 employees worldwide; the majority of Telemundo's programs are filmed at an operated studio facility in Miami, where 85% of the network's telenovelas were filmed during 2011. The average hourly primetime drama costs $70K to produce. Launched as NetSpan in 1984, the network was renamed Telemundo in 1987, after the network owners purchased the previous owner of WKAQ-TV, a television station in San Juan, Puerto Rico, branded on air as Telemundo.
WKAQ-TV was signed on on March 28, 1954, was founded by Ángel Ramos – owner of Puerto Rico's main newspaper at the time, El Mundo, the U. S. territory's first radio station, WKAQ. Ramos wanted to maintain a consistent branding for his media properties based around the "mundo" theme, chose to brand his new television property as "Telemundo". On April 14, 1983, Ramos sold WKAQ-TV to John Co.. In 1984, the owners of WNJU in Linden, New Jersey and KSTS in San Jose, California formed NetSpan, the second Spanish-language television network in the continental United States; these stations joined KVEA in Los Angeles, run by its general manager and part-owner Joe Wallach, in 1985. The following year, KVEA's part-owner, Reliance Group Holdings, acquired the Telemundo brand when it purchased John Blair & Co. which owned WSCV in Fort Lauderdale–Miami-West Palm Beach in addition to WKAQ-TV. In late 1986, Reliance purchased WNJU. In 1987, Reliance Capital Group executives Saul Steinberg and Henry Silverman merged all these stations into the Telemundo Group.
The new corporation went public, in 1987, Reliance decided to rebrand NetSpan as Telemundo. That year, it purchased additional stations in San Francisco and San Antonio. Between 1988 and 1993, Telemundo acquired or affiliated with television stations in Texas, New Mexico and Washington, D. C.. In May 1992, Telemundo underwent another management change, appointing former Univision president Joaquin Blaya – who resigned from that network after discovering in an FCC filing for A. Jerrold Perenchio's purchase of the network from Hallmark Cards that Univision would increase its reliance on programming from Televisa and Venevision to levels that resulted in him concluding that there would be fewer opportunities for the addition of local programs on Univision's stations, was subsequently joined by four other Univision executives – to head the network; the following year in 1993, Telemundo underwent an extensive rebranding, introducing the signature framed "T" letter logo, a promotional campaign using the slogan "Arriba, Arriba".
The network began to produce its own original telenovelas, the first of which to premiere were Angélica, mi vida, Guadalupe, Señora Tentación and Tres Destinos. International distributors soon approached the network for the syndication rights to air these programs on television networks in other countries. Telemundo's effort faced an initial setback when Mexico's leading broadcaster, purchased production company Capitalvision, producing the telenovelas in conjunction with the network. Parent company Telemundo Group experienced major financial challenges during this time, filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 1994, due to a debt load of more than $300 million that the company owed to its creditors. In an effort to boost its tepid ratings and quell complaints from advocacy organizations such as the National Hispanic Media Coalition that criticized both networks for not featuring content relatable to American Latinos, Telemundo outlined a new strategy to better compete against Univision by increasing production of domestically produced programs.
In 1995, under the direction of executive vice president of programming Harry Abraham Castillo, Telemundo opened its first network studio on the West Coast. Housed at Raleigh Studios in Hollywood, the network began daily production of three shows on the lot that year: La Hora Lunática, a daytime talk-variety show hosted by Los Angeles radio personality Humberto Luna, comedians Mario Ramírez Reyes "El Comodín" and Hugo Armando, producer Jackie Torres.