A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions. Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from small amounts of matter; the first test of a fission bomb released an amount of energy equal to 20,000 tons of TNT. The first thermonuclear bomb test released energy equal to 10 million tons of TNT. A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT. A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast and radiation. Since they are weapons of mass destruction, the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy. Nuclear weapons have been used twice in war, both times by the United States against Japan near the end of World War II. On August 6, 1945, the U. S. Army Air Forces detonated a uranium gun-type fission bomb nicknamed "Little Boy" over the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
S. Army Air Forces detonated a plutonium implosion-type fission bomb nicknamed "Fat Man" over the Japanese city of Nagasaki; these bombings caused injuries that resulted in the deaths of 200,000 civilians and military personnel. The ethics of these bombings and their role in Japan's surrender are subjects of debate. Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have been detonated over two thousand times for testing and demonstration. Only a few nations are suspected of seeking them; the only countries known to have detonated nuclear weapons—and acknowledge possessing them—are the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, China, India and North Korea. Israel is believed to possess nuclear weapons, though, in a policy of deliberate ambiguity, it does not acknowledge having them. Germany, Turkey and the Netherlands are nuclear weapons sharing states. South Africa is the only country to have independently developed and renounced and dismantled its nuclear weapons.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons aims to reduce the spread of nuclear weapons, but its effectiveness has been questioned, political tensions remained high in the 1970s and 1980s. Modernisation of weapons continues to this day. There are two basic types of nuclear weapons: those that derive the majority of their energy from nuclear fission reactions alone, those that use fission reactions to begin nuclear fusion reactions that produce a large amount of the total energy output. All existing nuclear weapons derive some of their explosive energy from nuclear fission reactions. Weapons whose explosive output is from fission reactions are referred to as atomic bombs or atom bombs; this has long been noted as something of a misnomer, as their energy comes from the nucleus of the atom, just as it does with fusion weapons. In fission weapons, a mass of fissile material is forced into supercriticality—allowing an exponential growth of nuclear chain reactions—either by shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another or by compression of a sub-critical sphere or cylinder of fissile material using chemically-fueled explosive lenses.
The latter approach, the "implosion" method, is more sophisticated than the former. A major challenge in all nuclear weapon designs is to ensure that a significant fraction of the fuel is consumed before the weapon destroys itself; the amount of energy released by fission bombs can range from the equivalent of just under a ton to upwards of 500,000 tons of TNT. All fission reactions generate the remains of the split atomic nuclei. Many fission products are either radioactive or moderately radioactive, as such, they are a serious form of radioactive contamination. Fission products are the principal radioactive component of nuclear fallout. Another source of radioactivity is the burst of free neutrons produced by the weapon; when they collide with other nuclei in surrounding material, the neutrons transmute those nuclei into other isotopes, altering their stability and making them radioactive. The most used fissile materials for nuclear weapons applications have been uranium-235 and plutonium-239.
Less used has been uranium-233. Neptunium-237 and some isotopes of americium may be usable for nuclear explosives as well, but it is not clear that this has been implemented, their plausible use in nuclear weapons is a matter of dispute; the other basic type of nuclear weapon produces a large proportion of its energy in nuclear fusion reactions. Such fusion weapons are referred to as thermonuclear weapons or more colloquially as hydrogen bombs, as they rely on fusion reactions between isotopes of hydrogen. All such weapons derive a significant portion of their energy from fission reactions used to "trigger" fusion reactions, fusion reactions can themselves trigger additional fission reactions. Only six countries—United States, United Kingdom, China and India—have conducted thermonuclear weapon tests. North Korea claims to have tested a fusion weapon as of January 2016. Thermonuclear weapons a
Atomic is an Austrian company that manufactures and sells skis and other skiing equipment, such as ski boots, helmets, ski poles and protective equipment. Some of the latter product lines are marketed under different brand names. Alois Rohrmoser founded Atomic in 1955. Rohrmoser employed four members of staff, the company produced around 40 pairs of skis a year. Annual production grew to 5,000 by the beginning of the 1960s, industrial ski production began with the expansion of the Wagrain site in 1966. In 1967, the company produced 17,000 pairs of skis, rising to 36,000 in the following year and 72,000 in 1969. In 1971, the company increased its production capacity by building a second factory in Altenmarkt im Pongau, where the majority of their ski production still takes place. In 1981, Atomic started production in the Bulgarian city of Chepelare, becoming the first west-block company to open a plant in the eastern-block countries. Atomic continued to expand its range, in 1989, it became the first one-stop supplier for skis, bindings and poles.
Ski production peaked at 831,000 pairs in 1991 and 1992. However, Atomic faced financial difficulties due to high products rejection when transitioning to the Schalenski technology, to failures in the booming snowboard market. In 1994, the BAWAG requested Atomic to be put under insolvency procedure. In November 1994, the Amer Sports Group acquired Atomic for 918.7 million schillings, in March 2006 the insolvency procedures were lifted. Today Atomic manufactures around 600,000 pairs of skis per year. Atomic regards itself as a technological pioneer in the ski sport industry, its aim is to "make every skier a better skier". Atomic's milestone innovations include the Bionic System, the HY-Vitronic construction and the Doubledeck, the first technology to automatically adapt the radius and flex to the style of the skier and skiing conditions. Atomic developed the LiveFit -- a ski boot. Since 2009, Atomic's skis have been available with various Rocker technologies. Atomic has developed Memory Fit, a heat fitting technology that adapts the boot to the users foot, which can be found on two of the market's top selling boots.
Atomic is committed to the development of more environmentally-friendly production methods: the factory in Altenmarkt uses a wood pellet heating system during the manufacturing process. The "Renu" line comprises skis and boots made of recyclable and renewable materials. Atomic sponsors male and female athletes in alpine skiing, freestyle skiing, touring skiing, Nordic combined, cross-country skiing, biathlon, they offer several types of models ranging from All Mountain, Powder and Park skiing. One of their most successful models is the Atomic Infamous designed by Jossi Wells. Alpine Skis Website
Atomic is an extended play by English electronic musician and producer Labrinth. Written and recorded throughout 2012, it was self-released on Labrinth's own label Odd Child Recordings on 1 February 2013 as a free digital download. In May 2012, Labrinth uploaded a number of sketches of new songs on his second SoundCloud account'Clean water', including "If Mario Had a Dad" and "Angry Mob". "Let the Dogs Run Wild" samples a scene from the film Snatch where the character Tommy is asked if he likes "dags". "No Prisoners" was produced as the follow-up to an SB. TV collaboration project titled "Upcomers Anthem"; the idea behind it was grouping together new talent on a track. The official video for "No Prisoners" premiered on SB. TV on 19 February, 2013. Yungen features in the video; the EP in its entirety was made available for streaming on SoundCloud on Christmas Day 2012, although no downloadable edition was distributed. The EP was made available as a free digital download on Labrinth's Facebook page from 1 February 2013.
Speaking about the collection, Labrinth has identified "Under the Knife" as one of his particular favourites, revealing that "it's about doing surgery on soul or character instead of your appearance or being fake". Official Atomic stream on SoundCloud
Tiger Army III: Ghost Tigers Rise
Tiger Army III: Ghost Tigers Rise is Tiger Army's third full-length album. It was released by Hellcat Records on June 29, 2004, it takes the psychobilly of their first two efforts and layers it with elements of country and punk to create a more mature and emotional sound than previous works. The focus of the lyrics on the album range from topics of ghosts and vampires to love; the album was well received and led to their first U. S. headlining tour in spring of 2005. All songs written and composed by Nick 13 "Prelude: Death of a Tiger" – 0:53 "Ghost Tigers Rise" – 2:09 "Wander Alone" – 3:44 "Santa Carla Twilight" – 4:44 "Ghostfire" – 4:02 "Rose of the Devil's Garden" – 3:56 "Atomic" – 3:16 "What Happens?" – 3:07 "Through the Darkness" – 3:05 "The Long Road" – 4:31 "Calling" – 4:09 "Swift Silent Deadly" – 2:46 "Sea of Fire" – 5:13
Atomic (Mogwai album)
Atomic is an original soundtrack album by Scottish post-rock band Mogwai, released on 1 April 2016 on Rock Action Records. The music was composed for Mark Cousins' documentary Atomic, Living in Dread and Promise; the album features instrumental music from start to finish. The song titles allude to atomic bombs such as Little Boy and Tzar Bomba as well as scientific or military objects and concepts connected with nuclear warfare such as SCRAM, Uranium-235 and Pripyat, the abandoned city near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine, it is the first Mogwai album to not feature guitarist John Cummings, who left the band in 2015. Atomic received positive reviews from contemporary music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 77, based on 16 reviews, which indicates "generally favorable reviews". Morgan Evans of PopMatters praised the album, stating, "It’s a thrill to hear Mogwai’s sense of control more than conservative energy capping certain parts at a gentle murmur.
Their work on the Les Revenants soundtrack was otherworldly, whereas it is astounding how Atomic, an album composed of reworked versions of the music recorded for the soundtrack to director Mark Cousins’ documentary Atomic: Living in Dread and Promise, has feet planted in learning how to live with, if not love, the bomb. If you are impatient, you’ll dread wondering if some of the songs are going anywhere, but most listeners will be rewarded with the promise that the most ominous music on here is leading up to something transportive."Dusty Henry of Consequence of Sound gave the album a favorable review, stating, "Atomic succeeds because of the band’s willingness to dive into their muse and experiment. It's. By taking on a subject larger than themselves, Mogwai are able to lose their identity in telling such a tragic story." Matthew Ritchie of Exclaim! praised the album, stating, "Atomic captures the band's recent progressions, ornate or otherwise, is undoubtedly one of the most consistent albums front-to-back from Mogwai's two-decade-long career."
All tracks written by Mogwai. MogwaiStuart Braithwaite – performing Dominic Aitchison – performing Martin Bulloch – performing Barry Burns – performingAdditional performersRobert Newth – french horn Luke Sutherland – violin Robin Proper-Sheppard – guitar ProductionTony Doogan – recording, mixing Frank Arkwright – mastering
Atomic coffee machine
Coffee machines sold under the trademark "Atomic coffee machine" existed both as stove-top device, electrical versions. The trademark was applied unrelated to their function or design by 4 different manufacturers in Italy, Hungary, United Kingdom. In Italy, Giordano Robbiati applied a small yellow sticker bearing the Atomic trademark on a small copper and aluminium moka pot. Most of aluminium cast Model B had a black and white circular Atomic badge; as for the Isomac "La splendida", it wore a black sticker Atomic cappuccino, applied on both white and red models. In Austria, Desider Stern applied the trademark on various models stating with the 102, 104, 105 and 110 and extending to the 402E series; the inventions related to the Model 105, 110 and 402E were patented by Desider Stern. The Qualital company in Hungary produced another range of Atomic trademarked machines, which are similar in shape to the Model A of Brevetti Robbiati and the Model 102 of the Stella company, since Desider Stern was Power of Attorney of Giordano Stern and could use the License on the patented Model A.
In the United Kingdom, the A & M. G Sassoon Co. produced its own British-manufactured coffee makers "standard" and "Cappucino" around the decade 1955-65 who bore the trademark "Atomic". An example is now on display in the Science Museum in London. Robbiati's drawing for Patent 2,549,132 Detailed photos and information on most models of Atomic
Atomic Runner Chelnov
Atomic Runner Chelnov - Nuclear Man, the Fighter, known as Chelnov, is a Japanese runner arcade game developed and published by Data East in 1988. The player controls Chelnov's movements with the eight-way joystick, the three buttons to attack, jump, or turn around. Six types of weapons can be obtained during the game, collecting power-ups can improve Chelnov's attack power, rapid-firing capability, attack range, or jumping height; the game is a forced side-scrolling game where the screen continually scrolls to the right at a constant speed unless the player is fighting a boss, in which the screen will stop scrolling. Chelnov will continue to run with the screen if the player lets go off the joystick. Though the player can move to the left or right of the scrolling screen by entering the corresponding direction on the joystick, it is impossible to stop or move backwards except when fighting a boss; the main character's sprite animation is detailed and smooth for its time, comparable to the level of Karateka and the early Prince of Persia games.
The ending screen appears when the player finishes all seven levels of the game. The player takes the role of Chelnov, a coal miner who miraculously survives the malfunction and explosion of a nuclear power plant. Chelnov's body gains superhuman abilities due to the massive amount of radiation given off by the explosion, a secret organization seeks to harness those abilities for its own evil purposes. Chelnov must battle and defeat the secret organization using his newfound abilities. Atomic Runner Chelnov was controversial at the time of release; the setting, where a coal miner is caught in a nuclear accident, a hammer and sickle visible on the game's opening screen, the game's title led many to interpret the game as a parody of the Chernobyl disaster. Data East responded in a television program that the name "Chelnov" was a relative of Karnov, the title character of one of the company's games, was not at all influenced by the events at Chernobyl. Other development staff members explained that the game had been planned under a different name, but the events at Chernobyl led to the name "Chelnov", which became the game's title.
Under this explanation, the parodic elements resulted purely out of coincidence, but over a year and a half passed from the accident to the first release of the game, ample time for the developers to reassess the suitability of the game's plot and content. The game's storyline was changed to remove connotations with Chernobyl when the game was ported to the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis. After Data East became defunct due to bankruptcy in 2003, Paon bought the rights to Atomic Runner Chelnov; the game was first ported to the Sega Genesis in 1992, but many parts of the game were remade. The Japanese version kept the same name as its arcade counterpart, but the North American and European versions were titled Atomic Runner; the game's plot was changed where Chelnov is not a coal miner caught in a nuclear meltdown, but a regular human-being wearing a special combat suit who battles enemies to rescue his younger sister. The game's enemies and background images were changed to those reminiscent of an ancient civilization.
This version was released for the Wii Virtual Console in Japan on September 11, 2007. The game was ported to the X68000 in 1993; this version is identical to the original arcade version. The release contained an adapter for the Mega Drive controller known in Japan as the Chelnov Adapter, allowed the player to use the Mega Drive controller for many other X68000 games besides Chelnov. A port to the Sega Saturn was planned and developed, but was never released to consumers. A version of it appeared in the Tokyo Game Show and several game stores in Akihabara around 1997, but its release was cancelled by Data East for unknown reasons. A playable prototype of the Sega Saturn version was found in 2012; the Saturn prototype is a duplicate of the 1988 arcade game but lacks any sound effects though the music is still present. Chelnov appears as an enemy character in Trio The Punch, Tumble Pop, Fighter's History: Mizoguchi Kiki Ippatsu!!, can be seen being transported in a frozen container on a freight train in Bad Dudes Vs. Dragon Ninja.
In Sly Spy, a poster showing Chelnov can be seen at the beginning of Stage 4. Virtual Console official website Atomic Runner Chelnov at the Killer List of Videogames English version at arcade-history Japanese version at arcade-history Atomic Runner at MobyGames Data East 2002 interview