Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88. It is the sixth element in group 2 of the periodic table known as the alkaline earth metals. Pure radium is silvery-white, but it reacts with nitrogen on exposure to air, forming a black surface layer of radium nitride. All isotopes of radium are radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226, which has a half-life of 1600 years and decays into radon gas; when radium decays, ionizing radiation is a product, which can excite fluorescent chemicals and cause radioluminescence. Radium, in the form of radium chloride, was discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898, they extracted the radium compound from uraninite and published the discovery at the French Academy of Sciences five days later. Radium was isolated in its metallic state by Marie Curie and André-Louis Debierne through the electrolysis of radium chloride in 1911. In nature, radium is found in uranium and thorium ores in trace amounts as small as a seventh of a gram per ton of uraninite.
Radium is not necessary for living organisms, adverse health effects are when it is incorporated into biochemical processes because of its radioactivity and chemical reactivity. Other than its use in nuclear medicine, radium has no commercial applications. Today, these former applications are no longer in vogue because radium's toxicity has since become known, less dangerous isotopes are used instead in radioluminescent devices. Radium is the only radioactive member of its group, its physical and chemical properties most resemble its lighter congener barium. Pure radium is a volatile silvery-white metal, although its lighter congeners calcium and barium have a slight yellow tint; this tint vanishes on exposure to air, yielding a black layer of radium nitride. Its melting point is either 700 °C or 960 °C and its boiling point is 1,737 °C. Both of these values are lower than those of barium, confirming periodic trends down the group 2 elements. Like barium and the alkali metals, radium crystallizes in the body-centered cubic structure at standard temperature and pressure: the radium–radium bond distance is 514.8 picometers.
Radium has a density of 5.5 g/cm3, higher than that of barium, again confirming periodic trends. Radium has 33 known isotopes, with mass numbers from 202 to 234: all of them are radioactive. Four of these – 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra – occur in the decay chains of primordial thorium-232, uranium-235, uranium-238; these isotopes still have half-lives too short to be primordial radionuclides and only exist in nature from these decay chains. Together with the artificial 225Ra, these are the five most stable isotopes of radium. All other known radium isotopes have half-lives under two hours, the majority have half-lives under a minute. At least 12 nuclear isomers have been reported. In the early history of the study of radioactivity, the different natural isotopes of radium were given different names. In this scheme, 223Ra was named actinium X, 224Ra thorium X, 226Ra radium, 228Ra mesothorium 1; when it was realized that all of these are isotopes of the same element, many of these names fell out of use, "radium" came to refer to all isotopes, not just 226Ra.
Some of radium-226's decay products received historical names including "radium", ranging from radium A to radium G, with the letter indicating how far they were down the chain from their parent 226Ra.226Ra is the most stable isotope of radium and is the last isotope in the decay chain of uranium-238 with a half-life of over a millennium: it makes up all of natural radium. Its immediate decay product is the dense radioactive noble gas radon, responsible for much of the danger of environmental radium, it is 2.7 million times more radioactive than the same molar amount of natural uranium, due to its proportionally shorter half-life. A sample of radium metal maintains itself at a higher temperature than its surroundings because of the radiation it emits – alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays. More natural radium emits alpha particles, but other steps in its decay chain emit alpha or beta particles, all particle emissions are accompanied by gamma rays. In 2013 it was discovered; this was the first discovery of an asymmetric nucleus.
Radium, like barium, is a reactive metal and always exhibits its group oxidation state of +2. It forms the colorless Ra2+ cation in aqueous solution, basic and does not form complexes readily. Most radium compounds are therefore simple ionic compounds, though participation from the 6s and 6p electrons is expected due to relativistic effects and would enhance the covalent character of radium compounds such as RaF2 and RaAt2. For this reason, the standard electrode potential for the half-reaction Ra2+ + 2e− →
Bob McLeod (comics)
Bob McLeod is an American comics artist best known for co-creating the New Mutants with writer Chris Claremont. McLeod was born in Florida, he was educated at the Art Institute of Fort Lauderdale. Bob McLeod began his career working in the production department of Marvel Comics in 1973 on a recommendation from Neal Adams, he began penciling and inking for Marvel's Crazy Magazine, doing several movie satires and the "Teen Hulk" strip. He was a member of The Crusty Bunkers inkers while working at Adams' Continuity Studios, became an inker at Marvel and DC Comics on many series, including The Incredible Hulk, Conan the Barbarian, Legion of Super Heroes, Detective Comics, Wonder Woman, The New Titans, as well as penciling Star Wars and several Spider-Man fill-ins for Marvel. McLeod drew the graphic novel and the first three issues of New Mutants and inked a number of subsequent issues; the graphic novel's production overlapped with his honeymoon, ended up missing its shipping slot because editor Louise Simonson choose to keep her promise to McLeod that he could ink it himself.
In a 2008 interview, McLeod looked back on The New Mutants as "one of the most frustrating experiences of my career", recounting having to ink the graphic novel while on his honeymoon and give up doing pencils on the regular series because he could not keep up with the monthly pace at the time and felt he was producing substandard work. In 1987, he inked Mike Zeck's pencils on the "Kraven's Last Hunt" storyline in the Spider-Man titles. At DC Comics, he was the artist on Superman in Action Comics in the early 1990s including the "Dark Knight Over Metropolis" storyarc. McLeod helped writer Louise Simonson and artist Jon Bogdanove launch a new Superman title, Superman: The Man of Steel in July 1991. With writer Roger Stern, McLeod contributed to such Superman tales as the 1991 story wherein Clark Kent revealed his identity as Superman to Lois Lane and the "Panic in the Sky" crossover in 1992. There were several issues of The Phantom comic book drawn by McLeod for the Swedish publisher Egmont.
He has written and illustrated a children's book, Superhero ABC, published by HarperCollins in 2006 and received starred reviews from School Library Journal and ABA Booklist. He edited TwoMorrows Publishing's Rough Stuff magazine which featured interviews and art by top creators in the comics field. McLeod teaches part-time at the Pennsylvania College of Art and Design in Lancaster and works on various commercial projects. McLeod was the keynote speaker for the 2012 Inkwell Awards Awards Ceremony at HeroesCon. In 2018, McLeod was award the Inkwell Awards Joe Sinnott Hall of Fame Award for his many years of inking. Official website Bob McLeod at the Comic Book DB Bob McLeod at Mike's Amazing World of Comics Bob McLeod at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators Bob McLeod interview at New York Comic Con 2016 by ComicsVerse Bob McLeod on the Super Hero Speak podcast 2017
A hovercraft known as an air-cushion vehicle or ACV, is an amphibious craft capable of travelling over land, mud and other surfaces. Hovercraft use blowers to produce a large volume of air below the hull, above atmospheric pressure; the pressure difference between the higher pressure air below the hull and lower pressure ambient air above it produces lift, which causes the hull to float above the running surface. For stability reasons, the air is blown through slots or holes around the outside of a disk- or oval-shaped platform, giving most hovercraft a characteristic rounded-rectangle shape; this cushion is contained within a flexible "skirt", which allows the vehicle to travel over small obstructions without damage. The first practical design for hovercraft was derived from a British invention in the 1950s to 1960s, they are now used throughout the world as specialised transports in disaster relief, coastguard and survey applications, as well as for sport or passenger service. Large versions have been used to transport hundreds of people and vehicles across the English Channel, whilst others have military applications used to transport tanks and large equipment in hostile environments and terrain.
Although now a generic term for the type of craft, the name Hovercraft itself was a trademark owned by Saunders-Roe, hence other manufacturers' use of alternative names to describe the vehicles. There have been many attempts to understand the principles of high air pressure below hulls and wings. Hovercrafts are unique in that they can lift themselves while still, differing from ground effect vehicles and hydrofoils which require forward motion to create lift; the first mention in the historical record of the concepts behind surface-effect vehicles that used the term hovering was by Swedish scientist Emanuel Swedenborg in 1716. The shipbuilder Sir John Isaac Thornycroft patented an early design for an air cushion ship / hovercraft in the 1870s, but suitable, engines were not available until the 20th century. In 1915, the Austrian Dagobert Müller von Thomamühl built the world's first "air cushion" boat. Shaped like a section of a large aerofoil, the craft was propelled by four aero engines driving two submerged marine propellers, with a fifth engine that blew air under the front of the craft to increase the air pressure under it.
Only when in motion could the craft trap air under the front, increasing lift. The vessel required a depth of water to operate and could not transition to land or other surfaces. Designed as a fast torpedo boat, the Versuchsgleitboot had a top speed over 32 knots, it was tested and armed with torpedoes and machine guns for operation in the Adriatic. It never saw actual combat, as the war progressed it was scrapped due to the lack of interest and perceived need, its engines returned to the Air Force; the theoretical grounds for motion over an air layer were constructed by Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovskii in 1926 and 1927. In 1929, Andrew Kucher of Ford began experimenting with the "Levapad" concept, metal disks with pressurized air blown through a hole in the center. Levapads do not offer stability on their own. Several must be used together to support a load above them. Lacking a skirt, the pads had to remain close to the running surface, he imagined these being used in place of casters and wheels in factories and warehouses, where the concrete floors offered the smoothness required for operation.
By the 1950s, Ford showed a number of toy models of cars using the system, but proposed its use as a replacement for wheels on trains, with the Levapads running close to the surface of existing rails. In 1931, Finnish aero engineer Toivo J. Kaario began designing a developed version of a vessel using an air cushion and built a prototype Pintaliitäjä, in 1937. Kaario's design included the modern features of a lift engine blowing air into a flexible envelope for lift. Kaario never received funding to build his design, however. Kaario's efforts were followed in the Soviet Union by Vladimir Levkov, who returned to the solid-sided design of the Versuchsgleitboot. Levkov designed and built a number of similar craft during the 1930s, his L-5 fast-attack boat reached 70 knots in testing. However, the start of World War II put an end to Levkov's development work. During World War II, an American engineer, Charles Fletcher, invented a walled air cushion vehicle, the Glidemobile; because the project was classified by the U.
S. government, Fletcher could not file a patent. The idea of the modern hovercraft is most associated with a British mechanical engineer Sir Christopher Cockerell. Cockerell's group was the first to develop the use of a ring of air for maintaining the cushion, the first to develop a successful skirt, the first to demonstrate a practical vehicle in continued use. Cockerell came across the key concept in his design when studying the ring of airflow when high-pressure air was blown into the annular area between two concentric tin cans, one coffee and the other from cat food and a hair dryer; this produced a ring of airflow, as expected. This effect, which he called the "momentum curtain", could be used to trap high-pressure air in the area inside the curtain, producing a high-pressure plenum that earlier examples had to build up with more airflow. In theory, only a small amount of active airflow would be needed to create li
A serial, film serial, movie serial or chapter play, is a motion picture form popular during the first half of the 20th century, consisting of a series of short subjects exhibited in consecutive order at one theater advancing weekly, until the series is completed. Each serial involves a single set of characters and antagonistic, involved in a single story, edited into chapters after the fashion of serial fiction and the episodes cannot be shown out of order or as a single or a random collection of short subjects; each chapter was screened at a movie theater for one week, ended with a cliffhanger, in which characters found themselves in perilous situations with little apparent chance of escape. Viewers had to return each week to follow the continuing story. Movie serials were popular with children, for many youths in the first half of the 20th century a typical Saturday matinee at the movies included at least one chapter of a serial, along with animated cartoons and two feature films. Many serials were Westerns.
Besides Westerns, there were films covering many genres, including crime fiction, comic book or comic strip characters, science fiction, jungle adventures. Although most serials were filmed economically, some were made at significant expense; the Flash Gordon serial and its sequels, for instance, were major productions in their times. Serials were a popular form of movie entertainment dating back to Edison's What Happened to Mary of 1912. There appear to be older serials, such as the 1910 Deutsche Vitaskop 5 episode Arsene Lupin Contra Sherlock Holmes, based upon the Maurice LeBlanc novel, a possible but unconfirmed Raffles serial in 1911. Filmed with low budgets, serials were action-packed stories that involved a hero battling an evil villain and rescuing damsel in distress; the villain would continually place the hero into inescapable deathtraps, or the heroine would be placed into a deathtrap and the hero would bravely come to her rescue pulling her away from certain death only moments before she met her doom.
The hero and heroine would face one trap after another, battling countless thugs and lackeys, before defeating the villain. Many famous clichés of action-adventure movies had their origins in the serials; the popular term cliffhanger was developed as a plot device in film serials, it comes from the many times that the hero or heroine would end up hanging over a cliff as the villain gloated above and waited for them to plummet hundreds of metres to their deaths. Other popular clichés included the heroine or hero trapped in a burning building, being trampled by horses, knocked unconscious in a car as it goes over a cliff, crashing in an airplane, watching as the burning fuse of a nearby bundle of dynamite sparked and sputtered its way towards the deadly explosive; the popular Indiana Jones movies are a well-known, romantic pastiche of the serials' clichéd plot elements and devices. The silent era was the zenith of the movie serial and serial stars from this period were major stars such as Pearl White, who starred in the quintessential silent serial The Perils of Pauline, which still ranks among the best known silent films.
Ruth Roland, Marin Sais, Ann Little, Helen Holmes were early leading serial queens. Most of these serials put beautiful young women in jeopardy week after week; the serials starring women were the most popular during the silent period but in the sound era few serials had a female character in the major role. Years after their first release, serials gained new life at "Saturday Matinees", theatrical showings on Saturday mornings aimed directly at children. For that reason, serials are sometimes called "Saturday Matinee Serials" though they were shown with feature films. In the early days of television in the United States, movie serials were broadcast, one chapter a day, in the late 1970s and 1980s, they were revived on BBC television in the United Kingdom. Many have been released in home video formats. Besides the hero or heroine, some terms are used to define villains and supporting players: The saddle pal or sidekick was the helper or assistant of the hero or heroine; that person was a bumbling comic relief.
The brains heavy was the man. He wears a suit, pretends to be an upright, lawful member of the community, he had little to do until the last chapter except talk, snarl, or grimace. The action heavy is the assistant or second-in-command to the brains heavy who wore workmanlike duds, did the physical labor, had more brawn than brains, he went from one chapter to the next trying to kill the hero with fists, guns, bombs, or whatever else was handy at the time. The oldtimer was the man who owned the ranch, the father of the hero and had a short film lifespan, as well those that wore a badge of a sheriff, marshall, or ranger; the middle-aged and older performers who were judges, storeowners, owners of the local newspaper, executives, or professors. Famous American serials of the silent era include The Perils of Pauline and The Exploits of Elaine made by Pathé Frères and starring Pearl White. Another popular serial was the 119-episode The Hazards of Helen made by Kalem Studios and
Martin Joseph "Marty" Pasko is a writer and editor in a diverse array of media, including comic books and television. Pasko has worked for many comics publishers, but is best known for his work with DC Comics over three decades, he has written Superman in many media, including television animation, a syndicated newspaper strip for Tribune Media Services, as well as comics. He co-created the 1975 revamp of Doctor Fate. Pasko has claimed to have been born as Jean-Claude Rochefort in Montreal, Canada; as a teenager, he was a regular contributor to comic book letter columns and co-published a fanzine, with Alan Brennert, now a novelist. After attending Northwestern University and New York University, Pasko settled in New York. Pasko's first published comics writing credit was a short story titled "Package Deal " for Warren Publishing's Creepy #51, his first published work, was a story titled "Eye Opener," in Vampirella #20, erroneously credited to his friend and professional benefactor, Doug Moench.
Pasko started working for DC Comics and began his long association with Superman in 1973, as a result of his association with long-time editor Julius Schwartz. As a frequent contributor to Schwartz's letter columns, beginning in 1968, Pasko had been nicknamed "Pesky Pasko," in acknowledgment of the fact that his comments were more than not acutely critical, his campaign to become a "lettercol regular," as a way of breaking into comics writing, was inspired and encouraged by his friend and benefactor, writer Mike Friedrich, who advised Pasko that a name, recognizable from the letter columns would have an advantage in terms of over-the-transom, or "slush pile," contributions, by being more to be read before the submissions of writers unknown to the editor. Pasko's first Superman-related story was a "Private Life of Clark Kent" backup feature in Superman #277. In addition to writing backup stories and occasional other features in Action Comics during this period, such as The Atom, Pasko was the featured Superman writer from 1977–1979.
DC Comics Presents, a team-up title starring Superman, was launched in 1978 by Pasko and artist José Luis García-López. Pasko and Curt Swan created the Atomic Skull in Superman #323 and the Master Jailer in Superman #331. From 1979–1982, Pasko contributed stories to the Superman Family anthology title, including runs as the regular writer of the Jimmy Olsen and Supergirl features. In addition, during 1978 and 1979, Pasko scripted the syndicated newspaper comic strip The World's Greatest Superheroes which starred Superman, Robin, Wonder Woman, The Flash, but changed its focus to feature Superman. A solo Doctor Fate story in 1st Issue Special #9, written by Pasko and drawn by Walt Simonson, led to an important development in the life of the character. With this story, Pasko added the concept that the spirit of Nabu resided in Doctor Fate's helmet and took control of Fate's alter-ego Kent Nelson whenever the helmet was donned. In 1981 Roy Thomas incorporated this into his series All-Star Squadron, as an explanation of the changes in Fate's helmet and powers.
In 1982, this led to DC featuring Kent and his wife Inza in a series of back-up stories, written by Pasko, in The Flash. DC collected Pasko's stories into a three-issue limited series titled The Immortal Dr. Fate. Other titles Pasko wrote for DC included Wonder Woman from 1975–1977, featuring a major story arc documenting the heroine's attempt to gain readmission to the Justice League of America. Wonder Woman had quit the organization after renouncing her powers. Pasko wrote a number of issues of Justice League of America between 1974 and 1977; the story intended to be Kobra issue #8 appeared as the Batman story in DC Special Series #1. In addition, Pasko wrote a number of issues of Adventure Comics between 1976 and 1980, he wrote a Daredevil prose story for Marvel Novel Series #9 in 1979 under the pseudonym of "Kyle Christopher". In his first comics-format work for Marvel Comics, Pasko was the regular scripter of that company's Star Trek comic book in 1980–1981, he helped Alan Brennert enter the comics industry by having Brennert co-write Star Trek #12 for Marvel.
Pasko was a writer of the Star Trek comic strip from late 1982 through early 1983. In 1988, Pasko wrote an issue of the DC Star Trek comic book. In 1982, Pasko and artist Thomas Yeates revived Swamp Thing, in a new series titled Saga of the Swamp Thing. Pasko left Swamp Thing with issue #19 and was succeeded by Alan Moore, who took the title and the character in a different direction. Pasko wrote a number of issues of the First Comics version of Joe Staton's E-Man in 1983–1984. In 1988–1989 Pasko was a regular contributor to Action Comics during its stint as a weekly anthology, where he developed a new version of "The Secret Six", he wrote the "Blackhawk" feature therein, based on the Howard Chaykin retcon, the subsequent monthly title. In this decade, Pasko's first regular series assignment as a freelance comics writer was in 1994, for the Marvel Comics licensed series Gargoyles, based on a Disney Television Animation series, he returned to New York to serve as DC's Group Editor-Mass Market. While, his official title, within the company he was known as the head of the Special Projects Group.
In this capacity, he oversaw the production of DC's custom comics.
Gerard Francis Conway is an American writer of comic books and television shows. He is known for co-creating the Marvel Comics' vigilante the Punisher and scripting the death of the character Gwen Stacy during his long run on The Amazing Spider-Man. At DC Comics, he is known for co-creating the superhero Firestorm and others, for writing the Justice League of America for eight years. Conway wrote the first major, modern-day intercompany crossover, Superman vs. the Amazing Spider-Man. Born in Brooklyn, New York City, Conway grew up a comic fan, he published his first professional comic book work at 16, with the 6½-page horror story "Aaron Philips' Photo Finish" in DC Comics' House of Secrets #81. He continued selling such anthological stories for that series and for Marvel's Chamber of Darkness and Tower of Shadows through the end of 1970, by which time he had published one-page, text short stories in DC's All-Star Western #1 and Super DC Giant #S-14, he published his first continuing-character story in DC's semi-anthological occult comic The Phantom Stranger #10.
He attended New York University for a time. Conway recalled breaking into Marvel Comics through Marvel editor Roy Thomas: I'd been writing for DC Comics for two or three years...but to paraphrase the joke about the actor's ambitions to be a director, what I wanted to do was write superheroes – Marvel heroes. Through friends I'd become acquainted with Roy Thomas, Stan Lee's right-hand man at the time, Roy offered me a shot at the Marvel'writing test.' Stan wasn't impressed, but Roy liked what I did, began throwing some short assignments my way, including scripting over his plot on an early Ka-Zar. Following his first continuing-character story for Marvel, with his script for the jungle lord Ka-Zar in Astonishing Tales #3, Conway began writing superhero stories with Daredevil #72, he went on to assignments on Iron Man, The Incredible Hulk, both "The Inhumans" and "The Black Widow" features in the split book Amazing Adventures. He scripted the first Man-Thing story, in 1971, sharing co-creation credit with Stan Lee and Roy Thomas.
Conway would script every major Marvel title, as well as co-create the lycanthropic lead character of the feature "Werewolf by Night", in Marvel Spotlight #2. At 19, Conway began scripting The Amazing Spider-Man, succeeding Stan Lee as writer of one of Marvel's flagship titles, his run, from issues #111–149, included the landmark death of Gwen Stacy story in #121. Eight issues Conway and Andru introduced the Punisher as a conflicted antagonist for Spider-Man, as well as the Jackal; the Punisher went on to become a popular star of numerous comic books and has been adapted into three movies. Conway additionally wrote Fantastic Four, from #133–152. Conway in 2009 reflected on writing flagship Marvel characters at a young age: Precocity is a well-known curse. I wanted to be accepted by other writers and artists as an equal, which put me in some awkward situations – pretending to be more mature than I was and professionally; as it happened, I was pretty good at faking a maturity I didn't have, which had advantages and some disadvantages.
I think people forgot how young I was, expected me to perform at a level, beyond me. The result was, I was pretty stressed for most of my early career as a writer, I felt like I had no idea what I was doing —which was true. I wrote instinctively and from the gut; when my instincts were off, I didn't have the experience to either recognize it, or to compensate for it, with results that were more uneven. In the late 1972, Conway and writers Steve Englehart and Len Wein crafted a metafictional unofficial crossover spanning titles from both major comics companies; each comic featured Englehart and Wein, as well as Wein's first wife Glynis, interacting with Marvel or DC characters at the Rutland Halloween Parade in Rutland, Vermont. Beginning in Amazing Adventures #16, the story continued in Justice League of America #103, concluded in Thor #207; as Englehart explained in 2010, "It seemed like a radical concept and we knew that we had to be subtle and each story had to stand on its own, but we worked it out.
It's worthwhile to read those stories back to back to back – it didn't matter to us that one was at DC and two were at Marvel – I think it was us being creative, thinking what would be cool to do."Conway returned to DC Comics in mid-1975, beginning with three books cover-dated Nov. 1975: Hercules Unbound #1, Kong the Untamed #3, Swamp Thing #19. He wrote a revival of the Golden Age comic book series All Star Comics which introduced the character Power Girl. Shortly afterward, he was chosen by Marvel and DC editors to script the historic intercompany crossover Superman vs. the Amazing Spider-Man #1, a 96-page, tabloid-sized, $2 one-shot, at a time when comic books sold for 25 cents. He continued writing for DC, on titles including Sup
Scientific and Technological Advanced Research Laboratories is a fictional scientific research facility and organization appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. It first was created by Cary Bates and Rich Buckler. Superheroes receives treatment at the labs. S. T. A. R. Labs was introduced in Superman #246. In the Superman comics, Professor Hamilton worked there, Dr. Kitty Faulkner known as the superheroine Rampage, is employed there; the Metropolis location is featured in a battle and as a plot point in Armageddon 2001. In Teen Titans, Cyborg's parents and Eleanor Stone, his former love interest, Dr. Sarah Charles, all worked for S. T. A. R. Labs. Past S. T. A. R. Labs employees are Murray Takamoto, Dr. Jenet Klyburn, Dr. Albert Michaels; the 1993 comics miniseries S. T. A. R. Corps was about a group of superhumans who had inadvertently gained their powers in a S. T. A. R. Labs experiment; the labs are featured in the 1996 mini-series The Final Night. As eternal winter threatens the world, thanks to the Sun-Eater, S.
T. A. R. Labs keeps their webpage updated with encouragement and various information related to the emergency; the San Francisco and Montana branches play an important role in the arc in Justice League of America #110–114. 52 Aftermath: The Four Horsemen #1 shows a S. T. A. R. Labs relief operation working, side by side with Waynetech, in the devastated remains of the country of Bialya. All the relief workers are slain by outside forces; the latter few issues of DC Universe: Legacies showcases the life of Metropolis Star Labs security director Jim M. S. T. A. R. was founded by scientist Garrison Slate, who wanted a nationwide chain of research laboratories unconnected to the government or any business interests. He succeeded not only on a national scale, but an international one as well: S. T. A. R. Labs maintains facilities in Canada, Europe and Japan as well as in the United States, with the total number of facilities numbering between twenty and thirty at last recorded count. S. T. A. R. Labs is one of the companies providing sponsorship to the superhero team The Conglomerate.
The other sponsors included American Steel, Dante Foods, Dupree Chemical, Ferris Aircraft, LexCorp, Ovel Oil, Pax Entertainment, Stagg Enterprises. S. T. A. R.'s Detroit location assists in evacuation efforts of the world's coasts during an alien invasion. A partial list of some known locations of S. T. A. R. Labs facilities and their research focuses, where either is known, includes: Austin, Texas Central City, Home of the Flash Chicago, Illinois: specializing in research and technology Detroit, Michigan: specialized in physics research. Closed down in 2004. New facility seen in 2017. Fawcett City: specializing in extraterrestrial research Gotham City: specializing in weaponry Keystone City, Kansas Kyoto, Japan Los Angeles, California: specializing in genetics and disease control Melbourne, Australia Metropolis: specializing in marine biology Metropolis: catch-all facility Missoula County, Montana New York City, New York: specializing in research and technology. Destroyed in explosion. Palo Alto, medical facility Phoenix, Arizona: specializing in meteorology and natural disasters Pittsburgh, radioactive storage and testing centers Salt Lake City, Utah: specializing in physics San Diego, California: specializing in chemical research San Francisco, California: specializing in studying metahumans Seattle, Washington: specializing in studying psychology and psionics.
Toronto, Ontario Tulsa, Oklahoma Piquet Carneiro, Ceará Wichita, Kansas: specializing in robotics S. T. A. R. Labs is shown in the Superman episode "The Hunter." S. T. A. R. Labs is mentioned in an episode of Batman: The Animated Series. In Superman: The Animated Series, S. T. A. R. Labs and scientist Professor Hamilton made regular appearances as a source of information and equipment for Superman. In addition to housing Kryptonite rocks under lock and key, S. T. A. R. Custodian Rudy Jones was transformed into the monstrous Parasite during an attempt to steal hazardous materials; the episode "Two's a Crowd" featured a scientist named Earl Garver who stole isotopes which he made into a bomb until he was stopped by Superman. S. T. A. R. Labs made appearances in Justice League Unlimited. S. T. A. R. Labs was mentioned in the Teen Titans cartoon, as the makers of the "Maximum 7", a microchip Cyborg uses to upgrade himself in the episode "Overdrive". S. T. A. R. Labs is featured in the animated series Krypto the Superdog. A van that has "S.
T. A. R. LABS" written on it can be seen at the end of the Batman: The Brave and the Bold episode "Invasion of the Secret Santas." Masked men from S. T. A. R. Labs are loading the remains of Red Tornado into it to be repaired. In "The Color of Revenge," an S. T. A. R. Labs facility in Bludhaven is attacked by Crazy Quilt when he comes to steal the Stimulated Emission Light Amplifier. A group of bound and gagged S. T. A. R. Scientists appear, but have no lines. A S. T. A. R. Labs facility appears in the Young Justice episode "Infiltrator"; the facility is raided and destroyed by the Swarm, a cloud of dangerous nanites used by the League of Shadows. In "Misplaced," Klarion the Witch Boy, Blackbriar Thorn, Felix Faust and Wizard's spell that split the Earth into the kids dimension and the adults dimension enabled a diversion for Riddler and Sportsmaster to steal an organism from S. T. A. R. Labs, it is brought before Brain during his meeting with the other members of The Light as Brain tells Klarion the Witch Boy