click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Atomic electron transition

Atomic electron transition is a change of an electron from one energy level to another within an atom or artificial atom. It appears discontinuous as the electron "jumps" from one energy level to another in a few nanoseconds or less, it is known as an electronic excitation or atomic transition or quantum jump. Electron transitions cause the emission or absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the form of quantized units called photons, their statistics are Poissonian, the time between jumps is exponentially distributed. The damping time constant relates to the natural and field broadening of spectral lines; the larger the energy separation of the states between which the electron jumps, the shorter the wavelength of the photon emitted. The observability of quantum jumps was predicted by Hans Dehmelt in 1975, they were first observed using trapped ions of mercury at NIST in 1986. However, in 2019 it was demonstrated by Zlatko Minev, in an experiment that he conceived and conducted with a superconducting artificial atom consisting of two strongly-hybridized transmon qubits placed inside a readout resonator cavity at 15 mK, that the evolution of each completed jump is continuous, coherent and reversible.

This result calls for a full reassessment of the standard interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, built on the assumption that there is no hidden variable intervening between the end states of quantum transitions. Burst noise Ensemble interpretation Fluorescence Glowing pickle demonstration Molecular electronic transition for molecules Phosphorescence Spontaneous emission Stimulated emission Schrödinger, Erwin. "Are there quantum jumps? Part I"; the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. 3: 109–123. Doi:10.1093/bjps/iii.10.109. Part 2 "There are no quantum jumps, nor are there particles!" by H. D. Zeh, Physics Letters A172, 189. Gleick, James. "Physicists Finally Get To See the Quantum Jump". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2013. Ball, Philip. "Quantum Leaps, Long Assumed to Be Instantaneous, Take Time". Quanta Magazine. Retrieved June 6, 2019

Aharenves Loabivey

Aharenves Loabivey is a Maldivian romantic drama web television series developed for Baiskoafu by Mohamed Aboobakuru. The series stars Mohamed Aboobakuru, Aishath Yasir, Ibrahim Sobah, Mariyam Haleem and Ali Farooq pivotal roles; the first episode of the series was released on Baiskoafu on 11 May 2019. It revolves around the love-conflict between four siblings from two families. Shiyan, a diffident introvert, is romantically attracted to a young woman, Nashaya whom he meets at a party, he fails due to lack of self-confidence. Meanwhile, Nashaya is in a relationship with his elder brother, Sharim while Nashaya's younger sister, Neesham crushes on Shiyan. Mohamed Aboobakuru as Sharim Aishath Yasir as Nashaya Ibrahim Sobah as Shiyan Mariyam Haleem as Thahumeena Ali Farooq as Waheed Fathimath Shama as Neesham Zuleykha Manike Mohamed Musthafa as Akram Ibrahim Manik Ibrahim Majudhee Aishath Dhooma Ibrahim Naseer The first episode among the five episodes was released on 11 May 2019, on the occasion of 1440 Ramadan.

A new episode is scheduled to release on Saturday at 21:00 of every week

Cold spray additive manufacturing

Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing is a particular application of the cold spraying able to fabricate freestanding parts or to build features on existing components. During the process, fine powder particles are accelerated in a high-velocity compressed gas stream, upon the impact on a substrate or backing plate and bond together creating a layer. Moving the nozzle over a substrate a deposit is building up layer-by-layer, to form a part or component. If an industrial robot or computer controlled manipulator controls the spray gun movements, complex shapes can be created. To achieve 3D shape, there are two different approaches. First to fix the substrate and move the cold spray gun/nozzle using a robotic arm, the second one is to move the substrate with a robotic arm, keep the spray-gun nozzle fixed. There is a possibility to combine these two approaches either using two robotic arms or other manipulators; the process uses only powder as raw material. This technique is distinct from selective laser melting or electron-beam additive manufacturing or other additive manufacturing process using laser or electron beam for melting the feedstock materials.

The origins of the cold spray process goes back to the beginning of the 20th century, when it was developed and patented by Thurston. The process was further investigated by in the 1950s by Rocheville and was re-discovered in the 1980s at the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Science and developed as a coating technology; the process started to be employed for additive repair and fabrication of freeform structures, that can be considered as additive manufacturing, at the beginning of the 21st century, when the first commercial cold spray system was introduced in the market. Additive manufacturing employing the process of cold spraying and its benefits can be considered as a deposition process, capable to build freeform parts and structures at high rates. Since it is a solid-state coating deposition process, during the process no melting of the feedstock material occurs, there are no heat related distortion and no protective atmosphere required, which enables to build up structures layer-by-layer.

Theoretically, it allows to buil manufacts without dimensional limitation, to fabricate individual components and to repair damaged components. The largest 3D printer or Additive Manufacturing machine utilizing cold spray can build parts up to 9×3×1.5 m. During the cold spray process, the impacting particles create the layer, which thickness can differ, based on the spray gun travel speed against the substrate and the feedstock material feed rate, building the structure layer-by-layers. In cold spraying, the principle of the process is based on plastic deformation of the feedstock powder particles, therefore it is suitable to deposit with this technique pure metals and alloys, but metallic glasses, metal matrix composites and in some cases polymers; the research and development activities focusing on a few most challenging materials for the aircraft and defence industry such as aluminum alloys, Nickel base superalloys, different steel grades and titanium alloys Propellant tank additive manufacturing, exploiting the advantage of the process to deposit titanium and titanium alloys without melting the feedstock material.

Thrust chambers, combustion chambers and rocket nozzles, where the process gives the benefit of unlimited dimensions and combination of different materials, utilized to create the channels for conformal cooling of these components. The additive manufacturing repair developed for aircraft engine components is utilizing the solid state of the cold spray process, using 2 robotic arms and on-line 3D scanning to apply the deposit onto the complex geometry of a fan blade; the Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing process is applied for additive repair of gearboxes and other aircraft components. Forming and stamping tools with conformal cooling and heating conducting elements, enabling shorter cycle times and longer lifetime of these tools Titanium drones manufactured by Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing Titanium tubes and other direct manufactured components Permanent magnets for electric motors, deposited directly to the motor housing using the Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing technique, leading to reduced cost and providing greater freedom in the design process The most significant differences between the Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing process and other additive manufacturing processes are the low temperature, solid state of the process, avoiding melting the feedstock material.

High deposition rates, up to 20 kg/h depending on the material density. No protective atmosphere required. Possibility to connect or combine dissimilar materials, such as metals with different melting point. Build-up dimensions limited only by the spray-gun and/or component manipulator. Capable to deposit all metals & alloys; the process produces no toxic waste. Possibility to collect and reuse 100% of particles. Application of several powder feeders permits to perform separate injection of different materials in case of deposition of multicomponent deposits; the process resolution is limited due to the "spray spot" size, of several millimeter. Due to the severe plastic deformation of the particles, residual stresses in the deposit can accumulate, leading to distortion, deformation or cracks. To reach the mechanical properties of the additive manufactured components, comparable to bulk material properties, post treatment of the component might be required. Centerline HERMLE AG Impact Innvoatios GmbH Inovati Plasma Giken SPEE3D

Strangerland

Strangerland is a 2015 Australian-Irish drama suspense film directed by Kim Farrant at her directorial debut, written by Michael Kinirons and Fiona Seres. The film stars Nicole Kidman, Joseph Fiennes, Hugo Weaving; the film premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on 23 January 2015 and in a limited release in cinemas and through video on demand on 10 July 2015 by Alchemy. It was a box office bomb. Catherine and Matthew Parker move with their children Lily and Tom to the remote Australian desert town of Nathgari. Although the family is unhappy with the move and Tom blame Lily for forcing them to leave the larger town of Coonaburra; when he can't sleep, Tom sometimes walks around the neighbourhood at night, an activity his parents discourage. One night, Matthew sees Tom leave the house, followed by Lily. Half asleep, he goes back to sleep. Next morning Catherine oversleeps, when she cannot find the kids, calls Matthew at work, he reassures her. When the school calls to report that Tom and Lily have not been attending, she once again becomes worried, as a dust storm is forecast to hit the town.

Matthew discourages her from contacting anyone, as he does not wish the family's business to once again become public knowledge. Against his wishes, Catherine contacts several people and the police. While taking their report, Detective David Rae finds that Lily has once before been reported missing. Catherine and Matthew reluctantly reveal that she disappeared for a few days, they panicked and reported, but she soon turned up at a friend's house. After further investigation, Rae learns that one of Lily's Coonaburra teachers, Neil McPherson, had sex with her; when Matthew found out, he beat up McPherson. The Parkers admit to Rae. Catherine becomes frustrated with Matthew's focus on his job as a pharmacist, though he insists that he has no choice, since the community needs his services. Rae's queries in town reveal that Lily had indeed multiple sexual relationships despite being underage; when Catherine finds Lily's diary she reluctantly reads it. It's irate/angsty with hyper-sexualised imagery and includes pictures and poetry about several people: McPherson, the Parker's mentally handicapped handyman Burtie, a local youth nicknamed Slug.

It describes her parents' marriage as a sham, which causes Catherine to cry. Catherine hands the diary to Rae with the proviso. Matthew drives to questions/threatens McPherson. Coreen, Rae's girlfriend and Burtie's sister, becomes annoyed when Rae won't share details of the case with her. She's jealous, fearing Rae is attracted to Catherine. Rae secretly shreds the evidence from the diary that connects Burtie to Lily and discourages Burtie from telling him anything incriminating. Rae arrests Slug, but without any evidence of an actual crime, must release him; when the kids remain missing, the town organises a search party. Matthew refuses to participate, further angering Catherine. Rae suggests to Catherine. Catherine confronts Matthew with Lily's sexual history and asks if he molested her. Incredulous, he denies it and asks why she would ask. Knowing now that Burtie had a sexual relationship with Lily, Matthew beats up Burtie and searches his house. Coreen demands Rae arrest Matthew, when she accuses him of taking the Parkers' side, Rae reveals Burtie's connection.

Burtie asks to speak with Matthew. Catherine invites him in; when Matthew drives into the desert alone, in the opposite direction of search, he finds Tom dehydrated and delirious. Tom refuses to speak, so Catherine yells at him. Catherine listens as locals discuss Lily's disappearance and death, becomes distraught when she receives prank calls that call Lily "a whore". Desperate, she visits Rae, when she fails to seduce him, wanders into the desert night, alone. Unsure why she's hated or has done wrong, she despairs. Next morning and stripped naked, she reappears in town. Matthew rescues her tenderly bathes her. In bed together, as they hold each other, Catherine admits that she hid the diary from Matthew, Matthew reveals he saw the kids leave that night, he admits he did not stop them because, angry with Lily, he wanted to punish her. Catherine hugs walks onto the porch, where she and Matthew console each other. While holding Lily's diary, Matthew cries and says that he wishes he could take back that one moment.

Two passages of Lily's poetry, in her voice, over aerial imagery of the vast outstretching'Outback' - Lily's fate is left uncertain... Nicole Kidman as Catherine Parker Joseph Fiennes as Matthew Parker Hugo Weaving as David Rae Maddison Brown as Lily Parker Lisa Flanagan as Coreen Meyne Wyatt as Burtie Nicholas Hamilton as Tom Parker Martin Dingle-Wall as Neil McPherson On 20 October 2013 Nicole Kidman, Guy Pearce, Hugo Weaving joined the cast of the thriller film. Screen Australia announced. Macdara Kelleher and Naomi Wench were announced as producers, Kim Farrant was announced as director, with a script by Fiona Seres and Michael Kinirons; the other cast members announced included Lisa Flanagan, Martin Dingle Wall, Meyne Wyatt and Nicholas Hamilton. On 13 March 2014 Joseph Fiennes joined the film. On 27 March 2014 i

Royal Belfast Academical Institution

The Royal Belfast Academical Institution is an Independent grammar school in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Locally referred to as Inst, the school educates boys from ages 11 to 18, it is one of the eight Northern Irish schools represented on the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference. The school occupies an 18-acre site in the centre of the city on which its first buildings was erected; the first demands for the school which would become "Inst" came from a group of Belfast merchants, professional gentlemen. They insisted that the existing Belfast Academy under William Bruce did not offer a "complete and extensive system of education." They hoped that a new school would give more access to the'higher' branches of learning as well as to those which would fit youths for a practical commercial career. The foundation stone of Inst was laid, in pouring rain, on 3 July 1810 by George Augustus Chichester, 2nd Marquess of Donegall. Donegall owned much of the land in the Belfast area and granted the school a lease for the grounds at an annual rent of £22–5s–1d.

The eminent English architect John Soane, who designed the new Bank of England in 1788, offered to draw up plans in 1809. Building began in 1810. Money was collected to pay for the buildings by encouraging rich merchants and businessmen to subscribe one hundred guineas each for the privilege of being able to nominate one boy to receive free education at Inst; the roof of the main building was completed during the winter of 1811. The Institution was formally opened at 1:00pm on 1 February 1814. William Drennan announced that the aim was to ‘diffuse useful knowledge among the middling orders of society, as a necessity, not a luxury of life.' He referred to the noble and rural setting of the school – in front a fair and flourishing town, backed by a sublime and thought-inspiring mountain. Until the middle of the 19th century, the RBAI was both a school and a university, a dual function which the Belfast Academy never had. For the first three years boys follow a common curriculum: in the fourth year the curriculum is still general but certain options are introduced, at the end of the fifth, boys sit the examination for the Northern Ireland GCSE.

Subjects studied at AS/A2 level in the sixth form include English, Modern History, Economics, German, Greek, Physical Education, Business Studies, Mathematics, Further Mathematics, Politics, Biology and Art. There are numerous clubs and societies, a School Orchestra and Band, a contingent of the Combined Cadet Force and Explorer Scouts and a Community Service Group; the school offers a wide selection of sports, with rugby union being the most dominant. Inst have won the Ulster Schools Cup outright 32 times along with 4 shared titles, winning the cup most in 2017 against Methodist College Belfast. Rugby football and hockey are played in the winter. Teams representing the School take part not only in matches and activities within the Province, but in events open to all Schools in the United Kingdom; the school hockey teams have achieved many successes. The 1st XI feature in the finals of all three competitions they enter. In 2016 four Instonians played Olympic three for Ireland and one for Great Britain.

In recent times other school sports have been more making headlines. Inst is one of only four schools in Northern Ireland to participate in competitive rowing. In 2005 the first Inst crew travelled to the Henley Royal Regatta in England, it participates in various regattas throughout Ireland and abroad. In swimming the school teams go to competitions within Ireland and abroad. In 2005, 3 of the team qualified for the Irish International Schools Squad. In the same year the Senior team came 3rd in the Bath Cup competition held in London; the team picked up a number of medals in the Irish Schools, held in the NAC in Dublin on the 4 February 2006. Again one swimmer qualified for the International Schools Squad, while the Senior Relay Team became Irish champions in both the medley and freestyle relays, breaking both Irish Schools records in the process. On 12 May 2006 the senior team again won the prestigious Bath Cup competition, in a new record time. In February 2007, the team again performed well in the Irish Schools, gaining numerous medals and retaining both senior relay titles.

The team narrowly missed out on the 2007 Bath Cup title, being beaten by 0.4 seconds in a thrilling race, down to the wire. However, the team did shave a huge 3 seconds off the record that they themselves had set the year before, took the Otter title and record for the 4x50 medley relay. In March 2008, they won the Bath Cup again, in a new record time, they broke the Otter Medley title, with two members winning both titles for a second time. Water polo teams have competed in various tours; the most recent to the Netherlands in 2006. In January 2007 the team came runners up in the Irish Schools Water Polo Championships. Numerous players have gone on to gain representative and international honours. Football is played at Inst with 3 senior teams competing in league and cup competitions, although it is not played below 5th Form; the school hosts a number of students. Since 2010 the Swimming Team has continued to excel winning the Bath Cup three times, the Otter Medley Cup twice and the Otter Challenge Cup four times, th

Sarah Meier (figure skater)

Sarah Meier is a Swiss former figure skater. She is the 2011 European champion, a two-time European silver medalist, the 2006 Grand Prix Final bronze medalist, an eight-time Swiss national champion. Meier was born on 4 May 1984 in Switzerland. Many members of her family were involved in skating and other ice sports, her mother has served as an international figure skating judge and her sister has participated in synchronized skating. Her aunt, Eva Fehr, a former figure skater, was her coach, her father and two cousins have played ice hockey. On 3 August 2018, Meier married Swiss triathlete Jan van Berkel. Meier first stepped on the ice at the age of two years, she liked it so much. When Meier was five years old she soon started to compete, she landed her first double axel at the age of ten and performed her first triple lutz when she was twelve. By the age of thirteen, she could land all of the triple jumps in practice. During the summers, there was no ice in her home town of Bulach so she moved around to Oberstdorf and Flims in Switzerland.

Meier made her first junior Grand Prix appearance in 1997. She continued to skate in the junior ranks through the 1999–2000 season and won the bronze medal at the 2000 World Junior Championships in Oberstdorf. Meier began her season competing at junior events, she finished 5th at the 2001 European Championships in Bratislava, 12th at the 2001 World Championships in Vancouver, Canada. In November 2001, Meier twisted her left ankle and tore ligaments, resulting in the loss of three months of training; as a result, she missed the Swiss Championships. She finished 13th at the 2002 European Championships in Lausanne, at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah. Meier finished 7th at her two Grand Prix assignments, she withdrew from the 2003 European Championships due to a foot injury, finished 19th at the 2003 World Championships in Washington, D. C. Before the start of the season, Meier developed tendonitis in her right foot due to new boots and was unable to train from July to December. Making her return to competition, she placed 10th at the 2004 European Championships in Budapest, 13th at the 2004 World Championships in Dortmund, Germany.

Meier repeated her tenth place showing at the 2005 European Championships in Turin and finished 14th at the 2005 World Championships in Moscow, Russia. Meier placed fourth at the 2006 European Championships in France, she finished 8th at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, 6th at the 2006 World Championships in Calgary, Canada. Meier began her Grand Prix season with a fourth-place result at the 2006 Skate America in October. In November, she outscored Hungary's Júlia Sebestyén by 12 points to win the gold medal at the 2006 Cup of Russia; as a result, she qualified to the Grand Prix Final. In January, Meier won silver at the 2007 European Championships in Poland, it was the first European podium finish for a Swiss woman since Denise Biellmann won gold in 1981. Meier placed fourth at the 2007 Trophee Eric Bompard and won silver at the 2007 NHK Trophy, finishing 1.52 points shy of the champion, Carolina Kostner. In January, she won another silver medal, at the 2008 European Championships in Croatia.

She placed 6th at the 2008 World Championships in Sweden. Meier competed in few events in her final three seasons due to a string of injuries, she missed much of 2008–2009 due to spinal disc herniation and muscle problems, although she was able to compete at the 2009 World Championships and earned an Olympic spot for Switzerland with her ninth place showing. During the season, Meier struggled with an Achilles tendon inflammation, she withdrew from the 2009 NHK Trophy because she was unable to put too much pressure on her toe pick. She finished 5th at the 2010 European Championships in Tallinn, 15th at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada. After a bad fall in the short program, she failed to qualify for the free skate at the 2010 World Championships in Turin, Italy; the many injuries Meier had suffered during the latter part of her career led her to consider retirement after the 2009–2010 season, but she decided to remain in the eligible ranks for one last season in order to compete in her home country at the 2011 Europeans in Bern.

Meier damaged ligaments in her foot at the 2010 Skate Canada, forcing her to withdraw from the event. The injury occurred on the lutz, denting her confidence. Forced to sit out the Grand Prix season and Swiss Championships, Meier announced prior to the 2011 European Championships in Bern that it would be her final competitive event, she ranked third in the short program and second in the free skate, but her combined score was high enough to become the European champion. She reaffirmed her decision to retire following her win, calling it "the right moment to stop... the perfect ending." In May 2011, Meier announced that she would join Switzerland's "Art on Ice" Production as an executive for its talent team, responsible for talent scouting, looking after members of the team and working with parents, schools, team experts and Swiss Ice Skating. She is involved in finding sponsors for Swiss skating. Meier continued to skate in shows and other events, she withdrew from the 2011 Japan Open due to swelling in her foot.