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Atrial septal defect

Atrial septal defect is a congenital heart defect in which blood flows between the atria of the heart. Some flow is a normal condition both pre-birth and post-birth via the foramen ovale, it is common in patients with a congenital atrial septal aneurysm. After PFO closure the atria are separated by a dividing wall, the interatrial septum. If this septum is defective or absent oxygen-rich blood can flow directly from the left side of the heart to mix with the oxygen-poor blood in the right side of the heart. In the absence of other heart defects, the left atrium has the higher pressure; this can lead to lower-than-normal oxygen levels in the arterial blood that supplies the brain and tissues. However, an ASD may not produce noticeable signs or symptoms if the defect is small. In terms of health risks, people who have had a cryptogenic stroke are more to have a PFO than the general population. A cardiac shunt is the presence of a net flow of blood through a defect, either from left to right or right to left.

The amount of shunting present, if any, determines the hemodynamic significance of the ASD. A right-to-left-shunt results in venous blood entering the left side of the heart and into the arterial circulation without passing through the pulmonary circulation to be oxygenated; this may result in the clinical finding of cyanosis, the presence of bluish-colored skin of the lips and under the nails. During development of the baby, the interatrial septum develops to separate the left and right atria. However, a hole in the septum called the foramen ovale allows blood from the right atrium to enter the left atrium during fetal development; this opening allows blood to bypass the nonfunctional fetal lungs while the fetus obtains its oxygen from the placenta. A layer of tissue called the septum secundum acts as a valve over the foramen ovale during fetal development. After birth, the pressure in the right side of the heart drops as the lungs open and begin working, causing the foramen ovale to close entirely.

In about 25% of adults, the foramen ovale does not seal. In these cases, any elevation of the pressure in the pulmonary circulatory system can cause the foramen ovale to remain open; the six types of atrial septal defects are differentiated from each other by whether they involve other structures of the heart and how they are formed during the developmental process during early fetal development. The ostium secundum atrial septal defect is the most common type of atrial septal defect and comprises 6–10% of all congenital heart diseases; the secundum atrial septal defect arises from an enlarged foramen ovale, inadequate growth of the septum secundum, or excessive absorption of the septum primum. About 10 to 20% of individuals with ostium secundum ASDs have mitral valve prolapse. An ostium secundum ASD accompanied by an acquired mitral valve stenosis is called Lutembacher's syndrome. Most individuals with an uncorrected secundum ASD do not have significant symptoms through early adulthood. More than 70% develop symptoms by about 40 years of age.

Symptoms are decreased exercise tolerance, easy fatigability and syncope. Complications of an uncorrected secundum ASD include pulmonary hypertension, right-sided heart failure, atrial fibrillation or flutter and Eisenmenger's syndrome. While pulmonary hypertension is unusual before 20 years of age, it is seen in 50% of individuals above the age of 40. Progression to Eisenmenger's syndrome occurs in 5 to 10% of individuals late in the disease process. A patent foramen ovale is a remnant opening of the fetal foramen ovale, which closes after a person's birth. In medical use, the term "patent" means unobstructed. In about 25% of people, the foramen ovale fails to close properly, leaving them with a PFO or at least with what some physicians classify as a "pro-PFO", a PFO, closed, but can open under increased blood pressure. On echocardiography, shunting of blood may not be noted except. PFO is linked to stroke, sleep apnea, migraine with aura, decompression sickness. No cause is established for a foramen ovale to remain open instead of closing but heredity and genetics may play a role.

PFO is not treated in the absence of other symptoms. The mechanism by which a PFO may play a role in stroke is called paradoxical embolism. In the case of PFO, a blood clot from the venous circulatory system is able to pass from the right atrium directly into the left atrium via the PFO, rather than being filtered by the lungs, thereupon into systemic circulation toward the brain. PFO is common in patients with an atrial septal aneurysm, a much rarer condition, linked to cryptogenic stroke. PFO is more common in people with cryptogenic stroke than in those with a stroke of known cause. While PFO is present in 25% in the general population, the probability of someone having a PFO increases to about 40 to 50% in those who have had a cryptogenic stroke, more so in those who have a stroke before the age of 55. Treatment with anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications in this group appear similar. A defect in the ostium primum is classified as an atrial septal defect, but it is more classified as an atrioventricular septal defect.

Ostium primum defects are less common than ostium secundum defects. This type of defect is associated with Down syndrome. A sinus venosus ASD is a type

Power Macintosh 9600

The Power Macintosh 9600 is a personal computer, a part of Apple Computer's Power Macintosh series of Macintosh computers. It was introduced in February 1997 alongside the Power Macintosh 7300 and 8600, replaced the Power Macintosh 9500 as Apple's flagship desktop computer; the 9600 was replaced by the Power Macintosh G3 Mini Tower in Apple's product lineup in November 1997, with sales of the 9600 continuing until March 1998. When introduced, the Power Macintosh 9600 was available with three processor configurations: single-processor 200 MHz, dual-processor 200 MHz, single-processor 233 MHz; the line was updated in August 1997 with a single-processor 300 MHz or 350 MHz "Mach 5" 604ev with a larger L2 cache, priced at $4,500 and $5,300, respectively. An updated Workgroup Server 9650 was introduced at the same time with a 350 MHz CPU, could be ordered pre-configured as an application server, AppleShare server or Internet server, with prices ranging from $6,800 to $7,500 USD depending on the software package chosen.

The 350 MHz model was discontinued in October due to CPU supply problems, but reintroduced on February 17, 1998 when the 300 MHz model was discontinued in favor of the new Power Macintosh G3 Mini Tower. While the G3 was faster, its expandability was only on par with the 8600, so the 9600 was kept available until March for users that required it; the 9600 came in the same new case as the 8600, but was internally similar to the 9500 that preceded it, with 12 RAM slots and 6 PCI slots instead of the 8 RAM and 3 PCI slots on the 8600. The 9600 used the new PowerPC 604e CPU, an enhanced version of the 9500 604. Like its predecessor, the Power Macintosh 9600 has no built-in video; the Power Macintosh 9600/350 was the most powerful Mac in Apple's four-digit model numbering system, the last multiprocessor Mac for three years, the last model with six or more expansion slots until the 2019 Mac Pro. No version of OS X was supported by Apple on the 9600. Mac OS X 10.3 or 10.4 was only possible with a G3 processor upgrade installed, OS X 10.5 was possible with a G4 upgrade.

The 9600 was part of the final generation of Macs to ship with a SCSI hard drive as a standard feature. Power Macintosh 9600 at Low End Mac Power Macintosh 9600/200, 9600/200MP, 9600/233, 9600/300 and 9600/350 at EveryMac.com

Philipp Jenninger

Philipp Jenninger was a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union and diplomat. He was the President of the Bundestag from 1984 to 1988, he served as Member of the German Parliament, the Bundestag, Minister of State at the German Chancellery, German Ambassador to Austria and German Ambassador to the Holy See. Phillipp Jenninger, whose full name is Philipp-Hariolf Jenninger, was born in 1932 in Rindelbach, now a part of Ellwangen, he studied law at the University of Tübingen, obtaining a doctoral degree in 1957 with a dissertation titled Die Reformbedürftigkeit des Bundesverfassungsgerichts and passing the state examination in 1959. In 1960, he started working in the Bundeswehr administration in Stuttgart, he became an assistant in the Federal Ministry of Defense and personal assistant and press contact of Federal Minister for the Affairs of the Defence Council Heinrich Krone. After the dissolution of this ministry, he worked from 1966 to 1969 as political assistant of Federal Minister of Finance Franz Josef Strauß.

Between 1982 and 1984, Jenninger served as Minister of State at the German Chancellery, under Chancellor Helmut Kohl. Jenninger was a member of the Bundestag from 1969 to 1990, always as directly elected representative of a constituency. At first, he represented Crailsheim. After Rainer Barzel's resignation, Jenninger was elected President of the Bundestag on 5 November 1984; as President, he made a controversial speech in a special session on 10 November 1988 commemorating the 50th anniversary of Kristallnacht. Jenninger tried to explain the reasons behind German enthusiasm for National Socialism in the 1930s, his speech was presented badly, as his way of speaking allowed the interpretation that Jenninger didn't sufficiently dissociate himself from the Nazi ideas he referred to, making it hard to distinguish what were his own ideas and what were the "fascinating" Nazi ideas he was just reporting. More than 50 members of parliament walked out during their President's speech in protest; this caused a political storm, Jenninger resigned his Bundestag presidency on 11 November.

He did not stand for reelection as a Bundestag member in the 1990 elections. One year after the incident, Jewish community leader Ignatz Bubis, who became chairman of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, used several passages of Jenninger's speech verbatim, demonstrating that the content of Jenninger's speech had not been ambiguous, just his performance of it. Jenninger served as German ambassador to Vienna, Austria from 1991 to 1995, as ambassador to the Holy See from 1995 to 1997. Philipp Jenninger was President of the European Movement in Germany from 1985 to 1990, has since been their honorary President, he is a member of the presidium of Studienzentrum Weikersheim. Jenninger died on 4 January 2018 in Stuttgart, aged 85. Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Michael F. Feldkamp, Der Bundestagspräsident. Amt - Funktion - Person. 16. Wahlperiode, München 2007, ISBN 978-3-7892-8201-0 Jürgen Mittag: "Vom Honoratiorenkreis zum Europanetzwerk: Sechs Jahrzehnte Europäische Bewegung Deutschland".

Partisan Review 56: 225-236. Philipp Jenninger in the German National Library catalogue Biography at the Bundestag website Complete text of Jenninger's speech as audio version

1989 Australian Rally Championship

The 1989 Australian Rally Championship was a series of six rallying events held across Australia. It was the 22nd season in the history of the competition. Greg Carr and navigator Mick Harker in a Lancia Delta Integrale won the 1989 Championship convincingly, with a record setting five wins from the six starts, giving Carr his third Australian Rally Championship title. Murray Coote and Iain Stewart in the Mazda 323 4WD were in the placings and finished the season on 81 points compared to Carr's 115. Ross Dunkerton and Fred Gocentas in the Mitsubishi Galant VR-4 were the only other team to win an event, the final round in the ACT; the 22nd Australian Rally Championship was held over six events across Australia, the season consisting of one event each for Tasmania, Western Australia, South Australia and Australian Capital Territory. The six events of the 1989 season were. Final pointscore for 1989 is. Results of Snowy Mountains Rally and ARC results

Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?

"Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf" is a popular song written by Frank Churchill with additional lyrics by Ann Ronell, which featured in the 1933 Disney cartoon Three Little Pigs, where it was sung by Fiddler Pig and Fifer Pig as they arrogantly believe the Big Bad Wolf is not a serious threat. The song's theme made it a huge hit during the 1930s and it remains one of the most well-known Disney songs, being covered by numerous artists and musical groups. Additionally, it was the inspiration for the title of Edward Albee's 1963 play Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? The song was reused in the sequels to Three Little Pigs, its writing was re-enacted in the "Cavalcade of Songs" episode on the Disneyland television series in 1955, it featured in the Sing Along Songs video I Love to Laugh and has been included in numerous Disney recordings. Disneyland Records produced a re-recording of the song in 1958, released concurrently as a single in Disney's "Wonderful Records" series of 45s and on the Mickey Mouse Club LP "Four Disney Stories," conducted by Tutti Camarata.

It was a re-enactment of the original cartoon in audio, with noticeable differences being all three pigs voiced by Gloria Wood, the Big Bad Wolf having a more menacing voice, a few additional verses and dialogue, not present in the original cartoon. This version was released on an album in the early 1960s entitled "The Story and Songs of Walt Disney's Three Little Pigs" and a few other compilation albums, included on Disney's read-along book-and-audio adaptations of the cartoon. "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?" was covered by American rapper LL Cool J on the Disney album Simply Mad About the Mouse: A Musical Celebration of Imagination. It was released as a single in 1991 for Columbia Records and was produced by DJ Eddie F and LL Cool J, it sampled Michael Jackson's "Billie Jean". LL Cool J's version did not make it to the Billboard charts. Charlie and his Orchestra recorded a German version in English during World War II with propaganda lyrics. A-side "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?" – 3:50B-side "I Need A Beat" – 4:31 "I Can't Live Without My Radio" – 5:27 The song has been covered by many artists, including: In 1933 by Harry Reser and his Eskimos with vocal by Loretta Clemens /Perfect Records #15827-A/ Recorded September 26, 1933 In 1933 by American jazz violinist Ben Bernie.

In 1933 by American bandleader Don Bestor. In 1933 by American composer Victor Young. In 1934, it was sung by Ginger Rogers in the Warner Brothers film Upperworld. In 1934 by French singer Jean Sablon entitled "Prenez Garde Au Méchant Loup!". In 1934 by Three X Sisters vocals on movie soundtrack "Six of a Kind" w/ W. C. Fields. Duke Ellington, an American pianist and composer. Rita Pavone, an Italian rock/ballad singer. In 1955 by Jack Pleis on his album Music from Disneyland. In 1961 by Pinky and Perky, an animated children's TV series on the 7-inch record Children's Favourites. In 1963 by American singer Barbra Streisand on her album The Barbra Streisand Album. In 1985 as a musical sample refrain throughout Schoolly D's rap song Do. Chucho Avellanet, a Puerto Rican singer and comedian. In 2006 by American R&B boy band B5 on the album DisneyMania 4. In 2007 by German musician Max Raabe and his Palast Orchester on the album "Heute Nacht oder nie", as a regular song on their setlist. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

A-class torpedo boat

The A-class torpedo boats were a class of German single-funnelled torpedo boat/light destroyer designed by the Reichsmarineamt for operations off the coast of occupied Flanders in the First World War. The A designation was to avoid confusion with older designs, they were known as "coastal torpedo boats" to differentiate from ocean-going torpedo boats. Six groups of vessels were built under the class between 1914 and 1918, increasing in displacement from 109 tons to 335 tons. All had a raised forecastle, shallow draught, carried one or two 45 cm torpedo tubes amidships. A2 and A6 were sunk by British destroyers on 1 May 1915 during the Battle off Noordhinder Bank. A3 was lost in 1915. A15 was sunk by French destroyers on 23 August 1915. A13 was bombed in dock in 1917. A10 was sunk by mines in 1918. A7 and A19 were sunk by British and French destroyers on 21 March 1918. A1, A18 and A21–A25 surrendered and were stricken between 1921-1922. A11 and A17 were sunk during the Kapp Putsch in 1920. A4, A5, A8, A9, A12, A14, A16 and A20 were handed over to Belgium as reparations decommissioned and scrapped in 1927.

A12 survived both World Wars and was scrapped in 1948. A26–A29, A31, A33–A39, A41, A44–A46, A48, A49, A52–A55 were surrendered and stricken between 1920-1921. A30, A40, A42 and A47 were scuttled in 1927 A32 was sunk during the "Operation Albion" in 1917, raised and repaired in 1923, served as Sulev in the Estonian Navy. Taken by Russia in October 1940, it was renamed Аметист and served in the Soviet Navy as a patrol vessel until scrapped in 1950. A43 was scrapped in 1943. A50 was mined in 1917. A51 was scuttled in 1918. A56–A58 were mined in 1918. A59, A60 and A61 caused severe damage to HMS Terror on 19 October 1917. A60 was mined in 1917. A61 and A62 were transferred to Britain in 1920, scrapped in 1923. A63 and A66 were given to France in 1920, scrapped in 1923. A64 and A68 were given to Poland in 1920, scuttled off Danzig in 1939. A65 was given to Brazil, scuttled in Britain. A67 was scrapped incomplete in 1921. A69, A70, A74–A76, A78 were stricken in 1920. A71, A73, A77 and A79 were mined in 1918.

A81, A86–A91 were stricken in 1920. A82 was scuttled at Fiume in 1918. A80 was scrapped in 1938. A83–A85 were scrapped incomplete, 1919. A92–A95 were stricken, 1920. A96–A113 were scrapped while still on the stocks, 1919 Dodson, Aidan. "Beyond the Kaiser: The IGN's Destroyers and Torpedo Boats After 1918". In Jordan, John. Warship 2019. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. Pp. 129–144. ISBN 978-1-4728-3595-6. Gröner, Erich. Torpedoboote, Zerstörer, Minensuchboote, Minenräumboote. Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945. II. Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 3-7637-4801-6