Burj Al Arab
The Burj al-Arab is a luxury hotel located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It is the third tallest hotel in the world, Burj Al Arab stands on an artificial island 280 m from Jumeirah beach and is connected to the mainland by a private curving bridge. The shape of the structure is designed to mimic the sail of a ship and it has a helipad near the roof at a height of 210 m above ground. The beachfront area where Burj Al Arab and Jumeirah Beach Hotel are located was previously called Chicago Beach, the hotel is located on an island of reclaimed land 280 meters offshore of the beach of the former Chicago Beach Hotel. The locales name had its origins in the Chicago Bridge & Iron Company which at one time welded giant floating oil storage tanks, the old name persisted after the old Hotel was demolished in 1997. Dubai Chicago Beach Hotel remained as the Public Project Name for the phase of Burj Al Arab Hotel until Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum announced the new name. Burj Al Arab was designed by multidisciplinary consultancy Atkins, led by architect Tom Wright, the design and construction were managed by Canadian engineer Rick Gregory of WS Atkins.
Construction of the Island began in 1994 and involved up to 2,000 construction workers during peak construction and it was built to resemble the billowing spinnaker sail of a J-class yacht. Two wings spread in a V to form a vast mast and it needed to be a building that would become synonymous with the name of the country. Fletcher Construction from New Zealand was the joint venture partner in the initial stages of pre-construction and construction. The hotel was built by South African construction contractor Murray & Roberts, the building opened in December 1999. Several features of the required complex engineering feats to achieve. The hotel rests on an artificial island constructed 280 m offshore, to secure a foundation, the builders drove 230 forty-meter-long concrete piles into the sand. Engineers created a layer of large rocks, which is circled with a concrete honeycomb pattern. It took three years to reclaim the land from the sea, while it took fewer than three years to construct the building itself, the building contains over 70,000 m3 of concrete and 9,000 tons of steel.
Inside the building, the atrium is 180 m tall, Burj Al Arab is the worlds third tallest hotel. The structure of the Rose Rayhaan, in Dubai, is 11 m taller than Burj Al Arab, the hotel is managed by the Jumeirah Group. Despite its size, Burj Al Arab holds only 28 double-story floors which accommodate 202 bedroom suites, the smallest suite occupies an area of 169 m2, the largest covers 780 m2
A fractal is a mathematical set that exhibits a repeating pattern displayed at every scale. It is known as expanding symmetry or evolving symmetry, if the replication is exactly the same at every scale, it is called a self-similar pattern. An example of this is the Menger Sponge, Fractals can be nearly the same at different levels. This latter pattern is illustrated in small magnifications of the Mandelbrot set, Fractals include the idea of a detailed pattern that repeats itself. Fractals are different from other geometric figures because of the way in which they scale, doubling the edge lengths of a polygon multiplies its area by four, which is two raised to the power of two. Likewise, if the radius of a sphere is doubled, its volume scales by eight, but if a fractals one-dimensional lengths are all doubled, the spatial content of the fractal scales by a power that is not necessarily an integer. This power is called the dimension of the fractal. As mathematical equations, fractals are usually nowhere differentiable, the term fractal was first used by mathematician Benoît Mandelbrot in 1975.
Mandelbrot based it on the Latin frāctus meaning broken or fractured, there is some disagreement amongst authorities about how the concept of a fractal should be formally defined. Mandelbrot himself summarized it as beautiful, damn hard, increasingly useful, Fractals are not limited to geometric patterns, but can describe processes in time. Fractal patterns with various degrees of self-similarity have been rendered or studied in images and sounds and found in nature, art, Fractals are of particular relevance in the field of chaos theory, since the graphs of most chaotic processes are fractal. The word fractal often has different connotations for laypeople than for mathematicians, the mathematical concept is difficult to define formally even for mathematicians, but key features can be understood with little mathematical background. If this is done on fractals, however, no new detail appears, nothing changes, self-similarity itself is not necessarily counter-intuitive. The difference for fractals is that the pattern reproduced must be detailed, a regular line, for instance, is conventionally understood to be 1-dimensional, if such a curve is divided into pieces each 1/3 the length of the original, there are always 3 equal pieces.
In contrast, consider the Koch snowflake and it is 1-dimensional for the same reason as the ordinary line, but it has, in addition, a fractal dimension greater than 1 because of how its detail can be measured. This leads to understanding a third feature, that fractals as mathematical equations are nowhere differentiable, in a concrete sense, this means fractals cannot be measured in traditional ways. The history of fractals traces a path from chiefly theoretical studies to modern applications in computer graphics, according to Pickover, the mathematics behind fractals began to take shape in the 17th century when the mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz pondered recursive self-similarity. In his writings, Leibniz used the term fractional exponents, in the last part of that century, Felix Klein and Henri Poincaré introduced a category of fractal that has come to be called self-inverse fractals
Greater Downtown Miami
Downtown Miami is an urban city center, based around the Central Business District of Miami, United States. In addition to the business district, the area consists of the Brickell Financial District, Historic District, Government Center, Omni. The neighborhood is divided by the Miami River and is bordered by Midtown to the north, Biscayne Bay to the east, Civic Center and Overtown to the west, Brickell Avenue and Biscayne Boulevard are the main north-south roads, and Flagler Street is the main east-west road. Locally known as Downtown, the area is a cultural, greater Downtown is home to many major museums, education centers, company headquarters, government offices, theaters and many of the oldest buildings in the city. Downtown Miami is the heart of Miami, and along with Coconut Grove, is the oldest settled area of Miami. Urban development began in the 1890s with the construction of the Florida East Coast Railway by Standard Oil industrialist Henry Flagler down to Miami at the insistence of Julia Tuttle, after New York City and Chicago.
Along with Brickell, Downtown has grown from 40,000 residents in 2000, to over 70,000 in 2009 and it was estimated in February 2010, that about 550 new residents move to the Downtown area every month. As of 2009, over 190,000 office employees work in Downtown, Downtown is served by the Miami Metrorail at Historic Overtown/Lyric Theatre, Government Center, and Brickell stations, accessible from Broward and Palm Beach counties via Tri-Rail transfer station. The Metro connects to the Downtown Metromover, which encompasses 22 stations on the clockwise Inner loop and counterclockwise Brickell, Government Center station is Downtowns main station and allows for transfers to all Metromover loops, Metrorail trains, and Metrobus lines at the Stephen P. Clark Government Center. Downtown Miami is centered on the Central business district, best known by local Miamians as simply Downtown, Downtown is bound by NE 6th St to the north, Biscayne Bay to the east, the Miami River to the west and south. Miami Historic District and Government Center are located within the CBD, Downtown is directly served by the Miami Metrorail at, Government Center Station, and by 13 Metromover stations on the Downtown and Omni Loops.
Brickell is south of the Miami River, and is a mixed upper-class residential neighborhood as well as Miamis major financial district along Brickell Avenue, the Shops at Mary Brickell Village and Simpson Park are located within Brickell. Brickell is directly served by the Miami Metrorail at, Brickell Station, Omni is an urban neighborhood with numerous hotels, and high-rise residential buildings. The neighborhoods name comes from the Omni International Mall on Biscayne Boulevard, Omni borders Biscayne Bay the east, NE 2nd Ave to the west, NE 21st St to the north and I-395 to the south. Pace Park, Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, Omni is served by the Miami Metrorail at, Government Center Station, and by two Metromover stations on the Omni Loop. Park West is directly served by the Miami Metrorail at, Historic Overtown/Lyric Theatre Station, the Miami Jewelry District is a sub-neighborhood of Downtown within the Central Business District historically known for its numerous jewelry stores and gem dealers.
It is where a variety of jeweled products are sold and is one of the three districts in the United States. The Jewelry District can be accessed by public transportation through the Metromover, as of 2010, the population of Downtown Miami was 65,696 people, with a population density of 27,487 per square mile
A courtyard or court is an enclosed area, often surrounded by a building or complex, that is open to the sky. Such spaces in inns and public buildings were often the meeting places for some purposes. Both of the court and yard derive from the same root. See yard and garden for the relation of this set of words, courtyards—private open spaces surrounded by walls or buildings—have been in use in residential architecture for almost as long as people have lived in constructed dwellings. The courtyard house makes its first appearance ca, Courtyards have historically been used for many purposes including cooking, working, playing and even places to keep animals. Before courtyards, open fires were burning in a central place within a home. Over time, these openings were enlarged and eventually led to the development of the centralized open courtyard we know today. Courtyard homes have been designed and built throughout the world many variations. Courtyard homes are prevalent in temperate climates, as an open central court can be an important aid to cooling house in warm weather.
However, courtyard houses have been found in harsher climates as well for centuries, the comforts offered by a courtyard—air, privacy and tranquility—are properties nearly universally desired in human housing. Ur,2000 BC — two-storey houses constructed around a square were built of fired brick. Kitchen and public spaces were located on the ground floor, the central uncovered area in a Roman domus was referred to as an atrium. Today, we use the term courtyard to refer to such an area. Roman atrium houses were built side by side along the street and they were one-storey homes without windows that took in light from the entrance and from the central atrium. The hearth, which used to inhabit the centre of the home, was relocated, and these homes frequently incorporated a second open-air area, the garden, which would be surrounded by Greek-style colonnades, forming a peristyle. This created a colonnaded walkway around the perimeter of the courtyard, Courtyard houses in the Middle East reflect the nomadic influences of the region.
Often the flat rooftops of these structures were used for sleeping in warm weather, in some Islamic cultures, private courtyards provided the only outdoor space for women to relax unobserved. The traditional Chinese courtyard house, e. g. siheyuan, is an arrangement of individual houses around a square
Pompeii was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples, in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the area, was mostly destroyed and buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash. Researchers believe that the town was founded in the seventh or sixth century BC by the Osci or Oscans. It came under the domination of Rome in the 4th century BC, by the time of its destruction,160 years later, its population was estimated at 11,000 people, and the city had a complex water system, an amphitheatre, and a port. The eruption destroyed the city, killing its inhabitants and burying it under tons of ash, the site was lost for about 1,500 years until its initial rediscovery in 1599 and broader rediscovery almost 150 years by Spanish engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre in 1748. The objects that lay beneath the city have been preserved for centuries because of the lack of air and these artefacts provide an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city during the Pax Romana.
During the excavation, plaster was used to fill in the voids in the ash layers that once held human bodies and this allowed archaeologists to see the exact position the person was in when he or she died. Pompeii has been a tourist destination for over 250 years, today it has UNESCO World Heritage Site status and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Italy, with approximately 2.5 million visitors every year. Pompeii in Latin is a second declension plural, the ruins of Pompeii are located near the modern suburban town of Pompei. It stands on a formed by a lava flow to the north of the mouth of the Sarno River. Today it is some distance inland, but in ancient times was nearer to the coast, Pompeii is about 8 km away from Mount Vesuvius. It covered a total of 64 to 67 hectares and was home to approximately 11,000 to 11,500 people on the basis of household counts and it was a major city in the region of Campania. Three sheets of sediment have been found on top of the lava that lies below the city and, mixed in with the sediment, archaeologists have found bits of bone, pottery shards.
Carbon dating has placed the oldest of these layers from the 8th–6th centuries BC, the other two strata are separated either by well-developed soil layers or Roman pavement, and were laid in the 4th century BC and 2nd century BC. It is theorized that the layers of the sediment were created by large landslides. The town was founded around the 7th-6th century BC by the Osci or Oscans and it had already been used as a safe port by Greek and Phoenician sailors. According to Strabo, Pompeii was captured by the Etruscans, and in recent excavations have shown the presence of Etruscan inscriptions. Pompeii was captured for the first time by the Greek colony of Cumae, allied with Syracuse, in the 5th century BC, the Samnites conquered it, the new rulers imposed their architecture and enlarged the town
A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, metal, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops. Alternatively, tile can sometimes refer to units made from lightweight materials such as perlite, wood. In another sense, a tile is a tile or similar object. The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Tiling stone is marble, granite or slate. Thinner tiles can be used on walls than on floors, which require more durable surfaces that will resist impacts, the earliest evidence of glazed brick is the discovery of glazed bricks in the Elamite Temple at Chogha Zanbil, dated to the 13th century BC. Glazed and colored bricks were used to make low reliefs in Ancient Mesopotamia, most famously the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, now reconstructed in Berlin. Mesopotamian craftsmen were imported for the palaces of the Persian Empire such as Persepolis, tiling was used in the second century by the Sinhalese kings of ancient Sri Lanka, using smoothed and polished stone laid on floors and in swimming pools.
Historians consider the techniques and tools for tiling as well advanced, evidenced by the fine workmanship, tiling from this period can be seen Ruwanwelisaya and Kuttam Pokuna in the city of Anuradhapura. The Achaemenid Empire decorated buildings with glazed tiles, including Darius the Greats palace at Susa. The succeeding Sassanid Empire used tiles patterned with geometric designs, plants and human beings, early Islamic mosaics in Iran consist mainly of geometric decorations in mosques and mausoleums, made of glazed brick. Typical turquoise tiling becomes popular in 10th-11th century and is used mostly for Kufic inscriptions on mosque walls, seyyed Mosque in Isfahan, Dome of Maraqeh and the Jame Mosque of Gonabad are among the finest examples. The dome of Jame Atiq Mosque of Qazvin is dated to this period, the golden age of Persian tilework began during the reign the Timurid Empire. In the moraq technique, single-color tiles were cut into small geometric pieces, after hardening, these panels were assembled on the walls of buildings.
But the mosaic was not limited to flat areas, Tiles were used to cover both the interior and exterior surfaces of domes. Prominent Timurid examples of this include the Jame Mosque of Yazd, Goharshad Mosque, the Madrassa of Khan in Shiraz. Other important tile techniques of time include girih tiles, with their characteristic white girih. Mihrabs, being the points of mosques, were usually the places where most sophisticated tilework was placed
The Grand Doubletree
The DoubleTree by Hilton Grand Hotel Biscayne Bay, referred as The Grand or The Grand DoubleTree, is a high-rise on the north side of Downtown Miami, United States. It lies within the Omni District and it was completed in 1986 and designed by the Atlanta architectural firm of Toombs and Wells. It is a condominium and hotel, floors 10–42 contain over 830 condominium units. The hotel portion contains 152 rooms, and was renovated in 2004, the building is very large, with almost 3,500,000 square feet of floor space, though this likely includes a large parking garage across the street that is shared with the Omni complex. It is located one block north of the Adrienne Arsht Metromover station and it is directly east of, and connected by skywalk to the Omni International Mall. Its backyard is the Sea Isle Marina, home to the Miami International Boat Show, the condominium floors of the building have two large atriums on the east and west side. Tony Chans Water Club Primos Restaurant & Lounge Los Gauchitos Steakhouse Casablanca Sea Food List of tallest buildings in Miami Omni International Mall Doubletree Biscayne Bay – Emporis. com
University of Washington
The University of Washington, commonly referred to as simply Washington, UW, or informally U-Dub, is a public flagship research university in Seattle, United States. Founded in 1861, Washington is one of the oldest universities on the West Coast, the university has three campuses, the oldest and largest in the University District of Seattle and two others in Tacoma and Bothell. Washington is a member of the Association of American Universities and is ranked among the top 15 universities in the world by a variety of international publications. In athletics, the university competes in the NCAA Division I Pac-12 Conference and its athletic teams are called the Huskies. Seattle was one of several settlements in the mid to late 19th century vying for primacy in the new Washington Territory, in 1854, territorial governor Isaac Stevens recommended the establishment of a university in Washington. Several prominent Seattle-area residents, chief among them Methodist preacher Daniel Bagley and they convinced early founder of Seattle and member of the territorial legislature Arthur A.
Denny of the importance of Seattle winning the school. When no site emerged, the legislature, encouraged by Denny, in 1861, scouting began for an appropriate 10 acres site in Seattle to serve as the campus for a new university. Arthur and Mary Denny donated eight acres, and fellow pioneers Edward Lander and Charlie and this tract was bounded by 4th and 6th Avenues on the west and east and Union and Seneca Streets on the north and south. UW opened on November 4,1861, as the Territorial University of Washington, the following year, the legislature passed articles incorporating the University and establishing a Board of Regents. The school struggled initially, closing three times, in 1863 for lack of students, and again in 1867 and 1876 due to shortage of funds. However, Clara Antoinette McCarty Wilt became the first graduate of UW in 1876 when she graduated from UW with a degree in science. By the time Washington entered the Union in 1889, both Seattle and the University had grown substantially, enrollment increased from 30 students to nearly 300, and the relative isolation of the campus had given way to encroaching development.
A special legislative committee headed by UW graduate Edmond Meany was created to find a new campus able to serve the growing student population. The committee selected a site on Union Bay northeast of downtown, the university relocated from downtown to the new campus in 1895, moving into the newly built Denny Hall. The regents tried and failed to sell the old campus, the University still owns what is now called the Metropolitan Tract. In the heart of the city, it is among the most valuable pieces of estate in Seattle. The original Territorial University building was torn down in 1908 and its former site houses the Fairmont Olympic Hotel. The sole surviving remnants of UWs first building are four 24-foot, hand-fluted cedar and they were salvaged by Edmond S. Meany—one of the Universitys first graduates and the former head of the history department
SuperStar Virgo is a Leo class cruise ship owned and operated by Star Cruises. She was built in 1999 by the Meyer Werft shipyard in Papenburg, like her sister ship SuperStar Leo, she was designed specifically for the Asian cruise market. The keel of the SuperStar Virgo was laid on 18 November 1996 and she was delivered to Star Cruises on 2 August 1999. Following the lengthy transit from Papenburg to Singapore the SuperStar Virgo entered service on cruises from Singapore on 10 October 1999. On 24 April 2003 the SuperStar Virgo was relocated from Singapore to operate out of Perth. Initially the redeployment was planned to last only an evaluation period. In January 2009, Star Cruises installed a 100m mega-waterslide onboard SuperStar Virgo during her period in Singapore. In January 2012, SuperStar Virgo received new hull art and livery, SuperStar Virgo is the only international cruise ship with regular destination cruises to be homeported in Hong Kong from 7 April to 26 October 2014. Once a month, passengers can visit Taiwan’s three biggest cities—Taipei and Taichung—on a 7D6N cruise, from 13 November 2015 to 31 December 2015, SuperStar Virgo was planned to have a destination cruise - a mega 48-day adventure crossing the equator to explore the Southern Hemisphere.
SuperStar Virgo was planned to stop in over 20 ports of call including Bali, Krakatoa, Melbourne, Ho Chi Minh City, Sydney,7 night Cruises starts and end at Hong Kong. SuperStar Virgo is doing a brand new Vietnam itinerary with Shenzhen Tai Zi Bay as homeport. From January 2017 to March 2017, she will provide 5 night cruises to Nha Trang and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam or to Danang and Hanoi, Vietnam and 2 night highseas cruise calling at Hong Kong. From 19 March 2017 to 23 May 2017, SuperStar Virgo will begin a new itinerary with Manila. She will provide 5 night cruises to Laoag, Kaohsiung and Hong Kong
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. There are strict and detailed requirements in Sunni jurisprudence for a place of worship to be considered a mosque, many mosques have elaborate domes and prayer halls, in varying styles of architecture. Mosques originated on the Arabian Peninsula, but are now found in all inhabited continents, the mosque serves as a place where Muslims can come together for salat as well as a center for information, social welfare, and dispute settlement. The imam leads the congregation in prayer, the first mosque in the world is often considered to be the area around the Kaaba in Mecca now known as the Masjid al-Haram. Others regard the first mosque in history to be the Quba Mosque in present-day Medina since it was the first structure built by Muhammad upon his emigration from Mecca in 622. The Islamic Prophet Muhammad went on to another mosque in Medina. Built on the site of his home, Muhammad participated in the construction of the mosque himself and helped pioneer the concept of the mosque as the focal point of the Islamic city.
The Masjid al-Nabawi introduced some of the still common in todays mosques, including the niche at the front of the prayer space known as the mihrab. The Masjid al-Nabawi was constructed with a courtyard, a motif common among mosques built since then. Mosques had been built in Iraq and North Africa by the end of the 7th century, the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala is reportedly one of the oldest mosques in Iraq, although its present form – typical of Persian architecture – only goes back to the 11th century. The shrine, while operating as a mosque, remains one of the holiest sites for Shia Muslims, as it honors the death of the third Shia imam. The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As was reportedly the first mosque in Egypt, serving as a religious, like the Imam Husayn Shrine, nothing of its original structure remains. With the Shia Fatimid Caliphate, mosques throughout Egypt evolved to include schools, hospitals and it was the first to incorporate a square minaret and includes naves akin to a basilica. Those features can be found in Andalusian mosques, including the Grand Mosque of Cordoba, some elements of Visigothic architecture, like horseshoe arches, were infused into the mosque architecture of Spain and the Maghreb.
The first mosque in East Asia was reportedly established in the 8th century in Xian, the Great Mosque of Xian, whose current building dates from the 18th century, does not replicate the features often associated with mosques elsewhere. Indeed, minarets were initially prohibited by the state, mosques in western China were more likely to incorporate elements, like domes and minarets, traditionally seen in mosques elsewhere. In turn, the Javanese style influenced the styles of mosques in Indonesias Austronesian neighbors—Malaysia, Muslim empires were instrumental in the evolution and spread of mosques. Although mosques were first established in India during the 7th century, reflecting their Timurid origins, Mughal-style mosques included onion domes, pointed arches, and elaborate circular minarets, features common in the Persian and Central Asian styles
An interior designer is someone who plans, researches and manages such projects. Interior design is the process of shaping the experience of interior space, in the past, interiors were put together instinctively as a part of the process of building. The profession of design has been a consequence of the development of society. The pursuit of effective use of space, user well-being and functional design has contributed to the development of the interior design profession. The profession of design is separate and distinct from the role of Interior Decorator. The term is common in the UK where the profession of interior design is still unregulated and therefore, strictly speaking. In ancient India, architects used to work as interior designers and this can be seen from the references of Vishwakarma the architect - one of the gods in Indian mythology. Additionally, the sculptures depicting ancient texts and events are seen in palaces built in 17th century India, in ancient Egypt, soul houses or models of houses were placed in tombs as receptacles for food offerings.
Architects would employ craftsmen or artisans to complete design for their buildings. Large furniture firms began to branch out into general interior design and management and this business model flourished from the mid-century to 1914, when this role was increasingly usurped by independent, often amateur, designers. This paved the way for the emergence of the interior design in the mid-20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, upholsterers began to expand their business remits and they framed their business more broadly and in artistic terms and began to advertise their furnishings to the public. Firms began to publish and circulate catalogs with prints for different lavish styles to attract the attention of expanding middle classes, as department stores increased in number and size, retail spaces within shops were furnished in different styles as examples for customers. One particularly effective advertising tool was to set up rooms at national and international exhibitions in showrooms for the public to see.
Some of the firms in this regard were Waring & Gillow, James Shoolbred, Mintons. This type of firm emerged in America after the Civil War, the Herter Brothers, founded by two German emigre brothers, began as an upholstery warehouse and became one of the first firms of furniture makers and interior decorators. A pivotal figure in popularizing theories of interior design to the class was the architect Owen Jones. His most significant publication was The Grammar of Ornament, in which Jones formulated 37 key principles of interior design, in 1882, the London Directory of the Post Office listed 80 interior decorators
An arcade is a succession of arches, each counter-thrusting the next, supported by columns, piers, or a covered walkway enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides. In warmer or wet climates, exterior arcades provide shelter for pedestrians, the walkway may be lined with stores. A blind arcade superimposes arcading against a solid wall, blind arcades are a feature of Romanesque architecture that was taken into Gothic architecture. European shopping malls generally resemble the bazaars and souks of Asia, the word arcade comes from French arcade from Provençal arcada or Italian arcata, based on Latin arcus, ‘bow’. One of the earliest examples of a European shopping arcade, the Covered Market, the Covered Market was started in response to a general wish to clear untidy and unsavoury stalls from the main streets of central Oxford. John Gwynn, the architect of Magdalen Bridge, drew up the plans, twenty more soon followed, and after 1773 meat was allowed to be sold only inside the market.
From this nucleus the market grew, with stalls for garden produce, pig meat, dairy products, Gostiny Dvor in St Petersburg, Russia is another early shopping arcade. Throughout the following century, Gostiny Dvor was augmented, resulting in ten indoor streets, during the post-World War II reconstructions, its inner walls were demolished and a huge shopping mall came into being. This massive 18th-century structure got a recently and entered the 21st century as one of the most fashionable shopping centres in Eastern Europe. An early French arcade is the Passage du Caire created in 1798 as a tribute to the French campaign in Egypt and it was appreciated by the public for its protection from the weather and filth of the streets. A year American architect William Thayer created the Passage des Panoramas with a row of shops passing between two panorama paintings, shopping arcades increasingly were built in the second Bourbon Restoration. Upper levels of arcades often contained apartments and sometimes brothels. S.
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