A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
Eva Ortiz, better known as Eva O, is a music artist most notable for her previous works in Christian Death and a band she formed with her then-husband Rozz Williams called Shadow Project. Regarded as a veteran and "one of the most striking figures of the American Gothic scene," Eva O has had a significant influence on the emerging deathrock movement, which garnered her the "Queen of Darkness" title from the press and audience, she is known for dramatic, authoritative vocals. She now releases solo albums with her band Mz O and Her Guns, as well as having joined a variation of Christian Death with original members and while she takes on vocal duties in place of the late Rozz Williams. Eva was born on January 11, 1961 in Las Vegas and moved to Los Angeles, California in 1979 in hopes to start a rock band and be a rock star, she started a local, all-girl punk band in Long Beach known as the Speed Queens, played with them from 1980-1982. Speed Queens broke up before they could release any songs, she and bassist Sandra Ross started the Super Heroines.
This group earned a following on L. A.'s deathrock scene of the early 1980s. About the same time, she met Rozz Williams, starting the band Christian Death. Eva O contributed to the band's 1982 album Only Theatre of Pain, a influential album on the emerging American deathrock movement; the Super Heroines released several albums, when Rikk Agnew left Christian Death, Rozz asked Eva to fill in on guitar. She was in Christian Death for a short time before they added two more members, one of whom played some shows with the Super Heroines; the Super Heroines made their last album and Pain, in 1983. In the mid-1980s, Eva became involved with a strong distaste for the world, she spent a lot of time with Richard Ramirez. She corresponded with him after his incarceration for a brief time, but did not meet him before his notorious killings made him famous. Ramirez stood trial there. Eva got back together with Rozz and moved to San Francisco with him. While there, she became interested in the writings of Anton LaVey and Boyd Rice and started to suffer from depression.
Out of boredom and Rozz started another band known as Shadow Project. They described their music as "a strange mixture of metallic death rock and punk." It was after their second album, Dreams for the Dying, that Eva and Rozz started to write darker, more depressed and rage-filled subject matter, a reflection of the internal struggle they were having in their personal lives. Although Eva never considered herself to be an official member of Christian Death, her participation in that band and Shadow Project earned her the "queen of darkness" title. Christian Death reunited and released two more albums, but the lineup that the band used on those albums was just everyone from Shadow Project. Shadow Project went on one final tour after recording a live album, In Tuned Out. Tired of Rozz getting most of the credit for the Shadow Project work, Eva O went solo and released Past Time in 1993 on Cleopatra Records; the album featured material from her days with the Speed Queens, Super Heroines, Christian Death, as well as three new solo songs.
In 1994, she began working on her second solo album, which she was going to call Angels Fall for a Demon's Kiss, but after studying more about the classic hierarchy of angels on both sides of the good-vs-evil spectrum, she ended up becoming a Christian and rewriting the entire record and renaming it Demons Fall for an Angel's Kiss. Produced by Johnny Indovina, the album was tamer and calmer in comparison to her previous rugged and wild material. Rozz Williams committed suicide on April 1, 1998. An acoustic album, From the Heart's lyrics represented influences of Eva's positive views. After numerous reworkings and remixings, Eva completed her Damnation album in 1999 and in 2005 its follow-up Damnation/Salvation album and released it on the German death-metal label Massacre Records in 2005. Among the performers on it are Josh Pyle, River Tunnell, Kristian Rosentrater, all members of the industrial band Audio Paradox. Damnation/Salvation is a detailed chronicle of her involvement with the occult and Satanism climaxing with her encounter with Jesus.
It has been turned down for distribution in the United States due to its subject matter. She emphasizes that people need to listen to the entire album in order to understand its full meaning, rather than judging it by its cover, track listing, the lyrics of the first several songs. 14 years after Eva's conversion to Christianity in 1993, rumors had it that Eva began drifting away from her faith. In a Summer 2007 issue of Deathrock magazine, author Philip Henken wrote in the article "The Story of O" about Eva that "when I ask her about the Christian conversions, she tells me she's left being born-again behind." Eva states in the interview: I have no problem with Christianity. I myself just cannot follow that way. If you think religion is corrupt... Humanity — everything is corrupt the moment a human touches it, but I was brought up and I have no problem with it. But I know the path, I am not going to give my life to Christ. It's mine and I want to keep it. I choose to be honest. On August 8, 2008, Eva O. married Edwin Borsheim, of the band Kettle Cadaver.
Auschwitz concentration camp
The Auschwitz concentration camp was a complex of more than 40 Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II and the Holocaust. It consisted of the main camp and administrative headquarters in Oświęcim. Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, sparking World War II, they converted Auschwitz I from an army barracks to a prison camp for Polish political prisoners; the first prisoners were German criminals who were brought to the camp as functionaries in May 1940, the first gassing of prisoners took place in block 11 of Auschwitz I in September 1941. Auschwitz II–Birkenau became a major site of the Nazis' Final Solution to the Jewish Question. Transport trains delivered Jews from all over German-occupied Europe to the camp's gas chambers from early 1942 until late 1944. At least 1.1 million people died at Auschwitz of the estimated 1.3 million sent there, some 90 percent of them were Jews. One in six Jews killed in the Holocaust died at the camp.
Others deported to Auschwitz included 150,000 non-Jewish Poles, 23,000 Roma, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, 400 Jehovah's Witnesses, tens of thousands of diverse nationalities, an unknown number of homosexual men. Many of those not killed in the gas chambers died because of starvation, forced labor, infectious diseases, individual executions, medical experiments. In the course of the war, the camp was staffed by 7,000 members of the German Schutzstaffel 12 percent of whom were convicted of war crimes. Several were executed, including camp commandant Rudolf Höss; the Allies did not act on early reports of atrocities, their failure to bomb it or its railways remains controversial. At least 802 prisoners tried to escape, 144 and two Sonderkommando units launched a brief, unsuccessful uprising on 7 October 1944, consisting of prisoners assigned to staff the gas chambers. Soviet troops approached Auschwitz in January 1945, most of the prisoners were sent west on a death march; the remaining prisoners were liberated on 27 January 1945, a day commemorated as International Holocaust Remembrance Day.
In the following decades, survivors wrote memoirs of their experiences in Auschwitz, such as Primo Levi, Viktor Frankl, Elie Wiesel, the camp became a dominant symbol of the Holocaust. In 1947, Poland founded the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979; the ideology of Nazism brought together elements of antisemitism, racial hygiene and eugenics, combined them with pan-Germanism and territorial expansionism with the goal of obtaining more Lebensraum for the Germanic people. After the Nazi seizure of power in Germany, boycotts of German Jews and acts of violence against them became ubiquitous, legislation was passed excluding them from the civil service and certain professions, including the law. Harassment and economic pressure were used to encourage them to leave Germany. On 15 September 1935, the Reichstag passed the Nuremberg Laws, prohibiting marriages between Jews and people of Germanic extraction, extramarital relations between Jews and Germans, the employment of German women under the age of 45 as domestic servants in Jewish households.
The Reich Citizenship Law defined as citizens those of "German or kindred blood". Thus Jews and other minorities were stripped of their citizenship. By the start of World War II in 1939, around 250,000 of Germany's 437,000 Jews had emigrated to the United States, the United Kingdom, other countries; when Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, Adolf Hitler ordered that the Polish leadership and intelligentsia be destroyed. 65,000 civilians, viewed as inferior to the Aryan master race, had been killed by the end of 1939. In addition to leaders of Polish society, the Nazis killed Jews, the Roma, the mentally ill. SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich head of the Gestapo, ordered on 21 September 1939 that Polish Jews be rounded up and concentrated into cities with good rail links; the intention was to deport them to points further east, or to Madagascar. Two years in June 1941, in an attempt to obtain new territory, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union. Auschwitz I, a former Polish army barracks, was the main camp and administrative headquarters of the camp complex.
Intending to use it to house political prisoners, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, head of the Schutzstaffel, approved the site in April 1940 on the recommendation of SS-Obersturmbannführer Rudolf Höss of the Concentration Camps Inspectorate. Höss oversaw the development of the camp and served as its first commandant, with SS-Obersturmführer Josef Kramer as his deputy. Around 1,000 m long and 400 m wide, Auschwitz I consisted of 20 brick buildings, six of them two-story; the camp housed the SS by 1943 held 30,000 inmates. The first 30 prisoners arrived on 20 May 1940 after being transported from the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany. Convicted German criminals, the men were known as "greens" after the green triangles they were required to w
The Wind Kissed Pictures
The Wind Kissed Pictures is an EP by American deathrock band Christian Death, is the debut release featuring Valor Kand on vocals. It was released in 1985 through Nostradamus Records and has spawned one single, "Believers of the Unpure". On the album, the band's title is made longer, calling themselves For Sin and Sacrifice Must We Die a Christian Death. Allmusic gave the album two stars out of five. However, they claimed it to be "some of the finest post-Rozz Williams work Christian Death would produce." The Wind Kissed Pictures was released in 1985 through Nostradamus Records on twelve-inch vinyl. As well as a regular 4-track vinyl release, it was released with a single sided seven-inch of the song "Lacrima Christi". On the vinyl release, side A plays at 45 side B 33 1/3 rpm; the same year they released "Believers of the Unpure" as a single on 12" vinyl, backed with "Between Youth" and "After the Rain". In 1986, the EP was made available on cassette with a new cover in the US, as well as it being released again on vinyl.
All songs written by Valor Kand, except where noted A side"Believers of the Unpure" - 8:32B side"Overture" - 3:32 "The Wind Kissed Pictures" - 7:06 "The Lake of Fire" - 2:39 Christian DeathValor Kand - lead vocals, keyboards Barry Galvin - guitar, keyboards Gitane DeMone - keyboards, backing vocals Johann Schumann - bass David Glass - drumsDesignCover - Valor Kand, David Glass, Johann Schumann Booklet design - Valor Kand Illustration - Renzo Vespignani Back cover poem - Gitane DeMone
All the Love All the Hate (Part One: All the Love)
All the Love is the seventh studio album by American deathrock band Christian Death, released through Jungle Records in 1989. It is the first part of the two-part series All the Love and All the Hate, the next being All the Hate; the album was released on CD and vinyl. The vinyl release of the album was available on regular black vinyl, limited edition pink marble vinyl. One single was released from the album, "We Fall Like Love", on twelve-inch vinyl. All songs written by Valor Kand, except where noted Appollyon"Live Love Together" – 3:20 "We Fall Like Love" – 5:03 "Love Don't Let Me Down" – 8:48 "Suivre la Trace de Quelqu'un" – 4:33 Birth"Love is Like a Itchin' in My Heart" – 4:46 "I'm Using You" – 6:04 "Deviate Love" – 3:14 "Angel" – 4:45 "Woman to Mother Earth" – 4:36 All the Love at Discogs
Trouser Press was a rock and roll magazine started in New York in 1974 as a mimeographed fanzine by editor/publisher Ira Robbins, fellow Who fan Dave Schulps and Karen Rose under the name "Trans-Oceanic Trouser Press". Publication of the magazine ceased in 1984. Trouser Press has continued to exist in various formats; the magazine's original scope was British artists. Initial issues contained occasional interviews with major artists like Brian Eno and Robert Fripp and extensive record reviews. After 14 issues, the title was shortened to Trouser Press, it transformed into a professional magazine with color covers and advertising; as the 1970s music scene transformed, so did the magazine's editorial focus. From 1976 on, Trouser Press centered on the growing punk movements in both London and New York; the magazine provided in-depth articles on bands such as the Sex Pistols, The Boomtown Rats, The Clash, The Damned, the Ramones and many other similar groups, long before other U. S. music publications did.
In 1980, the magazine introduced "America Underground", a recurring column devoted to local music scenes from different areas of the country. By the early 1980s, the magazine's focus was exclusively on new wave, alternative rock, underground rock from both sides of the Atlantic. Starting in 1982, flexi-discs were included with every issue. Although the magazine seemed to be thriving, with an ever-growing circulation, editor Robbins ceased publication after the April 1984 issue, citing a lack of interest in the continuing but stagnating new wave scene that left his writers with little to say; as a concept, Trouser Press continued to evolve. In 1983, The Trouser Press Guide to New Wave Records, edited by Robbins, was published by Charles Scribner's Sons; the book was sufficiently popular for four more updated editions, with varying titles and publishers, to be issued over the years, culminating in 1997's The Trouser Press Guide to'90s Rock. This final edition featured all-new entries on over 2,000 bands and reviews of 8,500 records and CDs.
The contents of all five volumes are available on the Trouser Press website, updated with entries on new bands, as well as revisions/expansions of old articles, by Robbins and other writers. TrouserPress.com went online in August 2002. Album era Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies Christgau's Record Guide: The'80s Rockism and poptimism Spin Alternative Record Guide Official website
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro